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THE GENERAL 

BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 

A NEW EDITION. 



VOL. xxvn. 



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Printed by Nichols^ Son, and BsNTL&Vt 
Had lion Paiuge, Fleet Stieet, London. 



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THE GENERAL 

BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY : 

CONTAINING 
AN. HISTORICAL AND CRITIQAL ACCOUNT 

OF THE 

LIVES AND WRITINGS * 



OF THB 



MOST EMINENT PERSONS 

IN EVERY NATION; 



PARTICULARLY THE BRITISH AND IRISH i ^-^ 



FROM THE EARLIEST ACCOUNTS TO THE PRESE: 



A NEW EDITION, 

REVISED AND ENLARGED BY 

ALEXANDER CHALMERS, F. S. A 



VOL. XXVII. 



iKfintiE. 






LONDONt 




.0/> —-^li-^- .ri,- y 



PMIMTKO rOR J. NICHOLS AHD SON | F. C. AND 4. RIVINQTON | T. PAYNE ; 
OTRIOOB AND SON; O. AND W. NICOL ; O.. WNLKIB | J. WALKER i W, 
L^WNDBS) T. BOKRTONj LACKINOTONy ALLEN, AND CO.; J. CARPENTER; 
LOMOMANy BURST, RBSS» ORMB, AND BROWN; CADBLL AND DA VIES; LAW 
AND WBITTAKBB; J. BOOKER; J. CUTHBLLs CLARKE AND SONS; J. AND 
A. ARCH; J. MABBIS;' BLACK, PABBUBY, AND ALLBN ; X. BLACK; J. BOOTH; 
J. MAWMANt OALB AND FBNNBB; R. H. ETANS ; J. HATCBARD; J. MURRAY; 
• BALDWIN, CBADOCK, AND JOY; B. BBNTLBt | OOLB AND CO.; W. GINOBB; 
BODWBLL AND MABTIN; P. WEIGHT ; J. DBIGBTON AND SON, CAMBBIDOBi 
CONSTABLB AND CO. BDlNBUROB| AND WILSON AND SON, YOBK. 



1816. 



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A NEW AND GENERAL 
BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 



dAA, or DE SA (Emanuel), a learned Portuguese Jesuit, 
was born in 1530, at Conde, in the province of Douro, and 
entered the society in 1545. After the usual course of 
studies, he taught at Coimbra, Rome, and other places, 
and wBs considered as kn excellent preacher and interpre- 
ter of the scriptures, on which last account he was em- 
plojred, by pope Pius V» on a new edition of tbe Bible. He 
died at Arena, in the Milanese, Dec 30, 1596, in the 
sixty'^sixth year of his age. His chief works are : *^ Scho- 
lia in qilatuor Evangelia,*VAntwerp and Cologn, I5!r6, 4<o; 
and ^* Notationes in totam s:.cram Script uraoi,'* &c. Ant- 
werp, 1598, 4to ; reprinted, with other scholia. Or notes, 
by Mariana and Tirini. Dupin says, that of all the Com-* 
men taries upon the scriptures there is nothing more con- 
cise and useful than the notes of our author,, whose sole, 
abject, be adds, is to give the iiteral sense in a few words 
and in an intelligible manner. De Sa was the author of 
another work, wnich, although a very small volume, is 
said ta have employed him for forty years : it is entitled 
*^ Apliorismi Confessariorum,*' print^ Brst at Venice, 1595, 
12mo, and afterwards frequently reprinted in various 
places. Dupin calls it a moral work ; it seems rather a set 
of rules for confessors in cases of conscience ; and Lavocat 
telb us it contains some dangerous positions respecting 
both morals and the authority^ of kihgs. It underwent so 
SMuiy corrections and emendations before the pope would 
license it, that it did not appear until the y'ear before the 
aiubor died. .The French translations of it .have man/ 
aastrations. * 

» Aoumio BibL HUp.-*Alcgwibt.— Daplu.— M©r*rU— SaiUOnpiiiMV 

You XXYII- B 

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2 SAADIAS-GAON. 

SAADI. See SADI. 

SAADIAS-GAON, or Saadias tbe Excellent, a learned 
rabbi, tbe chief of tbe academy of tbe Jews, was born at 
Pitbom in Egypt, about the year 892. In the year 927, 
be was inyft^d by David BeR-Cbaft, tbe pripilpe.qf the cap- 
tivity, to preside over tlie -academy at Sora, near Babylon, 
where one of bis first olgects was to explode the doctrine 
of tbe transmigri^tion of souls, which was very prevalent, 
evenr-among the Jews. • But having refused to suVscfibe 
to a new regulation, which appeared to him to be Kepug* 
nant to the Jewish laws, a breach arose between David 
and Saadias, which after some years was made up, and 
Saadias was restored to his professorship, in which he con- 
tinued with great reputation till his d^ath, in theyear^^SL 
Hb principal works are, ^ Sepber Haeipuoab,^ ora trea^ 
Use concerning tbe Jewish articles of faitbf in teaefaap^ 
tera ; but we have only a translation of it from tbe odginid 
Arabic into Hebrew, which was printed at Constantinople 
HI 1647, and often reprinted. *' A Commentary on tb« 
Book Jezira,*V printed, with other Convmentaries on that 
book, at Mantua, in 1592; ^^Aa Arabic translation of tbq. 
whole Old Testament,*' of which tbe Pentateucb is inserted 
in Jay's and Walton's Polyglott8> accompanied with tb« 
Latin version of Gabriel Sionita ; ** A Conuneotary on the 
8ong of Songs," in.Hebrew^ printed at Prague in 1609^ 
4to ; f ' A Coounentary on DanieV likewise ia Hebrew^ 
inserted in tbe great rabbinical bibles of Venice and Basil ; 
^< A Gomaientary on Job," in Arabic^ tbe MS. of nrhiob 
is in tbe Bodleian library at Oxford; attd a commentarjr 
on illicit alliances, mentioned by Abea Efra.' 
SAAVEDRA. See CERVANTES. 
SAAVEDEA-FAXARDO (Dieoq ae), aSpanisb poli« 
tical and moral writer, was born May 6, 1584, at Algesaresi 
in the kingdom of Muroia, and staidied at Salamanca. In 
1606, he went to Rome as secretary to the. cardioaL Gas» 
par de Borgia, who was appointed Spaniah aqobassador tq 
the lK>pe, and assisted in the conclaves of 1621 and L623^ 
held for tbe electi<»i of tbe popes Gregory XV. and Um 
ban VUI. For these services Saavedra neas rewarded with 
a' canonry in the church of St. James^ although be ha4 
never taken priest's orders. Some time after he. was ap^ 
{Jointed agent from tbe courts oC Spain at Roociep and him 



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S A A V^EDR A-F AX A R D O, *S 

MKmiMtm tbU office acquired fcim general esteett^. in 
163€» be ftsaisted «c the eleeioM congress held there, 
in which Perdiiiandflt. #«s cbo^en Mng of the Romans. 
He afterwards was present at eight diets held in ^wisser- 
landy tfnd lastly at the general diet of the empire at RaCtis- 
bonne, wtiete heappei^redhi qualttyof piempotemiary of 
ibe cifble and of the bonse of Burgumdy. After being 
employed in 90vam otber diplomatic affairs, he returned 
to Madrid in 1^46, and was appointed master of ceremo- 
iHes in tbe introdoctionf of ambi»sadoilB; but he did not en- 
joy tbia bonoQT long, * as he died Aug. 24, 164S. In hfs 
pubKc character be rendered tbe state very important ser- 
▼iiees, and, as a writer, is ranked among those who have 
contribtited to pirfisb and enrich tbe Spanisb language. 
Tbe Spanish critics, wbo place him aihdng their cfasnics^ 
say be wrote Spanish as Tbcitus wrote Latin. ' He has long 
been known, e^n in this country, by his ^< Emblems,*^ 
wMcb were published in 2 vols. 8vo, in the early part of 
tlie laat centdry« These pelftico**nidra1 instructions for a 
Cbristian prince, were first printed in 1640, 4tp, under the 
Utie of ^ Ide» de nn Principe Politico Christiano repre« 
sentada^en cieil empresaft^^ahd reprinted at Mihin in 1642 ; 
fbeywerfe afterwards translated into Latin, and published 
nndher the title of <^ Symbola Cbristiano-Polidca,** ancit 
have often bleen reprinted in various siz^s in' France, luly, 
and Hollands He wtot^' also^ ^* Corona Gotica, Castetlana, 
y Abstriaca' polUiCMbente UlnslilMla;** 1646, 4to, wbicb 
wasr to have edm^ed" of three parts, but he lived to com« 
fAete 0ne only ; tbe rM was by Nuti^z de Castro; and 
•^RApubliea LiteraHa,'^ pnbti^rbed in 1670, Sro. Off thts^ 
.Wbt;k an Engtisb tfAnslatioo wis published by L E. in 1727. 
Il-is a^kind df visioif, givfng a satirfciil atcootit of the re« 
nnttlkf of letters, ndr m^likle the manner of Swift The 
Ren^b^bave^^ thtn^fion bfit; so late" as 1770.'^ . 

SABATIER (Peteii), a learnt Frencb B^lnedliettn^, 
WBB born at Pbi^tier^' in 1662; and died at Rbeiitis Marcb 
»#/ it 42% Be spent twenty year!» of his life in preparing fof 
tbe pt^ss^a valtiaMe edition of at! the Latiti ver^()ns of the 
8eripinrl$», collected together, and nnited^if qnc/point of 
▼i*w. It consists of three volum^s^ folio { birt be lived 
only to prirtt ntfe volotne; tbe others were completed by 
U Rue,, abo a Bbnedictme of St Mtor. Tht^ title' &' 



B 2 



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4 8ABATIER. 

^^ Bibliorum Sacrorum Latioe Versiones aotiqiitt sen Ve- 
tus Icalica, et cetere qutBciimque ie codicibus MSS. ct 
antiqucNrum iibris reperiri polueront,*' Rheimsy 1743 — 
1749.* 

SABATIER (Raphael - Bibnvewu), a very eminent 
French surgeon, was born al Paris in October 1732/ and 
after studying there, acquired the 6rst rank in his pro* 
fession, and in every situation which be filled, his know- 
ledge, skill, and success, were equally con8pic\iou8. He 
became censor-royal of the academy of sciences, profes- 
sor and demonstrator of the surgical scho<^, secretary of 
correspondence, surgeon-major of the hospital of invalids^ 
and a member of the institute. His education had ^ been 
more liberal and comprehensive than usual. He not only 
was an excellent Greek and Latin scholar, but was well 
acquainted with the English, Italian, and German lan- 
guages. Besides his public courses of lectures on ana- 
tomy and surgery, he instructed many private pupils, not 
only of his own country, but those of foreign nations who 
were attracted to Paris by his fame as a teacher, and were 
delighted with his unaffected politeness and candour. In 
bis latter days Bonaparte appointed him one of his con- 
sulting surgeons, and he was one of the first on whom he 
bestowed the cross of the legion of honour. Sabatier died 
at Paris July 21, 1811. He reuined his faculties to the 
hsc, but we are told became ashamed of bis bodily weak- 
ness. « ** Hide me," he said to . his wife and son, *^ from 
the world, that you may be the only witnesses of this de- 
cay to which I must submit/* A litUe before his death he- 
said to his son, " Contemplate the state into which I am 
fallen, and learn to die.*' His humane attention to his 
patients was a distinguished feature in his character. During 
any painful />peration he used to say, ** Weep ! weep ! 
the more you express a sense of your sufferings, the more^ 
anxious Ishall be to shorten them.** 

His works are, 1. <* Theses anatomico-chirurgicse,'* 1748, 
4to. 2. '^ De variis cataraeum extrabendi modis,** 175i>, 
4to. 3. An edition of Verdier*s *^ Abreg6 d^Anatomie,*' 
with additions, 1768, 2 Vols. 12mo. 4. An edition of La. 
Motte's <^ Trait6 complet de Chirurgte,*' which .was foU 
lowed by his own, 5, " Trait^ complet d'Aoatomie,*' 1775. 
Uf this a third edition, with many improvements, appeared 

> Diet. Hift^— fisiii OosoiasU vol. Vm. 



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' S A B A T I E A. . ^ 

io 1701, S vol«. 8to. 6. <* De la Medicine expectative/* 
1796, 3 Toi& Svo. 7. **De Ift MeUiotne operaloire, oa 
Bes Oper»tioDft de Chirorgie qui te pratiqnent le plat fre^ 
quemmenV 1796, 3 vols. Si^o. Besides these he contri^ 
buted many essays to the medical jouraaW 

SABBATHIER (JPrancis), a learned French writer, was 
bora at Condom, Oct. 3t, 1735, and after malting great 
proficiency in his studies among the fathers of tb^ oratory 
in that city, went to Orleans, where be was enDrfiloyed as 
a private tutor. In 1762, he was invited to the college of 
Chaloos-anr-Manie, wjnere he taught the thiitl and fonrth 
classes for sixteen years, which gave hifn a tide to the pen- 
sion of an emeritus. His literary reputation took its rise 
principally from his essay on the temporal power of the 
popes, which gained the prize of the academy of Prussia. 
He wag then about twenty<»etght years old ; but bad before 
this addressed a curiooa paper on the limits of the empire 
of Charlemagne to the acac^y of Belles Lettresat Parish 
He waa the principal means of founding the academy of 
Cbaloas,; procured a charter for it, and acted as secre- 
tary for thirty years. Such was his reputation that be had 
the honour to correspond with some of the royal perso^' 
nages of Europe, and was in particular rniich esteemed by 
the kings of Prussia and Sweden ; nor was be less in fa- 
vour with Choiseul, the French minister, who encouraged 
bis taste for study, it doea not appear, however,- that his 
riches increased with bb repuutioD, and this occaaioned 
bia projecting a paper-manufactory in Holland, which ended 
like some of the setomea of ingeniooa men ; Sabbathier 
was ruined, and bis successors made a fortune. He died 
VI a village near Cbaloo, March 11, 1807, in bis seventy- 
second year* 

. I^e published, 1« ^'Essai bistorique-critique sur Vori- 
gine de la puissance temporeliexles Papea,'' Cbakms, 1764, 
12DIO, reprinted the following year. 2. << Le Manuel dea 
En&ns," ibidr 1769, ISmo, a collection of maxima from 
Platarch's lives. 3. '< Recueil de Dissertations aur dtvera* 
sujeu de rhistoirede Frauoe,'* ibid. 1778, 12mo. 4. **Le%' 
Mosurs, contumea et usages des anciens peuples, pour 
scrvir a Teducation de la jeunesse," ibid. 1770, 3 vols* 
12mo. Of this entertaining work, a translation was pub- 
lished in 1775, JSI vob. 8vo, by the late Rev. Percival 

1 Diat. HWt.-BI»y Diet, gi^ 4« U Meaidae. 

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S S A S B ATHTER, 

'Sloekdak. 5. «< IMcfioilnMre pour PbtaHigeite^les aa« 
ileur« oUssiqnes Greet et L&tint, tant sacpfc que profanesy 
coQtfiiant la geographies Thiifeoire, la fabte^ et les anti- 
qiiit^^'* ibid. 1766-^1790^ 96 ycds. tyo, and 2 vdumet of 
plates^ Voluminoas as this work is^ tbe troables which 
flowed ibe revoiuiion obliged the author to leave it in* 
fomplete; but tbe maautpript of the conclodtng Totumet 
u s«id to be in a state for psUicauoD. It is an elaborate 
Mlieotioaf vei^f useful ibr oensuttatioiTy but not always 
fol-reci^ and coatains many antdes which increase the 
t^iilk rather than the value. A ju(liciom selection, it is 
ibaught* wotild supersede any pubhcatioii of the kind ia 
France. ^ 

8AJBBATINI (AinNtEA), known likewise by tbe namd 
of Andfet da Salerno, is tbe first artist that deserves no^ 
tice» of tbe Neapditaii school. He is supposed to bav6 
been boro about I480w EnaoMwired of the style of Pietrq. 
i'erogioo^ who bad painted an Assumption of the Virgin 
in tb0 dome of Napios* be set out for Perugia to becom^ 
his pupil ; but bearing at an inn on tbe road some painters 
fxtol the works of Raphael in tbe Vatieani be akered his 
/ ninily went to Rome^ and entered, that master^s school. 
^as jKay there was.sbort, for the death of his father obliged 
hifp to return hone against his will in 1519 ; he returned, 
however, a new omn. It is said that ha painted with Ra« 
pbfol at (be Pac^ and in the Vatican, and that be copied 
lis pictures well : be eertaioly eotolaled his manner with 
ipiecess. Coibpared with his feliow-scbotafs, if he foils 
s^rt of iulio» he soars above Raphael del Colle and the 
ipstoftbat sphere. Ha bad eorrectness and selection of 
attitude and features, depth of shade, perhaps too much 
sharpness in the marking of tbe muscles, a broad style of 
Doitding in bis draperies, aod a colOu# which evan now 
^iuiaios iia fMsbti«tt. Of bis numerous works at Naplea 
il^lionett in the catalogue of his pictures, tbe altar* 
jtfeoes at S. Maria' di lie Grazie deserve perhaps prefo* 
i^oee ; for bis fn^sroes- there and elsewhere,* extolled by 
tjit* writers as miracles of art, are now, the greater part, 
destroyed V He painted likewise at Salerno, Graeta, eind 
other pUces of the kiqgiiom, for churches and private col- 
ledlipiia, where bis Madonnas often rival those of RapbaeL 
This distiuguisbed artist died in 1545. % . • 

» Diet. iibt. SopptcoMBC « Pi&iBgtMi 1^ fiMelL 



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^S A^ B AflN ir ^ 

• SABBATiNI (tOilfelt^o), cafled Loretiftin di Bqlogni, 
'Was one of the most gented and most delicate painter9 of 
-fais asei Ht has been oft^n mistaken for a scfa^ar of Hii- 
^hacA, frdiki nhe res^mblanrc^ of his H(y|y Families in styfe 
of design and coloor to those of that master, tiibugl^ tfaye 
colour be always weaker. He likewiiBe pa\ntJdd Madonnib 
Hnd iingels in cabinet- picture; which i^eem o^ Parang!*, 
ano; nor are bis itltar-pteces different: the mbst qelef- 
brated is that of S« Michete at S. Giacoma^ engraved by 
Asoatino Caracii, and recomitoended to his school as aino- 
d^ of graceful elegance. He excelled in fresco ; eorredt 
in design, copious in invention, equal to eie^ subjeclL 
nnd jet, what surprises, rapid. Such wei>e th^ ti^tehts jthat 
procured him employ, not otlly in many patriciiin families 
of his own province, but acall to Rome Undlet^ the pontiff- 
cate of Gregorio XIII. whete^ according to iitglioni, hb 
pleased much, especially in his niked fibres; a branch hb 
had not mueh cultivated at Bolbgiia^ The sfeoiries ef Sf. 
Paul in the Capella Pnolin^, Faith triumphant oveir Infide- 
lity in the Sala regia, and various other subjects in t^e 
galleries and loggie of the Vatican, are the works of Sab^ 
batini, always done in com{>etition with the be^t masterj^ 
and always with applause: hence among the g^atcoh* 
course of masters who at that time throngi^fi for precie- 
dence in Rome, he was selected to siiperintend the dif^ 
ferent departments of the Vatican ; in which office he di^d 
in the vigour of life, 1577.* * 

8ABELLICUS, whose proper name was Marcus Amto^ 
Kit/s Cocdtus, or vernacularly Marcantonio Coccio, mi 
Italian historian and critic, was born in 14S6, in the Cam- 
pagna of Rome, on the confines of the ancient country of 
the Sabinea, from which circumstance he took the name of 
Babell!CI;s, He was a scholar of Pomponius Letus*s, and 
iti 1475, was appointed professor of eloquence at Udino^ td 
which office he was likewise appointed at Venice, in 1484; 
Some time after, when the plague obliged him to retire ^4 
Verona, he composed, within the space of fifteen months^ 
his Latin history of Venice^ in thirty- three books, which 
#ere published in 14S7, entitled *♦ Rerum Venetiarum^U 
aibe condita,** folio, a most beautiful specimen of eairW 
prmting, of which there was a copy on vellum, in the Ki 
Heili library. The republic of Venice was »o pleased with 

1 TOkiDgton Vy FmtH* 



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*» 8 A B E 1/ L I C U S. 

this work mi to decree the a^itbor a pension of 200 seqtrm ; 
and SabelliciM, out of gratitude, added four books to hia 
history, which, however, remain in manuscript. He pub*- 
lisbed al«o ^^ A Description of Venice,** in three books ; a 
*^ Dialogue on the Venetian Magistrates;** and twopoemi 
in honour of the republic. The most considerable of his 
other works is his rhapsody of histories : '< Rhapsodise His* 
toriarum Enneades,'* in ten Enneads^ each containing nine 
books, and comprizing a general history from the crea- 
tion to the year 1 50'i. The first edition published at Ve- 
nice in 14^3, folk), contained only seven Enneads ; but the 
second, in 1 604^ ^ad the addition of three more, bringing 
the history down to the above date. Although there is 
little, either in matter or manner, to recommend this work, 
or many others of its kind, to a modern Reader, it brought 
the autiior both reward and reputation. His other works 
are discourse^ .moral, philosophical, and historical, with 
many Latin poems; the wbol^ printed in four volumes, 
folio^ at Basil in 1560. There is a scarce edition of his 
*' EpistolsB familiares, necnon Orationes et Poemata,** Ve- 
nice, 1502, folio. Sabellicus likewise wrote commenta- 
ries on Pliny. the naturalist, Valerius IVIaximus, Livy, Ho- 
iftce, Justin^ Fioruf, and some other classics, which are 
to be found in Gruver's ^* Thesaurus.** He died at Venice 
in 1506. W hatever reputation he might gain by his history 
of Venice, he allows himself that he too often made use of 
authors on whom not much reliance was to be placed ; and 
It is certain thai he did not at all consult, or seem to know 
the existence of, the annals of the doge Andrew Dandolo, 
which furnish the mota authentic, as well as ancient^ ac- 
count of the early times of the republic. ' 

. SABELLIUS, a Lybian, knownin ecclesiastical history 
as the head of the. sect called Sabellians, lived in the third 
century, and was born at Ptolemais, and was a disciple of 
Noetus. He reduced the three persons in the Trinity to 
three states^ or relations, or rather reduced the whole 
Trinity to the one person of the Father; making the 
Wtird and Holy Spirit to be the only emanations or 
functions thereof. Epiphanius tells us, that the God of 
the Sabellians, whom they called the Father, resembled 
the Son, and was a mere subtraction, whereof the Son was 
the illuminative virtue or quality, and the Holy Ghost the 

1 Tirtbotdii.^-GiiigiiMii Hist. Litt. d'ltslie.— Geo. Diet 



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SABELLIUS. > 

wanning virtoe. This sect had many fcdloi^erf in Meabpb^ 
Umia aixi Ronoe ; but their doctrines are so obscoreiy ex- 
pressed, as to. create doubts aa to what ibey reaUy were. 
It is certain, however, that they were condemned by the 
Trill itariana, i^nd therefore Lardner, and bis followers, seem 
pleased to add Sabellius to the scanty list of Unitarians of 
the early ages. ' . 

SABINUS (Georgb), whose family nmne was Schaher, 
one of the best Latin poets of bis time, was bom in the 
electorate of Brandenburg in 1508 ; and, at fifteen, sent 
to Wittomberg, where be was privately instructed by 
A^elanctbon, in whose house be lived. He bad a great 
ambition to excel ; and an enthusiastic regard for what was 
excellent, especially in Latin poetry ; and altbougb the 
specimeiiiS he studied made him somewhat diffident of bis 
powers^ be ventured to submit to the pubKc, in his twen* 
ty-second year, a poem, entitled ^ Res Gestae Cse^arum 
Germanorum,^' which spread his reputation all over Ger- 
many, and made all the princes, who bad any regard for 
polite literature, bis friends and patrons, • Afterwards he 
travelled into Italy, where he contracted an acquaintance 
With Bembus and other learned men ; and^ on bit return 
visited Erasmus at Friburg, when that great man was in 
the last stage of life. In 1536, he married Melancthon^s 
ehdest daughter, at.Wittemberg, to whom be was engaged 
before his journey into Italy. Sbe was only fourteen, but 
very handsome, and un,ders^ood Li^tin well ; and Sabinus 
always lived happily with her : but he had several alterca-* 
tions with Melaocthon, because be wanted to raise himself 
to civil employments ; and did not relish tfae humility of 
IMelancthon, who confined himself to literary pursuits, and 
would be at no trouble to advance bis diUdren. Thia mis^ 
understanding occasioned Sabinus to remove into Prnssia 
in 1543, with his wife, who afterwards died at Konigsberg 
in 1547. He settled, for some little time, at Francfort 
upon the Oder». and was made professor of the belles lettrea 
by the appointment of the elector of Brandenburg ; and 
was afterwards promoted to be rectpr of the new univer^ 
sity of Konigsberg, whifc^ was opened in 1544. His elo- 
*quence and learning brought bim to the knowledge of 
. Charles V. ^bo ennobled bim, and he was also employed 
■^ Oq^ som9. embassies, particularly by the elector of Bran- 

^'% • I«rdiitr>t Works.— MotbttSf^ 



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to S A BI N U A 

Aetihiatg iato -Italy, where fae seemt to bmTO contracted 
anilbctf, pf wtrich be died in 1560, the same year in 
which Mehbctkon died. His Latin poems were publUhed 
at Leipsie ia 1558 and 1597, the latter with additions and 
letters. He pnblbhed aome other worlLS, less known, 
which are eoumerated by Niceron. ' 

SACCHETTI (Francis), an Italian poet, bat better 
known as a writer of novels, was bom at Florence about 
13S5, of an ancient family, some branches of which bad 
held eauployments of great tmst and dignity in the repub* 
lie. While young he composed some amatory verses, in 
imitatioh of Petrarch, but with a turn of thought and 
style peculiar to himself, and he was frequently employed 
in drawing up poetical inscriptions for public monuments, 
kc in which sentiments of morality and a love of jiberty 
were expected to be introduced. Some of these are stiM 
extant, but are perhaps more to be praised for the subject 
than the style. Sftcchetti, when more advanced in life, 
filled sererai oflices of the magistracy both at Florence and 
diffierent paru of Tuscany, and formed an acquaintance 
with the most eminent men of his time, by whom he was 
highly respected. He suflered much, howeVer, during 
the ciTil, contests of his country. He is supposed to have 
died abom the beginning of the fifteenth century. Verjr 
litlle of his poetry has been published. He is principally 
koowD. by his <' NoTels,**^ an excellent edition of which 
was published at Florence in 1724, 2 vols. 8vo, by Boturi, 
who has prefixed an account of his life. These tales are 
in the manner of Boccaccio, but shorter, more lively, and 
in general more decent * 

8ACCHI (Andrea), an illustrious Italian painter, the 
son of a painter, was bom at Rome in 1<S01, or as some 
writers say, in 1594. He learned the principles of his art 
under his father, but became afterwards the disciple of 
Fnmcesco Albano, and made soch advances, that, under 
twdve yean of age, he carried the prize, in the academy 
of 8t Luke, from all his much older competitors. With 
this badge of honour, they gave him the nickname of An^ 
dreaccio, to denote the* diminutive figure he then made, 
being a hoy ; and which he long retained. His application 
ta the works of Polidoro da Caravaggio and Raphael, and 
the antique marUes, together with his studies under Albano, 

1 NtoeroD, vol. XXVIv-«-Melchior Adaiii.««8txii OnooMtt 
? einfoeoft Hut. lit d'lulie.— Morefi. 



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s A c c n 1 > n 

«ad:I)ia w^g after Correggib, am) mbti^i i/ke lest 
hmbvrd ^uftsters, wore ibe seF^ral tiefs by mhitt§ kt 
iwed biiBsetf to •xtraordinary perfcctiofviQ bMtoricvl com* 
ipOiitioR. The three tint gafe bim bia QomcctiieM ei>4 
elegance of design; and tiie latt made kin tke belt 
^durist of all the Bomaa soliooL Hia worka ave nbt.iwf 
flomeioua^ owing to the infirmities vhich iittended tiia latteir 
years; and especially the gout, vhich occasioned firaquem 
and long interrupdoiis to his bboers. He vraa likewise 
plow sed faattdioosy and wished to rest hia fiuae moae ttpaik 
the quality ^ban quantity of bis performaoees. fiia iiwt 
patroBs were the cardinab Antoaio Barbe^ini aod del 
Morte, the protector of the academy of paiiidng. He be^ 
came afterwards a great favoorite of Urban VIIL a«d dre«r 
an admirable portrait of him« Several of thh piiMac edi- 
fices at Borne are embellisbed sritb his wochs^ some of 
which have been ranked among the most admtred produ6« 
tions of art in that capiul. Such are bis celebrated picture 
•f the Death of St. Anne, in the chmcb of S. Carlo H Ga^ 
Moari ; the Angel appearing to St, Joseph^ the priaeipal 
tltar*pieoe in S. Giuseppe i Capo le Ceae ; aad his St. 
Andrea^ in the QuirinaL Bat his moat disiinguiibed per^ 
formance is his famous picture of S/Romualdo, feraaerly in 
the^chnrch dedicated to tbac saint, now io the gallery of 
the Louvre. This admirable production was considered 
one of the four &ne8t pictums at Rome, wbfere Saechi died 
laieei^.v 

SACCHINI (AiiTHONY»MAaiA*GASRAR)y a ^i^j distia- 
guished musician in the last centory, was born at Naplet 
May 1 1, 1735, according to one account, bet Dn Barney* 
says 1727. (le was educated in the conseriratorio of St 
Qmrfrio, under Durante, atid made rapid progress in the 
sciencet Attaching himself principally to the TioHn, on- 
which he became a most accomplished perfbrmer. He* 
afterwards resided at I|ome eight year*; and at Venice, 
wb^re be remained four years, he was apipointed master 
of the conservatorio of the Ospidaletto. It waa heive- where 
he first composed for the church, but always hept hia aa--' 
cred and secolar style of composition separate and diatinet. 
Hia eeclesiaatical compositions are not only learned, aotemn^ 
aad aboeading with fine effeeta, but clothed ta the richest < 
ml moat pure hurmony. 



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A2 SACCHTNL 

Hit jreputation increasing, be visited, by invitation, some 
of tbe courts of Gennany, and among otbers those of 
fininswick and Wittemberg, where be succeeded tbp ce- 
lebrated Jomelli ; and after having composed for ail the 
great theatre^ in Italy and Germany with increasing suc- 
cess, he came to England in 1772, and here supported the 
^gh reputation he had acquired on the continent His 
operas of the '^ Cid'* and *^ Tamerlano*' were equal, says 
jDr. Burney, if not superior, to any musical dr&mas we 
bgve heard in any part of Europe. He remained, however, 
too long in England for his fame and fortune. The first 
was injured by cabals, and by what ought to have increased 
it, the number of his works ; and the second by inactivity 
and want of econothy. 

He refused several engagements which were offered hhn 
from Russia, Portugal, and even France, but this last he 
at length accepted, in hopes of an establishment for life. 
Accordingly he went thither in 1781, but it is manifest in 
the operas that he composed for Paris, .that he worked for 
fingers of me&n abilities; which, besides the airs being 
set to French words, prevented their circulation in the rest 
of Europe, which his other vocal. productions in bis own 
limguage had constantly done. At Paris, however, he was 
almost adored, but returned the following year to London,* 
where he only augmented his debts and embarrassments ; 
no that, . in 1784, he took a final leave of this country, and 
settled at Paris, where he not only obtained a pension 
from the queen jcff Fraiice, but tbe theatrical pension, in 
consequence of three successful pieces. This graceful, 
elegant, and judicious composer died, at Paris, October 8^ 
1786. 

All Saccbini's operas are replete with elegant airs, beau* 
tiful accompanied recitatives, and occbestral effects, with-, 
out the least appearance of labour or study. It was seem- 
^Pgly by smsii means that he produeed the greatest 
eifocts« :He interested the audience more by a happy, 
graceful, and touching melody, than by a laboured and 
extraoeous modulation. His accompaniments always briU 
liaot and ingenious, without being loaded ^nd confused, 
assist the expression of tbe vocal part, and are often pic- 
turesque. £ach of thejdramas he composed in this country 
was so entire, so masterly, yet so new and natural, that 
there was nothing left for criticism to censure, though in- 
numerable beauties to poim out and ad&iire. He bad^a 



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S A C C H I N i; is 

taste so exquisite, and so, totally free from pedantry, that 
he was frequently new without eAbrt; never thinking of 
Jiimself or bis fame for any particubtr excellence, but 
totally occupied with the ideas of the poet,, and the pro- 
priety, consistency, and effect of the whole drama. His 
accompaniments, though always rich and ingenious, never 
call off attention from the voice, but ij a consunt tratis- 
jMrffi^,. the principal melody is rendered, distingoishable 
trough all the contrivance of imitative and picturesque 
design in the instrumenu. 

Sacchini^s private character was that of a generous and 
benevolent man, somewhat too imprudent in the indul- 
gence of charitable feelings, but a steady friend, an af- 
fectionate relation, and a kind master.' 

SACCHINI (Francis), a celebrated Jesuit, was born in 
1570, in the diocese of Perugia. He was professor of 
rhetoric at' Rome during several years, and secretary to 
bis general, Vitelleschi, seven years. ^ He died December 
26, 1625, aged 56. His principal works are, ** A Conti- 
nuation of the History of the Jesuiu' Society," begun by 
Orlandino. Of this Sacchini wrote the 2d, 3d, 4tb, and 
^tb parU or volumes, fol. 1620 — 1661. An addition to 
the fifth part was made by Jouvency, and the whole com- 
pleted by Julius Cordara. Perfect copies are very rarely 
to be met with. Sacchini was also the author of a small 
^ook judiciously written and much esteemed, entitled << De 
'Vatione Libros cum profectu legendi,** 12mo, at the end 
of which is a discourse^ ^* De vitandtl Librorum moribus 
Qoxiorom lectibne,'' wbidi father Sacchini delivered at 
ttoiDe in his riietorical school in 1603.* 

SACHEVERELL (Heney), D. D. a man who^ his- 
tpry affords a y&j striking example of « the folly of party 
spirit, WIS the son of Joshua Saoheverell of Mariborough, 
derk, who died rector of St. Peter's .church in Marlbo- 
rtmgb, Jc&aving a numerous family in very low circumstan- 
oes. By a letter to him from his uncle, in 1711, it ap- 
pears that be had a brother named Thomas, and a sister 
SoasDnab. Henry was put to school at Marlborough, at 
the charge of Mr. Edwar^ Hearst, an apothecary, who, 
b^iBg bis godfather,. adopted him as his son. Hearst's 
widow put Iiim afterwards to Magdalen-college, Oxford^ 

' Barney's ifift. of Music— mnd in Rees'i CyclojMwlu.— WcU Hist. 
* M«ran.— Pict. Hist. 



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14 SACHEVERELL. 

where be became demy in 16S7, at the age of 15. tlei% 
he sooii dittkigukhed bmself by a regalar ob«ervacion of 
the duties of the home, by his compotitioiM, good AMin* 
pen, and genteel behaftour; qualifications which reeooi- 
oiended him to that society, of which be beeaane felloMf; 
and, as puUtc tutor, bad the care of the edoattion of iiKMt 
of the yoang gentleinen of quality and fortune that were 
admitted of the college. In this station be had the cere of 
the education of a great many persons eminent for their 
learning and abilities; and was contemporary and chamber^ 
fellow with Addison, and one of his chief intimates till the 
time of his famous trial. Mr; Addison's ** Account of the 
greatest Engtish Poets^" dated April 4, 1694, in a fare- 
well-poem to the Muses on bis intending to enter inio 
holy orders, was inscribed ^ to Mr. Henry Saoheyerell/* 
bis then dearest friend and eolleagae. Much bas been said 
by Sacbeverell's enemies of bis ingratitude to bis relations^ 
and of bk turbulent behaviour at Oxford ; but these appear 
lo have been groundless caliniinies, circulated only by the 
spirit of party; In bis younger years be wrote some excellena 
Latin poems, betides several in the second and third vo-^ 
lumesof the '^ Muiss AngK^aa®,^* ascribed to his pupils* 
and there is a good one of some length in the second vow 
lume, under his own name (ttanscribad from the OxibrA 
collection, on queen Mary's death, 1695). He took the 
degsee of M. A. May 16, 1696; &. D. Feb. 4, 1707; IX D.' 
July 1, 1708. His first prefersientwas Cannock^ or Gani^^ 
in the county of StaffcMrd. He was appointed preacher of 
St. Saviour^s Sootfawark, in 1705; and while in this sta** 
tion preached his fkmous sermone (at Deiiiy^ Aug\ 14v^ 
1709; and at St. Paul's, Nov. 9, io the same year) ; add 
ii; one of tbeni was supposed to pcmt at lord GodolpbiiH' 
under the name of Volpone. It has been suggested, tkat- 
to this circumstance, as much as to the doctrines eontained> 
io his sermons^, he was indebted for his pioseotatton^ and^ 
eventually for his preferment. Being invpeached by tbe^> 
House of Commons, his trial began ITeba 27, 1709*10 ;ri 
and continued until the 123d of March : when he was sen- 
tenced to a suspension from preaching for three ydars, and ' 
his two sermons orderad ta be burntt This pn>8eootion^ 
however, overthrew the ministry, and bad the fonodatton* 
of his fortune. To sir Simon Harcourt, who was counsel 
for him, be presented a silver bason gilt, with an. elegant 
inscription^ written probably by his friend Dn Atter« 



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.^ACHEVKBBlit. IS 

bury *. Dn Sacbeverel^ daring hi» suifieiision^ made % ki nd 
of triumphal progress throagb variQus pj|rt9 of the kiogdomL; 
during, which period he was collated to a. living near 
Shrewsbury; and^ iii t)ie. same mootb that bis suspension 
ended^ bad the v^uable rectory o( St* Andrew^ Holboroi, 
given him by the ijueen, April |3^ 171S. At that time his 
reputation was so high, that be was enabled to seU the fint 
sermon preached after his sentence expired :(oiq Palm San^ 
day) for the sum of lOOL; and upwards of 40^000 copiesi 
it is saidy were soon sold» We find by 9wift's. Journal to 
Stella, Jan. 22, 171 1-12, that be bad also interest enough 
with the ministry to provide very amply for oo# of his 
brothers; yet, as the dean bad said before, Aug. 24^ 171 r^ 
^^they bated and affected to despise him.^* Aooaudec* 
iible estate at Callow in Derbyshire was soon after lefi to 
him by his kinsman George Sacheverell» esq^ In 1716^ 
he prefixed a dedication to ^< Fifteen Discourses, occasioll^ 
ally delivered before the university of Oxford, by W, 
Adams, M. A. late student of Christ-church, and rector of 
Suunton upon Wye, in Oxfordshire^*' After this piibii* 
cation, we hear little of him, except by quarrels with' his 
parishioners. He died June 5, 1724; and, by his wiU^ 
bequeathed to Bp. Atterbury, then in exile, who was sup^ 
posed to have penned for him the defence be made before 
die House of Peers f, the sum of 600L The duchesa of 

* <* Viro hoDoratisstmo, f This speech, whra origiaallf pab^ 

Uaivtrti Juris oimoulo, lithed, was thus addressed, *^ To the 

Efloiesia & Regoi presidio tb LMs SpiriUuil awi TempSral ttt Far*. 

oroamepto, ' liameot atsembM : 

SiMOiii HAacoi7aT, Equtti Aiiratp» May U please yi>ar Lordships^ 



iBntaBttia Sigtili Mafil It katit btn mf hard fbrtuoc to b« 

Custodi* misunderstood, at a ,tiaie whan I ea* 

•t Serenisahne Regine k Secretioribu9 deavouretl to express mjrself with the 

t . ooBsiKk ; utmost platooess ; even the defence 1 

. oh CMuam meam, ooraa Supvemo . made at yooc Lordtbipa* bar, in^hopes 

SenatUa of clearing the inopceoce of my beiurt» 

in Aula Westmooasteriensl, hath beeu grievously misrepresented. 

. oervDsa ama faeaiidia Fur which reason I have hombly pre- 

h sobacta le^m scientia, ; . sumed to offer it iU'ihis manner to your 

beoigni 4c coostaoter ^efensam j^ Lordships' perusal. My Lords, tbeiA 

■ nb pri»«am BcolesisB doctrinam, are the ver^ #ords 1 spoke to your 

iuviolandam Legom vhn. Lordships. 1 hope they are so pbiiaF 

piam Subditomm 6dem, . and express, as not to b» capable of 

^tsacrosancta Legiimjura/ any misconstruction: and may I to 

i«aMra nelarios Perduellium imp^Uit fiSd meroy allbe hands of Qodjathey 

feliciter ftodicaU i r ^ ar^ in everyi raipect eotlwlv agrteahi^ 

* ' * Yoii^om hoc Muhuicutum to my thoughts and principles I 1 am, 

Oratitudtnis ergo my Lords, your Lordships' most obe- 

• D. D.D. dientaud most dutiful servant, 
|ln.atCffsaacintv£att^a-r;P, "-* Hs^w* SAcaKvaasLL.- 

Auno Saltttis mdccx.'* 



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16 gACIi£Vi:R£LL 

Marlborough describes Sacbeverell as " an ignorant imptt^ 
dent incendiary ; a man who was the scorn even of those 
who made use of him as a tool.** And Bp. Burnet says, 
** He was a bold insolent man, with a very small measure 
of religion, virtue, learnring, or good sense; but he rc- 
sdved to fDi-ce himself into popularity and preferment, by 
the most, petulant railings at dissenters and low-church 
men, in several sermons and libels, written without either 
chasteness of style or liveliness of expression/* Whatever 
his character, it is evident that he owed eveiy thing to an 
injudicious prosecution, which defeated the purposes of 
those who instituted it, and for many years continued 
those prejudices in the public mind, which a wiser ad* 
ministration would have been ankious to dispel. ^ 

SACKVILLE (Thomas), lord Buckuurst arxd earl of 
Dorset, an eminent statesman and poet, was born at Withy- 
am in Sussex, in 1527. He was the son of sir Richard 
Sackville, who died in 1566, by Winifred Brydges (after^ 
wards mairchioness of Winchester), and grandson of John 
•Sackville, esq, who died in 1557, by Anne Boleyne, sister 
of sir Thomas Boleyne, earl of Wiltshire ; and great grand- 
son of Richard Sackville, esq. who died in 1 524, by Isabel^ 
■daughter of John Digges, of Digges^s place in Barham, 
Kent, of a family which for many succeeding generations 
produced men of learning and genius. He was first of the 
university of Oxford, and, as it is supposed, of Hart-hall, 
now Hertford-college ; but taking no degree there, be re* 
moved to Cambridge, where he comm^ced master of arts, 
and afterwards was a student of the Inner Temple. At 
both universities he became celebrated both as a Latin and 
English poet, and carried the same taste and talents to the 
Temple, where he wrote his tragedy of "Gorboduc,** which 
was exhibited in the great hall by the students of that so- 
ciety, as part of a Christmas entertainment, and afterwards 
l^efore queen Elizabeth at Whitehall, Jan. 18, 1561. It 
was surreptitiously printed in 156S, under the title of 
** The Tragedy of Gorboduc,** 4to; but a correct edition 
QtHier the ius|)ection of the authors (for he was assisted by 
Thomas Norton), appeared in 1571, entitled "TheTra- 
gedie of Ferrex and Porrex.** Another edition appeared 
in 1569, notwithstanding which, for many years it had so 

* Oent. Mag. Me Index.— Swift's Worki.«-a«pin*t Hirt.— Bamot't Own 
Tines.— TaUtr, Spectaior, and Oturdiao, wiUi aotes^ edit 1806.— Im. S&c 



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SACKVILLE. 17 

tooipletely disappeared, that Dryden and Oldham, in the 
reign of Charles II. do not appeair to have seen it, though 
they pretended to criticise it; and even Wood knew jusl^ 
as little of it, as ig plain from his telline us that it wio^ 
wriu^i 4q old English rhyme. Pope took a fancy to re- 
trieve this play from oblivion, and Speuee beiog employed^ 
to set it off with all possible advantage, it was printed 
pompously in 1736, 8vo, with a prefaee by the editor. 
Speoce, speaking of his lordship i^ a poet, declares, that 
^ the dawn of our English poetry was in Chaucer^s time,, 
but that it shone out in him too bright all lU once to last 
long. The succeeding age was dark find dvercast; There 
wag indeed some glimmerings of genius again in Henry 
VIII's time ; bat our poetry bad never what could be called 
A fair settled day-light till towards the end of queen Eliza- 
beth's reign. It was between these two periods^ that lord' 
Buckburst wrote; after the earl of Surrey, and before 
Spenser."' Warton's opinion of this tragedy is not very: 
&vourable. He thinks it never was a favouHte with our 
ancestors, and fell into oblivion on account of the naked- 
neM and uninteresting nature of the plot, the tedioua 
length of the speeches, the want of discrimination of cfaa« 
t^KUer, and almost a total absence of pathetic or critical 
lituations. Yet he allows th^t the language of ^^ Gorbo- 
duc'' has great merit and perspicuity, and that it is en* 
tirely free from the tumid phraseology of a subsequent age 
af play-writing. 

Sackville is said by Warton to bav^ bedn the inventor 
and principal contributor to that celebrated collection of 
historical legends^ entitled << The Mirror for Magistrates,'' 
first edited in 1559 by William Baldwin; but sir Egertoa 
Brydges thinks there is some Reason to doubt thi^, as 
SackTille't ^' Induction," and <^ Legend of the duke of 
Buckingham," did not appear appended to that work till 
the second edition in 1563. The reader, however, haa 
now an opportunity of examining the evidence on this 
point in the very aocaraie and splendid edition of this work 
just published by Joseph Haslewood, esq. It is allowed, 
tbftt Sackville's; share exceeds in.digiBity and genius all th# 
other contributions to the work. The ** Induction" con- 
tains some of the finest strains of English poetry, and some 
of the most magnificent personifications of abatr««t ideas in 
our language; exceeding Spenser in dignity, and not short 
of him in brilliance ; and the «* Complaint of Henry duk# 

Vol. XXVIL C 

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18 SACKVILLE. 

of Buckingham^' is writteoi says Warton, with a force anctf 
even elegance of expression, a copiousness of phraseology, 
and an exactness of versification, not to be found in any 
other part of tb6 collection. 

Having by^tbese productions established the reputationf 
of being the best poet in his time, he laid down bis pen, 
and assumed the eharatcter of the statesman, in which he^ 
also 'became very emrinent. He found leisure, however, 
to make the tour of France and Italy ; and was on some 
account or othef in prison at Rome, when the news arrived 
of his father sir Richard Sackville's death in 15f»6. Upon 
this, be obtained his release, returned home, entered into 
the possession of a vast inheritance, and soon after was 
promoted to the peerage by the title of lord Buckhurst 
He enjoyed this accession of honour and fo^une too libe- 
rally for a while, but soon saW his error. Some attribute 
his being reclaimed to tb^ queen, but others say, that the 
indignity of being kept in waiting by an alderman, of 
whom he had occasion to borrow money, made so deep an 
impression on hitn, that be resolved from that moment to 
be an ceconomist. By the queen he was received into 
particular favour, and employed in many very important 
affairs. In 1587 he was sent ambassador to the United 
Provinces, upon their complaint^ against the eari of Lei<^ 
cester; and, though he discharged tbafnice and hazardous" 
trust with great integrity, ,yet the favourite prevailed with 
bis mistress to call him home, and confine him to his house 
for nine or ten months ; which command lord Buckhurst it 
said to have submitted to so obsequiously, than in all the 
time he never would endure, openly or secretly, by day 
or by night, to see either wife or child. His enemy, how« 
ever, dying, her majesty's favour rettirned to him more 
strongly than ever. He was made knight of the garter in 
1590; and chancellor of Oxford in 1591, by the queen's 
special interposition. In 1589 be was joined with the trea- 
surer Burleigh in negotiating a peace with Spain ; and, 
upon the death of Burleigh the same year, succeeded bim 
in his office ; by virtue of which he became in a manner 
prii^e minister, at\d as such exerted himself vigorously for 
the public good and her majesty's safety. 

Upon the death of Elizabeth, the administration of the 
kingdom devolving on him with other counsellors, ' they 
unanimously proclaimed king James; and that king re* 
newed bis piatent of lord high-treasurer for life, before his 



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SACKVILLE. 19 

4rrintl ih England, and even before bis lordsbip waited on 
his majesty. In March 1604 he was created earl of Dorset. 
He Was one of those whom his majesty consulted and con*^ 
fided in upon all occasions ; and he lived in the highest 
esteem and reputation, without any extraordinary decay 
of health, till 1607. Then be was seized at bis bouse at 
Horsley, in Surrey, with a disorder^ which reduced him 
so, that, his life was despaired of. At this crisis^ the king 
sent him a gold ring enamelled black, set with twenty dia- 
monds ; and this message, that *^ his majesty wished him 
a speedy and perfect recovery, with all happy and good 
success, and that he might live as long as the diamonds of 
that ring did endure, and in token thereof required him to 
wear it, and keep it for his sake.'' He recovered this ill* 
ness to all appearance ; but soon after, as he was attend-^ 
ing at the counciUtable, be dropped down, and immedi- 
ately expired. This sudden death, which happened April 
19, 1608, was occasioned by a particular kind of dropsy on 
the brain. He was interred with great siolemnity in West- 
minster-abbey ; his funeral sermon being preached by his 
chaplain Dr. Abbot^ afterwards abp. of Canterbury. Sir 
Robert Naunton writes of him in the following terms: 
'^ They much commend' his elocution^ but more the ex« 
cellency of his pen. He was a scholar^ and a person of 
quick dispatch ; faculties that yet run in the bipod : and 
they say of him, that his secretaries did little for him by 
way^ of inditement, wherein they could seldom please him^ 
he was so facete and choice in his phras6 and style. — I find 
not that he was any ways inured in the factions of the 
court, which were all his time strong, and in every man'^ 
note; the Howards and the Cecils on the one part^ my 
lord of Essex, &c. on the other part : for he held the staff 
of the treasury fiist in his hand, which once in a year made 
them all beholden to him. And the truth is, as he was a 
wise man and a stout, he had no reason to be a partaker ; 
for he stood sure in blood and grace, and was wholly in« 
teutive to the queen's services : and such were his abilities^ 
that she received a^iduods proofs of his Sufficiency ; and i| 
has been thought, that she might have more cunning in- 
stmmentsj but none of a more strong judgment and con* 
iidence in his ways, which are symptoms of magnanimity 
and fidelity.*' Lord Orford says, that ** few first ministers 
have left so fair a character, and that his hm\\f disdained 

€2 



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fO 5 A C K VI L L E. 

the office of an apology for it, against some Uttle cavils^ 
^ich— spretaexolescunt; si irascare, agnita Tideotur.*' 

Several of bis letters are printed in tbe Cabala ; betides 
which there is a Latin letter of his to Dr. Bartbolomev 
Gierke, prefixed to that antbor's Latin translation from the 
Italian of Castiglione*s « Courtier," entitled, " De CuriaU 
sive Aulico,'* first printed at London about 1571. This 
he wrote while envoy at Paris. Indeed his early taste and 
learning never forsook him, but appeared in the exercise 
of his more formal political functions. He was, says War* 
ton, frequently disgusted at the pedantry and official bar- 
barity of style, in which the public letters and instrumeata 
vi^re usually framed. Even in the decisions and ple^linga 
of the Star-chamber c6urt, he practised and encourag^ 
en unaccustomed style of eloquent and graceful oratory.^ 

SACKVILLE (Charles), sixth earl of Dorset and Mid- 
dlesex, a celebrated wit and poet, was descended in a 
direct line from Thomas lord Buckhurst, and born Jan. 24, 
1637. He had his education under a private tutor; after 
which, making the tour of Italy, he returned to England a 
little before the Restoration. He was chosen in the first 
parliament that was called after that erent for East Grin- 
stead in Sussex, made a great figure as a speaker, and was 
caressed by Charles IL; but, having as yet no turn to 
business, declined all public employment He was, in 
truth, like Villiers, Rochester, Sedley, &c. one of the wits 
or libertines of Charles's court; and thought of nothing so 
much as feats of gallantry, which sometimes carried him to 
inexcusable excesses*. He went a volunteer in the first 
Dutch war in 1665 ; and, the night before the engage* 
ment, composed the celebrated song '^ To all you Ladies 

4^ " Ono of these frolicks bai, by crowd attempted to force th« door» and, 
tbe industry of Wood, come dowu to beiog repulsed, drore io the perform- 
posterity. Sackville, who wai then ers with stooet, and broke the windows 
lord Buckbnr^^t, With sir Charles Sed- of the bouse. For this misdemeauonr 
ley and sir Thomas Ogle, got druuk at they were indicted, and Sedley was 
tbe Cock in Bow-street by Covent-gar- fined five hundred pounds: what was 
den, and, going into the balcony, ex- tbe sentence of tbe otben as notknown^ 
posed themselves to the populace in Sedley employed Killigrew and another 
Very indecent postures. At last, as to procure a remission from the king; 
tfa«>y grew warmer, Sedfey stood forth but (mart tbe friendship of ttie disso- 
pakfd. and harangued the populace in lute I) they begged tbe fine for t|i«m* 
such profane language, that the pub> selves, and exacted it to the last groat." 
lie indignation was awakened ; tbe Johnson's Lives. 

• » Collinses Peerage, by sir E. Bridges. — Warton*» History of Poetry. — Biog. 
^ic--BibUographer, vol. U — Haslewuod*s edition of the Mirror f»r Magislratet, 
182^, 4to.— Park's edit, of the Royal and Noblei Authors. 



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SACK Y ILL £• 21 

at Jand,*' which is generally esteemed the happiest 
of hU productioi^s ; but there is reason to. think it was not 
originally compoaiedy but only reyi/sed an this occasion. Soon 
after be was made a gentleman of the bed-chamber ; and, 
on account of bis distingui^bed politeness, sent by* the 
king upon seveval short embassies of compliment into 
France. Upon the death of hi? uncle James Cranfield, earl 
of Middlesex, in 1674, that estate devolved on him; and 
be succeeded likewise to tlie title by creation in 1675. 
His father dying two years after, he succeeded him in his 
estate and honours* He utterly, disliked, and openly dis« 
countenanced, the violent measures of James ll's reigil ; 
and early engaged for the prince of Orange, by whom he 
was made loird chamberlain of the household, and taken 
into the privy •cpuncil. In 1692, be attended king Wil- 
liam to the congress at the Hague, and was near losing his 
Ufe in the passage* They went on board Jan. 10, in a very 
severe aeasooi; aod, when they were a few leagues off 
Goree, b^ing by had weather been four days at sea, the 
king was so impatient to go on shore,, that he took a boat ; 
when, a thick fog arising soon after, they were so closely 
^ aorrounded with ice, .as not to be able either to make the 
shore, or get back to the ship* In this condition they re- 
mained twenty-two hours, almost despairing of Ufe ; and 
the cold waa so bitter, that they could hardly speak or 
stand at their landing ; apd lord Dorset contracted a lame-* 
ness, which continued for some time. In 1698, bis health 
insensibly declining, be retired from public affairs; only 
now and then appearing at the council-board. He died at 
Batb Jan. 19, l70d-6, after having married two wives; by 
the latter of whom he had a daughter, and an only- son, 
Lionel Cranfield Sackviile, who was created a duke in 
1720, and died Oct. 9, 1765. 

Lord Dorset wrote several little poems, which, however, 
are not numerous enough to make a volume of themselves, 
but are included in Jouusoirs collection of the *^ English 
Po«ots.** He was a great patron of poets and men o^ wit, 
who have not failed in their lurii to transmit his with lustre 
to posterilj. Prior, Drydeu, Congreve, Addison, and many 
»»ore, bave all exerted themselves in their several panegy.^ 
•rics opoo this patron ; Prior more particularly, whose ex* 
quisite>y<^rougbt character of him, io the dedication of 
his poems le his son, tlie firi»t duke of Dorset, is to this 
day ad wred U a. »aster-piece. Be 3ay s, *< The brightneas 



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28 SACKVJLLE. 

Gih\% parts, the solidity of his judgment, and the candoui^ 
and generosity of his temper, distinguished him in an age 
of great politeness, and at a court abounding with men of 
the finest sense and learning. The most eminent masters 
in their several ways appealed to his determination : WaL 
ler thought it an honour to consult him in the softness and 
harmony pf his verse ; and Dr. Sprat, in the delicacy and 
turn of his prose t Dryden determines by him, under the 
character of Eu genius, as to the laws of dramatic poetry : 
Butler owed it to him, that the court tasted his ^ Hudibras:* 
Wycherley, that the town liked his * Plain Dealer; and 
the late duke of Buckingham deferred to publish bis *Re- 
bearsar till he was sure, as be expressed it, that my lord 
Dorset would not rehearse upon him again. If we wanted 
foreign testimony, La Fontaine and St Evremond have 
acknowledged that he was a perfect master of the beauty 
and fineness of their language, and of all tb^y call * let 
belles lettres.^ Nor was this nioety of his judgment con* 
fined only to books and literature : he was the same in 
statuary, painting, and other parts of art. Bernini 
would have taken his opinion upon the beauty and at« 
titude of a figure; and king Charles did not agvte with 
Lely, that my lady Cleveland's picture was finished, till it 
bad the approbation of my lord Buckburst." 

^* He was a man," says Dr. Johnson, ** whose elegance 
and judgment were universally confessed, and whose 
bounty to the learned and witty was generally known. To 
the indulgent affection of the public, lord Rochester bore 
ample testimony in this remark : < I know not how it is, 
but lord Buckburst may do what he will, yet is never in 
the wrong.* If such a man attempted poetry, we cannot 
. wonder tbat his works were praised. Dryden, whom, if 
Prior tells truth, he distinguished by bis beneficence, and 
who^ lavished his blandishments on those who are not known 
to have so well deserved them, undertaking to produce 
authors of our own country superior to those of antiquity, 
9ays, * I would instance your Lordship in satire, and* Shak- 
speare in tragedy.' Would it be imagined tbat, of this 
rival to antiquity, all the satires were little personal in- 
vectives, and that bis longest composition was a song of 
eleven stanzas ? The blame, however, of this enggerated* 
praise falls on the encomiast, not upoi^the author; whose 
performances are, what they pretend to be, the efltisions 
pfaman of wit; gay, vigorous, find airy. His verses tq 



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S A C K V I L L E. « 

UowsMrd shew great fertility of mind ; and his ^ jDorinda*' 
has been imitated by Pope. ' 

SACROBOSCO. See HOLYWOOD. 

SACY. See MAISTRE. 

8ADESL j(A>'THONY)9 one of the promoters of the re- 
formauoiii w<as bora in 1534^ at the castle of Cbabot in 
the Maconais, and was descended of a noble and ancient 
family of the Forez. His father dying when he was very 
young, the care of his education devolved on his mother, 
who sent him to Paris, where he first was initiated in the 
principles of the Protestant religion. These he afterwards 
became better acquainted with at Thoulouse and Geneva, 
when introduced to Calvin and Beza. On the death of an 
uncle he was recalled home, and again sent to Paris, in 
consequence of a contest respecting the will of that uncle, 
who had. left considerable property. While here, becom* 
ing mpre attached to the cause of the reformation, be was 
induced to study divinity, instead of law, for whi^b he had 
been originally intended ; and such was his progress and 
the promising appearance of bis ulents and zeal, that at 
the age of twenty, he was invited to preach lo the congre- 
gation of the reformed at Paris. Their assembling, how- 
ever, was attended with great danger; and,jin 1557, when 
they met to celebrate the sacrament, about 150 were ap- 
prehended and thrown into prison, their pastors only es- 
caping. The priests having circulated various scandalous 
reports of this meeting, which the judges found to be 
false, Sadeel was employed by his brethren in drawing 
up a vindication of them. Next year he was himself taken 
up, «nd imprisoned, but the king of Navarre, who had 
often been one of his hearers, immediately sent to the 
officers to release him, as being one of bis own suite, and 
when they refused, went in periH)n to the prison, com- 
plained of the affront, and released Sadeel. It not, how- 
ever, being thought safe for him to remain at this crisis in 
Paris, he retired for some time to Orleans, and when the 
danger seemed to be over, returned again, and drew up 
a Confession of Faith, iirst proposed in a synod of the re- 
formed clergy of France, lield at Paris, which was pre- 
sented to the king by the famous admiral Coligni. The 
king dying soon after, and the queen and the family of 

' Biog. Brit.->ColUiit'0 Peerage by sir E. Brydgei.— AUi. Ox. rft. 11 — 
?iTk't cditioB of the Royal and Noble Auihori. 



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84 S A D E E L^ 

' Guise renewing with more fary than ever the perceoatkin 

of the reformed, Sadeel was obliged again to leare the 
metropolis, which, however, he continued occasionally to 
visit when it could be done without danger. 
* Iti 1563, he presided at a national synod at Orleans, 
' and then went to Berne, and finally to Geneva, where he 
was associated with the ministers of that place, Henry I V, 
who had a great respect for him, gave him an invitation lo 
his court, which, after some hesitation, from bis aversion 
to public life, he accepted, and was chaplaia at the battle 
of Courtray, and had tbe charge of a mission to the pro- 
lestant princes of Germany ; but unabi% at length to bear 
the fatigues of a military life, which be was obliged to 
pasa with his royal benefactor, he retired to Geneva in 
1589, and resumed his functions as a preacher, and under- 
took the professorship of Hebrew until his death, Feb. 23^ 
1591. Besides hie sermons, which were highly popular 
and persuasive, he aided the cause of reformation by taking 
an active part in the controversies which arose out of it, 
and by writings of the practical kind. One French bio* 
grapher tells us that Sadeel was an assumed name, but in 
all other anthoriiies, we find him called by that nfimeonly 
with the addition of Chand£Us, which allude^ to his an- 
cestors, who were barons of Chandieu. Accordingly his 
works are entitled << Antonii Sadeelis Chandcei, nobiliasi- 
mi viri, opera theologica,^* Geneva, 1 592, folio ; reprinted 
159S, 4to; and 1599 and 1615, folio. They consist, 
among others, of tbe following treatises publtsbed sepa* 
rately, "De verbo Dei scripto," Gen. 1593. ♦^Devem 
peceatorum remissione,'' ibid. 1 59 1 « ** De unico Christi 
sacerdotio et sacrificio," ibid. 1692. ** De spirituali et 
sacramental! manducatione Corporis Christi;" two trea* 
tises, ibid. 1596. ^^ Posnaniemium assertionum refutatio,*^ 
ibid. 1596. << Refutatio libelli Claudii de Sainctes, inti- 
tulati, Examen doctrines Calvinianee et Bezants de coena 
Domini," ibid. 1592. He wrote also, in French, <^ His* 
toire des persecutions et des martyrs de Teglise de Paris, 
depuis Pan 1557, jusqu^au regne de Charles IX." primed 
-at Lyons, in 1563, 8vo, under tbe name of Zamariel. He 
wrote also ** Metamorphose de Ronsard en pretre," in 
verse, part of a controversy he had with that writer, who in 
his w^rk on the troubles during the minority of Charles IX. 
bad attributed them to the reformers. His life, by James 
Lectius, was prefixed to his works, and published sepa^ 



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B A D T, 25 

vstdjr at Geriem in 1 ji93y Svp. The sobttance of it it giren 
in our first authority.* 

SADi, or SADEEy a celebrated Persian poet and mo« 
valist, was born in 1175, at Sbeeras, or Schiraz, the capi- 
tal of Persia, and was educated at Damascus, but quitted 
liis country wiien it was desolated by the Turks, and com- 
jnenced bis travels. He was afterwards taken prisoner, and 
xoodemned to work at the fortifications of Tripoli. While 
in this deplorable state, he was redeemed by a o^rchant of 
Al^po» who bad so nuch regard for him as to give him his 
4langbter in marriage, with a dowry of one hundred sequins. 
Tbis lady, however, being an intolerable scold, proved the 
jplague of his life, and gave liim that unfavourable opinion 
of the sex which appears occasionally in his works. During 
one of their altercations she reproach^ him with ^the ia» 
•vours her femily had oonferred— '^ Are not you the man 
my father bonght for ten pieces of gold ?"-^<* Yes," an- 
ewered Sadi, *'and he sold me again for an hundred se- 
•qutn^ ?*• 

We find few other particulars of his life, during which 
he appears to have been admired for his wise sayings and 
hit w|t« He is said to have lived an hundred and twenty 
years, that is, to the year 1295, but different dates are 
assigned, some ipaking him born in 1 193, and die in 1312. 
He composed such a variety of works in prose and verse, 
Arabic and Persian, as to fill two large folio volumes, which 
were printed at Calcutta, in 1795. It was not, however^ 
merely as a poet, that he acquired fame, but as a philoso* 
pher and a moralist His woijes are quoted by the Persiaoi 
on the daily and hourly occurrences of life ; and ilia tomb, 
adjoining the city where he was born, is sdU visited with 
veneration. ** Yet,'' says sir William Ouseley, speaking 
of this author's works, *^ I shall not here suppress thu there 
is attributed to Sadi a short collection of poetical composi** 
lioas, inculcating lessons of the grossest sensuality i" and 
even bis most moral work, called ** Gulistan," or *^ Garden 
ef Flowers,'' is by no means immaculate. Mr. Gladwin 
also, to whom we owe an excellent translation of it, pub* 
&hed at Calcutta, 1806, in 4to, with the original Persian^ 
has been obliged to omit or disguise a few pas3ages, whicb^ 
lie says, " although not offensive to the coarse ideas of 

> M«khior Ad»m.--Fwhcri Themtrum,— Morcri et Biog, Univ. id art. Cbas. 



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te S A D I. 

native readers, could not possibly be translated without 
transgressing the bounds of decency." 

This work has been long known in Europe by the edition 
and translation published by the learned Gentius, under 
the title of ^* Rosafium politicum, sive amoenum sortis hu- 
manaB Theatrum, Pei^ice et Lat.'* Amst. 1651, fol. There 
was also a French traWation by P. du Ryer, 1634, Svo^ 
and another by d'Alegre, in 1704, 12mo, since which tLe 
abb6 Gaudin gave a preferable translation, first in.l7S9, 
under the title of '^^ Essai historique sur la legislation de la 
Perse," and afterwards by the more appropriate title of 
<<Gulistan, ou Tempire des roses,*' 17^1, 8vo. Tie En- 
glish public was in some degree made acquainted with thit 
work by a publication by Stephen Sullivan, esq. entitled 
f < Select Fables from Gulistan, or the Bed of Roses, trans- 
lated from the original Persian of Sadi," 1774, 12ino. 
These are chiefly of a political tendency, recommending 
justice and humanity to princes. Mr. GJad win's includes 
the whole, and is a valuable contribution to our knowledge 
of Persian manners and morals. Sadi-s other works are en- 
titled 'f Bostan, or the Garden of Flowers," which is in 
verse, and ^^ Molam&at;" in Arabic, sparks, rays, or spe- 
cim,ens. We may add, that Olearius published the ^^ Gu- 
listan," in German, with plates, in 1634, fol. under the 
title of " Per^ianischer Rosenthal.'*' 

SADLER (John), an English writer, descended of an 
ancient family in Shropshire, was born in 1615, and admit- 
ted pensioner of Emanuel college, in Cambridge, Nov. 13^ 
.1630, where he became eminent for bis knowledge in the 
Hebrew and Oriental languages. After having taken his 
degrees at the usual periods, that of M. A, in 1638, in 
which year he was chosen fellow of hfs college, he removed 
to Lincoln's-Inn ; where he made a considerable progresa 
in the study of the law, and was admitted one of the mas- 
ters in ordinary in the court of chancery, June I, .1644, 
and was likewise one of the two masters of requests. In 
1649, he was chosen town-clerk of London, and published 
in the same year in 4to, a work with this title, ^^ Rights of 
the Kingdom : or. Customs of our Ancestors, touching the 
duty, power, election, or succession, of our kings and 
parliaments, our true liberty, due allegiance, three estates, 
iheir legislative power, original, judicial, and executive, 

1 IVHerbelot Bibl. OrienUl.— Gladwin*i Persian Classics, vol. I.— -WariDf ^ 
Tour to Sheerez.— Month. Rev. 1774v— Brlt« Crit vol. XaIX. 



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SADLER.. S7 

wttb the militia; freely discussed through the British, Saxon, 
Norman, laws and histories.'* It was reprinted in 1682, 
and has always been valued by lawyers and others. He 
was greatly esteemed by Oliver Cromwell ; who, by a let- 
ter from Cork, of Dec. 1, 1649, offered him the place of 
chief justice of Munster in Ireland, witti a salary of 1000/. 
per annum ; but this be excused himself from accepting. 
Id August 1660, he was made master of Magdalen college, 
io Cambridge, upon the removal of Dr. Rainbow, who 
again succeeded Sadler after the restoration. In 1653, he 
was chosen liieniber of parliament for Cambridge. In 
1655, by warrant of Cromwell, pursuant to an ordinance 
Ibr belter regulating and limiting the jurisdiction of the 
high court of chancery, he was continued a master in 
chancery, when their number was reduced to six only. It 
was by bis interest, that the Jews obtained the privilege of 
l>uilding a synagogue in London. In 1658, he was chosen 
member of parliament for Yarmouth ; and in December of 
the year following, appointed first commissioner, under the 
great seal, with Taylor, Whitelock, and others, for the 
probate of wills. In 1660, h^ published in 4to, his ** OU 
bia : The New Island lately discovered. With its religion, 
rites of worship, laws, customs, government, characters, 
and language; with education of their children in their 
sciences, arts, and manufactures; with other things re- 
markable ; by a Christian pilgrim driven by tempest from 
Civita Vecchia, or some other parts about Rome, through 
the straights into the Atlantic ocean. The first part*'' Of 
this work, which appears to be a kind of tiction, Dr. John 
Worthington, in a letter to Mr. Samuel Hartlib, dated 
April 1, 1661, says, *' U the second part of Olbu like to 
come out shortly f It is said to treat ef the religion, wor- 
ship, laws, customs, manner of education, &c. of that 
place. The design promiseth much variety." 

Soon after the restoration, he lost all his employments, 
by virtue of an act of parliament 1 3 Caroli II, <* for the 
well-governing and regulating of corporations:" his con- 
science not permitting him to take or subscribe the oatK 
and declaration there required, in which it was declared, 
that ♦* it was not lawful, upon any pretence whatever, to 
take arms against the king;" an obedience so absolute^ 
that he thought it ncii due to any earthly power, though he 
had never engaged, or in any manner acted, against the 
bte king. In the fire of London, 1666, bis house in S^t 



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28 A D t K R. 

lisburj^codit, which he built at the expense of 506ol. And 
several other of bis houses in London were destroye<i ; and, 
toon after^ his mansion-bouse in Shropshire had the »ain€ 
fate. He was also now deprived of Vauxhall on the river 
Thames, aod other estates which he had purchased, being 
crown lands, and of a considerable esute in the Fen« in 
Bedford Level, without any recompence. These misfor- 
fones and several others coming upon him, he retired to 
his manor and seat of Warmwell in Dorsetshire, which he 
had obuined with bis wife; where he lived in a private 
manner, and died in April 1674, aged fifty-nine. Thomas 
Sadler, esq. deputy to lord Walpole, clerk of the pdls, 
wbo contributed the above account to the editors of tlie 
Gen^eral Dictibnary, and Daniel Sadler, chief clerk in the 
Old Annuity office, were his grandsons. Walker says be 
was informed that Mr. Sadler was a very insignificant man, 
and Calamy tells us that a. clergyman of the cliurch of £n« 
gland gave him this character, *^ We accounted him, not 
enly a general scholar, and an accomplished gentleman^ 
but also a person of great piety; though it must be owned 
be was not always right in his head/*' 

SADLER (Sir Ralph), an eminent English statesman, 
was bom in 1507, at Hackney, in Middlesex. He was 
the son of Henry Sadler, who, though a gentleman by 
birth, and possessed of a fair inheritance, seems to have 
been steward or surveyor to the proprietor of the manor of 
GiUaey, near Great Hadham, in Essex. Ralph in early 
life gained a situation in the family of Thomas Cromwell, 
earl of Essex, and by him was introduced to the notice of 
Henry VUL who took him into his service, but at what 
lime is not very dear. He was employed in the greatt work 
of dissolving the religious houses, and had bis full share of 
ibe spoil. In 1537, be commenced a long course of diplo- 
matic services, by an embassy to Scotland, whose monarch 
was theo absent in France. The objects of his mission 
were to greet the queen dowager, to strengthen the En- 
glish tttterests in the councils of regency which then go- 
ferned Scotland, and to discover the probable consequences 
of the intimate union of Scotland with France. Having 
eolleoted such information as he could procure on these 
tsfNcs, be returned in the beginning of the following yesr, 
biMt westt again to Scotlaod soon after, ostensibly to main-* 

1 ^CD. Dict.«-C«Uill7.«»Hutchins*f DorieUhire Walker's Sufferingf, art. 

Itahibow.— «Col«*» MS Atheua is Brit. Mos.— >fiircb's MSS. in Ayscougb*! Ca4 

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g A D L S IL 09 

tain a good eorrespondence between the two drowm, but 
retUy, a« appears fron his state papers, to detatb the king 
of Scotland frooi tbe coancikof cardinai Beaton, mho was 
at itie bead of the party most in the intarest of France. He 
was instructed also to direct tbe king^s attention to tbe orer* 
grown possessions of tbe church as a source of reTenoet 
and to persaade faim to isaitate bis uncle Henry VIIItb*s 
conduct to the see of Rome, and to make common causa 
with England against France. In all this, however^ be 
appears to have failed, or at least to have left Scotland 
witbotit having materially succeeded in any part of hts 
mission. 

Iq .the same year, 1540, be lost his patron Cfomw^ 
wbo ^as beheaded; but he retained his favour with Henry« 
and in i541 was again sent to Scotland, to detach the king 
firom the pope and the popish clergy, and to press npoa 
faim tbe propriety of a' personal meeting with Henry. This 
bowev«er the king of Scotland appears to have evaded with 
considerable address, and died the following year of a brokea 
heart, in consequence of hearing of the fatal baftle of Soli- 
way. Tbe crown was now left to James V.*s infant daughter 
Maty; and sir Ralph Sadler^s next employment was to lend 
bis aid to tbe match, projected by Henry VIU. between his 
son Edward and the young ^ueen. Bat this ended so un- 
siHMressfully, that Sadler was obliged to return to England 
tn Dec. 1543, and Henry declared war against Scotland. 
la tbe mean time he was so satisfied with Sadler's services^ 
even in this last negociation, that he included faim, by the 
title of sic Ralph Sadleyr, knight, among the twelve per«^ 
sons whom he named as a priry-council to tbe sixteen.no* 
bles to whom, in his will, he bequeathed the care of his 
son, atidjof the kingdom. When this will was set aside by 
tbe proteetor duke of Somerset, and it became necessary 
to reconcile the king's executors and privy-counsellors, by 
wealth and honours, sir Ralph Sadler received a confirma- 
tion of all the church-lands formerly assigoed-to him bf 
Ueory, with sp4endid additions. 

When tbe war with Scotland w^ renewed, sir Ralph so 
distinguished himself at the battle of Pinkie, that he was 
on the field raised to the degree of knight banneret ; but 
^^ bear nothing more of him during the reign of Edward 
VL except that in a grant, dated the 4tb of that king's 
reign, be is termed master of the great wardrobe. In 
Mary's reign, although be -appears to have been in b^ 



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U SADLER; 

^Toiir, he retired to bis esUte at Hackoey, and resigndl 
the office of knight of the hamper, which had been con* 
ferred on him by Henry VIII. On the accession of £>t« 
zabeth, be again appeared at court, was called to the p^vy 
council, and retained to his death a great portion of tb€ 
esteem of that princess. He was a member of her 6rst 
parliament, as one of the knights of the shire for the 
county of Hertford, and continued to be a represenutive 
of the people during the g,reater part, if not the whole, of 
ber reign. When queen Elizabeth thought proper to fa- 
vour the cause of the reformation in Scotland^ and to sup* 
port the nobility who were for it against Mary, sir Ralph 
Sadler was her principal agent, and so n<»gotiated as to 
prepare the way for Elizabeth's great influence in the afi- 
fairs of Scotland. He wa*9 also concerned in the sub-* 
sequent measures which led to the death of queen Mary, 
and was appointed her keeper in the castle of Tutbury ) 
but such was Elizabeth's jealousy of this unfortunate prin- 
cess, that even Sadler's watchfulness became liable to her 
suspicions, and on one occasion, a very heavy complaint 
was made against him, that he bad permitted Mary to slc* 
company him to some distance from the castle of Tutbury^ 
to enjoy the sport of hawking. Sir Ralph had been hither*:* 
to so subservient to his royal mistress, in all her measures^ 
and perhaps in some which be could not altogether approve^ 
that this complaint gave him gi'eat uneasiness, and he ans- 
wered it rather by an expostulation than an apology. He 
admitted that he bad sent for his hawks and falconers to dU 
vert <Hhe miserable life" which he passed at Tutbui*y, and 
that he had been unabb to resist the solicitation of the 
prisoner, to permit her to see a sport in which she greatly 
delighted. But he adds, that this was under the strictest 
precautions for security of her person ; and be declares 
to the secretary Cecil, that rather than continue a charge ^ 
which subjected him to such misconstruction, were it not 
more for fear of offending the queen than dread of the 
punishment, he would abandon his present charge on con-* 
dition of surrendering himself prisoner to the Tower for 
all the days of his life, and concludes that he is so weary 
of this life, that death itself would make him more happy^ 
Elizabeth so far complied with his intimation as to com- 
mit Mary to a new keeper, but she did not withdraw bef 
confidetice from sir Ralph in other matters, and after tho 
execution of Mary, employed him to go to the court oC 



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S A D L £ H 31 

Jadies VI. to dissuade him from entertaining thougbts of a 
war with England on bis mother's account, to which there 
was reason to think he might have been excited. In this 
sir Ralph had little difficulty in succeeding, partly frptai 
James's love of ease, and partly from the prospect he had 
of succeeding peaceably to the throne of England. This 
was the last time sir Ralph Sadler was employed in the 
public service, for soon after his return from Scotland, he 
died at his lordship of Standon, March 30, 15i$7, in the 
eightieth year of his age, and was buried in tbe church of 
Standon, where his monument was decorated with the king 
of Scotland's standard, which he took in the battle of M us* 
selburgh. He left behind him twenty-two manors, several 
parsonages, and other great portions of land, in the several 
counties of Hertford, Gloucester, Warwick, Buckingham, 
and Worcester. He married Margaret Mitchell, a laundress 
in the family of his first patron, Thomas Cromwell, earl 
of Essex, in the life-time, though in the absence, of her 
husband, Matthew Barr6, a tradesman in London, pre- 
sumed to be dead at that time^ and he afterwards procured 
an act of parliament, 37 Henry VIH. for the legitimation 
of the cfaiklren by her, who were three sons, and four 
daughters; Anne, married to sir George Horsey of Digs- 
well, knigbt ; Mary, to Thomas Boliys aliter Bowles WaU 
lington, esq. Jane, to Edward Baesh, of Stanstead, esq. 
(which three gentlemen appear to have been sheriffs of the 
county of Hertford, 14, 13, and 13 Eliz.); and Dorothy, 
to Edward Elryngton of Berstall, in the county of Bucks, 
esq. The sons were, Thomas, Edward, and Henry. Tho- 
mas succeeded to Standon, was sheriff of the county 29 
and 37 Eliz. was knighted, and entertained king James 
there two nights on bis way to Scotland. He had issue, 
Ralph and Gertrude married to Waiter the first lord Aston 
of the kingdom of Scotland ; Ralph, his son, dying with- 
out issue, was succeeded in his lordship of Standon and 
other estates in the county of Hertford, by Walter, the 
second lord Aston, eldest surviving son of his sister Ger«» 
tmde lady Aston. The burying-place of the family is in 
the chancel of the church at Standon. Against the south 
wall is a monument for sir Ralph Sadler, with the effigies 
of himself in armour, and of his three sons and four 
daughters, and three inscriptions, in Latin verse, in En- 
glish verse, and in English prose : against the north wall is 
another for sk Thomas, with the effigies of himself l^ 



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$2 3 A L E Itr 

armoiir, bi» lady, son and daughter, and ah epitapb ih Ett^ 
elish prose. 1 here are also several inscriptions for varioiui 
persons of the Aston family. 

The transactions of sir Ralph Sadler^s most memorable 
embassies are recorded in ^< Letters and Negociations of 
Sir Ralph Sadler," &c. printed at Edinburgh, 1720, 8vc^ 
from MSS. in the advocates' library ; but amOre complete 
collection was recently published of bis *^ State papers and 
Letters,'' frpm MSS, in the possession of Arthur Clifford, 
esq. a descendant, 1809, in 2 vols. 4to, with a life by Wat* 
ter Scott, esq. to which we are principally indebted for the 
preceding account. From this valuable and interesting 
publication the character of sir Ralph Sadler will be esti- 
mated according to the views the reader has been accus- 
tomed to take of the measures of the reigns in which he 
lived ; and on this account his character will probably be 
more highly esteemed in England than in Scotland. That 
be should have preserved the favour of four such discordant 
sovereigns as Henry, Edward, Mary, and Elizabeth, is 
extraordinary, but not a solitary instance.* 

SADELER (Johk), the firs^ of a family of distinguished 
engravers, the son of a founder and chaser, 'was boru 
at Brussels in 1550. He applied early in life to drawing 
and engraving, and published some prints at Antwerp^ 
which did him great honour. Encouraged by this success, 
be travelled over Holland that he might work under the 
inspection of the best masters, and found a generous be- 
nefactor in the duke of Bavaria. He went afterwards into 
Italy, and presented some of his prints to pope Clement 
VIII. but receiving only empty compliments from thai 
ponuflp, retired to Venice, where he died 1600, in his fif- 
tieth year, leaving a son named Juste or Justin, by wboai 
also we have some good prints. Raphael Sadeler, John^a 
brother, and pupil, was born in 1555, and. distinguished 
himself as an engraver, by the correctness of his drawings 
and the natural expression of his figures. IJe accompanied 
John to Rome and to Venice, and died in tbje latter city* 
Raphael engraved some plates for a work entitled ** de 
opificio mundi," 1617, 8vo, which is seldom found per- 
fect The works executed by him and John in conjunction, 
are, " Solitudo, sive vitae patrum eremicolarum," 4taj 
*• Sylvae sacra," " Trophaeum vit« soJitariae ;" " Oraou«* 

* Life by Walter Scott, esq. &c — Briu Grit. vol. XXXVII. 



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« A D E L E R.' 3^' 

lum anacboreticam/' * ^^ Solitudo sive vitae feminarum ana* 
choreticaram ;^' ^^ Recaeil d'Estampe^^ d'apres Raphael, 
Titien, Carrache/' &c. amounting to more than 500 
prints, in 2 vqIs. foL Giles Sadeler was nephew and pupil 
of John and Raphael, but excelled them in correct draw^ 
ing, and in the taste and neatness of his engraving. After 
having remained some time in Italy, he was invited into 
Germany by the emperor Rodolphus II. Who settled a pen- 
sion upon him ; and Matthias and Ferdinand, this emperor's 
successors, continued also to esteem and honour him. He 
died at Prague in 1629, aged fifty-nine, being born at 
Antwerp in 1570, leaving <* Vestigi deir antichitSLdi Ro- 
ma," Rome, 1660, fol. obi. These engravers employed 
their talents chiefly on scripture subjects. Mark Sadeler, 
related to the three above mentioned^ seems to have been 
merely the editor of their works.' 

SADOLET (James), a polite and learned Italian, was 
born at Modena in 1477, and was the son of an eminent 
civilian, who, afterwards becoming a professor at Ferrara, 
took him along with him, and educated him with great care. 
He acquired a masterly knowledge in the Latin and Greek 
early, and then applied himself to philosophy and elo- 
quence ; taking Aristotle and Cicero for his guides, whom 
be considered as the first masters in these branches. He 
also cultivated Latin poetry, in which he displayed a very 
high degree of classical purity. Going to Rome under the 
pontificate of Alexander VI. when he was about twenty-, 
two, he was taken into the family of cardinabCarafFa, who 
loved men of letters ; and, upon the death of this cardinal 
in 1511, passed into that of Frederic Fregosa, archbishop 
of Salerno, where he found Peter Bembus, and contracted 
ao intimacy with him. When Leo X. ascended the papal 
throne in 1513, be chose Bembus and Sadolet for his se- 
creteries ; men extremely qualified for the office, as both 
of them wrote with great elegance and facility : and soon 
after made ,Sadolet bishop of Carpentras, near ^Avignon. 
Upon the death of Leo, in 1521, he went to his diocese, 
and resided there during the pontificate of Adrian VI.; but 
Clement VII. was no sooner seated in the chair, in 1523, 
than he recalled him to Rome. Sadolet submitted to his 
holiness, bu^ on condition that he should return to bis dio- 
9Pic at the end of three years. Paul HI. who succeeded 

I SUoU't Did.— Diet. Hift. 

Vol. XXVII- D 



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-84 S A D O L E T. 

Clemeot VIL in 15349 called bim to Rome again; made 
him a cardinal in 1536, and employed him in many impor- 
tant embassies and oegociations. Sadolet, at length, grown 
too old to perform the duties of his bishopric, went no 
more from Rome; but spent the remainder of his days 
there in repose and study. lie died in 1547^^ not without 
poison, as some have imagined ; because he corresponded 
too familiarly with the Protestants, and testified much re- 
gard for some of their doctors. It is true, he had written 
in 1539 a latin letter to the senate and people of Geneira, 
with a view of reducing them to an obedience to the pope; 
and had addressed himself to the Calvinists, with the affec* 
tionate appellation of *' Charissimi in Christo Fratres ;*' 
but this proceeded entirely from his moderate and peace- 
able temper and courteous disposition. He was a sincera 
adherent to the Romish church, but without bigotry. The 
liberality of sentiment be displayed in hb commentary on 
the epistle of St Paul to the Romans incurred the censure 
0( the Roman court. 

Sadolei in his younger days was somewhat gay, but re- 
formed his manners very strictly afterwards, and became 
a man of great virtue and goodness. He was, like othec 
aobokurs df his time, a close imitator of Cicero in bis prose 
works, and of Vhrgii in bb poetry. In the best of bis La- 
tin poems, bis ** Curtius,*' be is allowed to have adorned a 
dignified subject with numbers equally chaste, spirited, 
and harmonious. His works consist of epistles, disserta- 
tions^ oratioas, poems, and commentaries upon some parts 
of holy writ They have been printed oftentimes sepa- 
yately : and were first collected and published together, in 
a laige Svo volume, at Mentz, in 1607 ; but a more com* 
plete and excellent edition was published at Veroua, in 
1737, 4.vols. 4to. All his contemporaries have spoken of 
ki«i in the highest terms ; Erasmus particularly, who calb 
bim '^ iBziminm sstatb suss decus.'' ' 
. 8AEMUND (SiflFUSSON), a celebrated Icelandic writer, 
iiras the son of a priest named Sigfns, and was bom abont 
the middle of the eleventh century, between 1050 and 
1060* He travelled at a very early period into Italy and 
Germany, in order to improve himself in knowledge, 'and 
for a considerable time hb countrymen were not at all awav« 
•f what had become of bim. At length Jonas, the son ef 

Tirabotdu.— I^keroo, tsL XXVUL— <3r«Mwtll*t Politisa.— Rotcoe** Le«. 



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6 A £ M U N D. 3S 

« 

Ogorand, wbo was afterwards a bishop^ found bim at Paris, 
and carried him .back to Iceland Here he took the order 
of priestboody and succeeded bis father as priest of Odda. 
fie also established a school, and contributed with othera 
"Co induce the Icelanders to pay tithes, and took a consi- 
derable part with regard ta the formation of the ecclesias- 
tical oode of laws. He died in 1133 or 1135, being about 
^ghty years of age. At the age of seventy he wrote a 
Hnitory of Norway, from the tine of Harold Haarikger to 
that of Magnus the Good. He is generally allow^ the 
merit of having collected' the poetical Edda, by which 
means he preserved these curious and valuable remains of 
the ancient Scandinavian mythology, poetry, and morality, 
from being lost They were printed at Copenhagen, 1787, 
4to, with a Latin translation, the editors of which, in their 
preface, give a full account of the supposed authors, and 
the claim of Saemund to be considered as the principal 
collector.* ^ 

SAGE (Alain Rbnb' Le), the first of French novelists, 
was born, according to one of bis biographers, in 1677, 'at 
Ruys, in Britanny; or, according to another, in 1668, at 
Vannes. - At the age of twenty-five he came to Paris, with 
a view to study philosophy. His talents, although they 
did not display themselves very early, proved to be equaHy 
brilliant and solid. He made himself first known by a pa- 
raphrastic translation of the << Letters of Aristsnetus,*' 
which he published in two small votame?. He then travelled 
through Spain, and applied to the study of the Spanish 
language, customs, and writers, from whom he adopted 
plots and fables, and transfused them into his native tongue 
with great facility and success. His works of this kind are, 
<< Gueman D'Alfarache ;'* the '« Bachelor of Salamanca;'* 
^ Oil Bias;'' " New Adventures pf Don Quixote,'* origin 
mHy written by Avelianeda; << The Devil on two Sticks,'' 
ms it is called in our translation, in French ** Le Diable hot* 
tens," and some others of less note. Of the ** D^vil on 
two Sticks," we are told that the first edition had amazing 
success, and the seoond sold with still greater rapidity. 
Two noblemen coming to the bookseller's, found only one 
single copy remaining, which each was for purchasing: 
and the dispute grew so warm, that they were going to 
decide k by the sword, had not the bookseller interposed. 

• Wofk sbQft BitntioMi.-r^et An*)yti«k» lUvtow, voL %h 
9 2 



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86 SAG E. 

He was also distinguished for some dramatic piecesi of 
which " Crispin," and " Turcaret," both comedies, were 
the most successful, and allowed to fall very little short of 
the genius of Moliere. " Turcaret,** which was first played 
in 1 709, has been praised by the French critics, as com* 
prebending a dialogue just and natural, characters drawn 
with peculiar fidelity, and a well-conducted plot. He 
composed also many pieces for the comic opera, wtiichp 
if somewhat deficient in invention, were in general sprightly, 
and enriched with borrowed fancies very happily adapted 
tq the genius of the French theatre. 

When a favourite with the town, he appears to have pre- 
sumed a little on that circumstance* * It was his custom to 
read his plays in certain fashionable circles, before they 
were publicly represented. On one of those occasions, 
when engaged to read a piece at the duchess de Bouil* 
Ion's, an unexpected affair detained him until a considera- 
ble time after the appointed hour* The duchess, on hit 
entrance, began to reproach him, but with pleasantry, for 
his having made the company lose two hours in waiting for 
him. << If I have made them lose them," said Le Sage, 
^^ nothing can be more easy than to recover them* I wUl 
not read my play," and immediately took his leave, nor 
could atiy invitation induce him to visit the duchess a se- 
cond time. 

He had several children, the eldest of whom was long a 
distinguished actor on the French stage, under the name of 
Montmenil, and amidst all the tetnptations of a theatrical 
life, was a man of irreproachable character. He died sud- 
denly while partaking of the pleasures of the chase, Sept. 
B, 1743, and his death was a loss to the public, and parti- 
cularly to his father, who was now grown old, and had 
been poorly rewarded by the age which he contributed so 
often to entertain. He was likewise at this time very deafy. 
and obliged to have recourse to an ear-trumpet, which he 
used in a manner that bespoke the old humourist. It was 
his practice to take it out of his pocket when he had reason 
to think that his company was composed of men of geniuv 
but he very gravely replaced it, when he found that they 
were of an inferior stamp. 

This infirmity, however, depriving him of the pleasures 
of society, he left Paris for Boulogne-sur-mer, in the ca- 
thedral of which one of his sons held a canoniry: and al- 
l^ottgb of an advanced age^ Le Sage left the metropolis ef 



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SAGE. %1 

taste, literature, and gaiety, with considerable regret He 
did not enjoy his retireaient long, being cut off by a severe 
illness, Nov. 17, 1747, in his eightieth year. He was in- 
ierred at Boulogpne, with the following epitaph : 

'* Sons ce tombean git Le Sage, abatta 
F^ leciseau de la P^ne importune: 
S'il ne fut pas ami de la Fortune, 
n fiit toujours ami de la Vertu." 

His character is said to have been truly amiable, and bis 
conduct strictly iporal and correct, free from ambition, and 
one who courted fortune no farther than was necessary to 
enjoy the pleasures and quiet of a literary life. 

Of all his works, his <' Gil Bias'* is by far the most po- 
pular, and deservedly ranks very high among the produc- 
tions of I\istorical fancy. It has been, we believe, trans- 
lated into every European language, and received in all 
nations, as a faithful portrait of human nature. Few books 
have been so frequently quoted, as affording happy illus* 
trations of general manners, and of the conmion caprices 
and infirmities incident to man. Le Sage, says Dr. Moore, 
proves himself to have been intimately acquainted with 
human nature. And as the moral tendency of the character 
of Gil Bias has been sometimes questioned, the same au- 
thor very properly remarks that he never intended that 
character as a model of imitation. His object seems to 
have been to exhibit men as they are, not as they ought to 
be : for this purpose he chooses a youth of no extraordi- 
nary talents, and without steady principles, open *to be 
duped by knavery, and perverted by example. He sends 
him like a spaniel, through the open fields, the coverts, 
the giddy heights, and latent tracts of life, to raise the 
game at which he wishes to shoot ; and few moral hunts- 
men ever afforded more entertaining sport. 

The popularity of this novel, which equals that of almost 
any of our own most favourite productions, may aflbrd a 
lesson to the writers of fiction, who are ambitious that their 
works may live. Had Le Sage drawn those extravagant 
and distorted characters which are so common in the novels 
pablisbed within the last twenty years, he could not have 
expected that they would outlive the novelty of a first pe- 
rusal ; but, depicting nature, and nature only, as he found 
ber in men of all ranks and stations, he knew that what 
would please now would please for ever, and that he was 
speaking a language that would be understood in every 



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38 SAGE 

spot of the globe. The artifices of refined and higlilj po-t 
Ibbed society may introduce Tariations and disguises 
which give an air of novelty to the actions of men ; but 
original manners and caprices, such as Le Sage has describ- 
ed, will perhaps at all times be acknowledged to be just, 
natural, and faithful, whether we apply the test of self- 
examination, .or have recourse to the more easy practice of 
remarking the conduct of those with whom we associate.* 

SAGE (John), a bishop of the oM episcopal church of 
Scotland, a man of great learning and worth, and an able 
controversial writer in defence of the c))urch to which he 
belonged, was born in 1652. He was the son of captain 
Sage^ a gentleman of Fifeshire in Scotland, and an officer 
of merit in lord DufFus's regiment, who fought on the side 
of the royalists when Monk stormed Dundee in 1551. A1-* 
though, like many other royalists, he was scantily rewarded 
for his services, be was able to give bis son a liberal edu- 
cation at school, and at the university of St. Andrew's, 
where he took bis degree of master of arts in 1672. He 
passed some years afterwards as schoolmaster of the pa*, 
fishes of Bingry in FiCeshire, and of Tippermoor in Perth- 
shire, and as private tutor to the sons of a gentleman of 
fortune, whom he attended at school, and accompanied to 
the university of St. Andrew's. In 1684, when bis pupils 
left him, he removed from St. Andrew's, and when uncer- 
tain what course to pursue, was recommended to archbishop 
Rose, who gave him priest's orders, and advised him to 
officiate at Glasgow. Here he continued to display bis 
talents till the revolution in 16S8, when the presbyterian 
form of church government was established, and then went 
to Edinburgh. He preached in this city a while, but re- 
fusing to tiJec the oaths of allegiance, was obliged to de- 
sist, and found an asylum in the house of sir William 
Bruce, the sheriff of Kinross, who approved his principles, 
and admired his virtues. Returning to Edinburgh in 1695, 
where he appears to have written some defences of the 
church to «4iich he belonged, he was observed, and obliged 
again to retire. At length he found a safe retreat with 
the countess of CaUendar, who employed him as chaplain, 
and tutor to her sons, and afterwards he lived with sir John 
Steuart of Gamtully as chaplain, until Jan. 25, 1705, when 

1 Diet H'nt.^Moore't Lite of SmoUelt.-'Blair'f Lectures,— oBeatUe't Diner* 
tationt* p. 570. 



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SAGE. 39 

be was consecraled a bishop. Id the foUomng yeajr bk 
health begaa to decay^ and after trying the waters of Bath, 
in 1709, and change of air in other placet, without much 
beneBt, be died at Edinburgh June 7, 1711. 

Bishop Sage was a man profoundly skilled in all the an- 
cient languages, which gave him an eminent advantage 
over his adversaries, the most distinguished of whom was 
Mr. Gilbert Rule, principal of the college of Edinburgh, 
who, with much zeal, and no mean abilities, was over-* 
matched by the superior learning and historical linowledge 
of his antagonist. Sage wrote the second and third letters, 
concerning the persecution of the episcopal clergy in Scot* 
land,' which were printed at London, in 16S9, the reV. 
Thoaias Merer having written the, first, and professor 
Monro the fourth. 2. ** An account of the late establish* 
nent of Presbyterian Government by the parliament of 
Scotland in 1690,'' Lond. 1693. 3. << The ftlndamentai 
charter of Pre8bytery,'\ibid. 1695. 4. ''The principles of 
the Cyprianic age-*-with regard to episcopal power and 
jurisdiction,*' ibid. 1695. 5. "A Vindication" of the pre- 
ceding, ibid. 1701. 6. *' Some remarks on a Letter froiq. 
a gentleman in the city, to a minister irf the country, on 
Mr. David Williamson's sermon before the General As- 
sembly," Edin. 1703. .7. ** A brief examination of some 
things in Mr. Meldrum's sermon, preached May 16,^1703^ 
against a toleration to those of the episcopal persiiasion," 
ibid. 1703; 8. '<< The reasonableness of a toleration of 
those of the Episcopal persuasion inquired into purely on 
ehurch principles," ibid. 1704. 9. *'The Life ofGawin 
Douglas," bishop of Dunkeld, prefixed to Ruddiman's edi- 
tion of ** Douglas's Virgil," 1710. 10. ** An IntroductioD te 
Drummond's History of the Five James's," Edin. L7 1 1, with 
notes by Ruddiman, who always spoke highly of Sage as 
a scholar and companion.' 

SAGITTARIUS (GASPAR)/an eminent Lutheran divine, 
historian to the duke of Saxony, and professor of history 
at Halle, was born Sept. 93, 1643, at Lunenburg. He stu* 
died in, or visited the greatest part of the German univer- 
lities, where he was much esteemed for his extensive know* 
ledge of history and antiquities. He died March 9, 1694, 

• ' Life of Sag«, aiKmyinoM, but wriUen by Mr. Jobn Oillan, * ^•>'OP?f.^ 
Mme churcb. Loud. 1114, 8vo.— Chalmert't Life of Ruddiman, p. 54.— Tytler»» 
Life of^aimei.— OilUo't Life of Sage is tcsrce j but an anpto »bridgio«it may 
be icen in Uie Eocyctop«dia BriUnnica. 



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40 SAGITTARIUS. 

leaving nearly 70 vDlumes of dissertations, principally 6n 
historical subjecto ; on oracles ; on the gates of the an«- 
cients ; ** The succession of the Princes of Orange/* 4to ; 
** History^ of the City of Herderwich ;" a life of St Norbert, 
1683 ; ^'Tractatus varii de historia legenda,*' 4to ; ** His- 
toria antiqua Noribergs/' 4to ; ^^ Origin of the Dukes of 
Brunswick ;** " History of Lubec ;'* " Antiquities of the 
Jiingdom of Thuringia ;'' '^ History of the Marquises and 
Ejectors of Brandenburg," and many others, enumerated by 
Niceron. His life was written by Schmid, and published 
in 1713, 8vo.' 

SAINCTES (Claudius de), in Latin Sanctesius, was 
born in 1525, at Perche. He entered as a regular canon 
in the abbey de St Cheron, near Chartres ; at the age of 
fifteen was admitted doctor of the Sorbonne, 1555, and re- 
sided afterwards in the house of cardinal de Lorraine, who 
employed him at the conference of Poissy, in 1561, and 
persuaded king Charles IX. to send him to the council of 
Trent, 'with eleven other doctors. In 1566 De Sainctes, 
with Simon Vigor, afterwards archbishop of Narbonne, dis- 
puted against two protestant ministers, at the house of the 
duke de Ne vers, 'and published the records of this con- 
ference two years after, and had also a controversy with 
Sadeel, as we have recently noticed in his article? He 
became so celebrated for his writings, sermons, and zeal 
against the protestants, as to be promoted to the bishopric 
of Evreux in 1575. The following year he attended the 
states of Blois, and in 1581, the council of Rouen; but 
having afterwards joined the most violent among the 
Leaguers, was seized at Louviers by Henry IVth^s party, 
who found a writing among his papers, in which he pre- 
tended to justify the assassination of Henry IIL and de- 
clared that the present king deserved the same treatment. ' 
Being carried as a prisoner to Caen, he would there have 
received the punishment due to his attempt, had not car- 
dinal de Bourbon, and some other prelates, interceded that 
his punishment should be perpetual imprisonment. He 
was accordingly confined in the castle de Crevecoeur, in 
the diocese of Lisieux, where he died in 1591. De Sainctes 
left many learned works, the largest and most scarce among 
which is a ^^ Treatise on the Eucharist," in Latin, folio, aa 
edition of St James's, St. Basil's, and St. Cbrysostom^a 

' * NiccroD, Tol. nr.— Mortru^^Dict. Hist. 



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S A I N C T E 8- 41 

"Litur^es,'* Antwerp, 1560, 8vo, afterwards reprinted, 
but this is the only edition tliat is valued.' 

ST. ALDEGONDE. See MARNIX. 

ST. AMAND (James), a classical scholar and critic, was 
probably the descendant of a French family, but we find no 
mention of him in any French biographical work, and are 
unable to say much of his early history. In 1705, he was 
a student at Lincoln college, Oxford, but made no long 
stay there. His passion for Greek literature, but particu- 
larly for acquiring materials towards a new edition of Theo- 
critus, led him to Italy, where, though young, for he was 
scarce twenty, he obtained a distinguished reputation for 
learning, and became acquainted with men of the first 
erudition, among whom were Gravina, Fontanini, and 
others. By their acquaintance he was easily introduced 
into the best libraries ; and at Florence in particular, he 
was favoured with the friendship of the learned professor 
Salvini, who furnished' him with several materials relating - 
to Theocritus from the Laurentian library and St Mary^s 
monastery of Benedictines. The patronage and friendship 
of Mr. Newton too, the English ambassador at the grand 
duke's court, were of signal service to him. After spend- 
ing some time with these and other learned men, in a mu- 
tual exchange of literary treasures and observations, he 
returned tp England by way of Geneva and Paris, and died, 
not about 1750, as Mr. Warton says, but Sept. 5, 1754, at 
his house in Red-lion-square, leaving the vsduable collec- 
tion of books and MSS. he had made abroad to the Bodleian 
library^ and the duplicates of his books to Lincoln college. 
Of the MSS. Mr. Warton availed himself in • his edition 
of Theocritus. Mr. St..Amand left also 8000/. to Christ's 
hospital, and other legacies, which shew that he was a man 
of considerable opulence.' 

ST. AMANT (Mark-Anthony* Gerard, sieur de), a 
French poet, was born at Roan in Normandy in 1594^. In 
the epistle dedicatory to the third part of his works, he tells 
us, that his father commanded a squadron of ships in the ' 
service of Elizabeth queen of England for twenty-two 
years, and that he was for three years prisoner in the Black 
Tower at ConsUntinople. He mentions also, that two 
Jbrothers of hb had been killed in an engagement against 

» G*«. Diet. art. Sanctaiius.— Moreri. . wi^r m ^t n«« 

« Wartoo's Preface to bi* Theocrimf.— Oent. Mag. ^ol. XXIV,— Wood'i CoH- 
Icgat and Halts, aad Anoalt. 

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43 S T. A M A N T. 

the TutlML His own life was sptfnt in a continual sacces* 
sion of travels, which were of no advantage to bis fortune^ 
There are miscellaneous poems of this author^ the greatest 
f)art of which are of the cboiic or burlesque, and the ama- 
tory kind. The first volume was printed at Paris in 1627, 
the second in 1643, and the third in 1649, 'and they have 
been reprinted several times. ** Solitude, an ode,** which 
is one of the first of them, is his best piece in the opinion 
of Mr. Boileau. In 1650 he published <^ Stances sur la 
grossesse de la reine de Pologne et de Suede.*' In 1654 
be printed his ** Moise sauv6| idylle heroique/' Leyden ; 
which had ^t first many admirers : Chapelain called it a 
speaking picture ; but it has not preserved its reputation. 
St. Amant wrote also a very devout piece, entitled ^* Stances 
i M. Corneille, sur son imitation de Jesus Christ,*' Paris^ 
1656. Mr. Brossette says that he wrote also a poem upon 
the moon, in which he introduced a compliment to Lewis 
XIV. upon his skill in swimming, an amusement he often 
took when young in the river Seine ; but* the king's dislike 
to this poem is said to have aflFected the author to such a 
degree, that he did not survive it long. He died in 1661, 
aged sixty-seven. He was admitted a member of the 
French academy, when first founded by cardinal Richelieu, 
in 1633; and Mr. Pelisson informs us, that, in 1637, at 
bis own desire, he was excused from the obligation of 
making a speech in his turn, on condition that he would 
compile the comic part of the dictionary which the academy 
had undertaken, and collect the burlesque terms. This 
was a task well suited to him ; for it appears by bis writings 
that he was extremely conversant in these terms, of which 
he seems to have made a complete collection from the 
markets and other places where the lower people resort.^ 

ST. AMOUR (William de), doctor of the Sorbonne, 
|md one of the greatest ornaments of Christianity which 
appeared in the Romish communion in the thirteenth cen- 
tury, had his name from St Amour in Franche Compt^, 
where he was born about the commencement of that cen- 
tury. The zeal which he showed against the new institu- 
tion of mendicant friars, both in his sermons, and as theo- 
logical professor, induced the university of Paris to make 
choice of him to defend their interests against the Domini- 
cans and Franciscans, who wished to engross the power and 

1 Gen. Diet— Moreri. 



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ST. A M O U R. 4» 

lofliieBce of the uniim^^ to themselves. In 1255, tbe d^* 
bate was brought before the pope Alexander IV. who, with 
intolerable arrogance, ordered the university not only to 
restore the Dominicans to their former station, but alm> to 
grant them as many professorships'as they should require. 
The magistrates of Paris, at first, were disposed to protect 
the university ; but the terror of the papal edicts reduced 
them at length to silence; and not only the Dominicans, 
but also the Franciscans, assumed whatever power they 
pleased in that famous seminary, and knew no other restric- 
tions than what the pope imposed upon them. St. Amour, 
however, wrote several treatises against the mendicant or- 
ders, and pardcglariy, in 1255, or 1256, his famous book, 
f^ Perils des demiers temps," concerning the " perils of 
the latter days," in which he maintained that St. PauPs 
prophecy of the latter times (2 Tim. iii. I.) was fulfilling in 
the abomiiiatioiis of the friars, and laid down thirty-nine 
mtA% of fake teachers. 

Some years before the pope had decided in favour of the 
mendicanu, a fonatical book under the title of an << Intro- 
dnctioa to the Everlasting Gospel" was published by a 
Franciscan, who exalted St. Francis above Jesus Christ, 
and arrogated to his order the glory of reforming mankind 
by a new gospel. The universal ferment^ excited by this 
impious book, obliged Alexander IV. to suppress it, but he 
ordered it to be burnt in secret, being willing to spare the 
reputation of the mendicanu. The university of Paris, 
however, insisted upon a public condemnation of the book ; 
aad Alexander, great as he was in power, was obliged to 
submit He then took revenge by condemning Sk« Amour's 
work to be burnt, and the author to be banished from 
Fiance. St Amour retired to bis native place, and was 
not permitted to return to Paris until the pontificate of Cle- 
ment IV. He died at Paris in 1272. His works were pub- 
lislKd there in 1632, 4to. He was a man of learning and 
correct manners, of great zeal, and, in the opinion of a 
lute writer, wanted omy a more favourable soil, in which 
be might bring to maturity the fruits of those protesunt 
principles, the seeds of which he nourished in bis breast.* 

SAINT-ANDHET (Nathanael), an anatomist, well 
known in this country on account of the imposture of the 

' Bioff. UniT. art. Amour.— MaaeHt Eccl. HUt. toI. IV. p. SO.— Dopin.— 
IfotheiiD. 



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44 SAINT-ANDRE^. 

RabbiUworaan, and for various eccentricities of conduct, 
was a native of Switzerland, but, on coming over to Eng- 
land, was placed by some friends under a surgeon of emi- 
nence, in which profession be became skilful. He, for a 
tinie, read public lectures on anatomy, and obtained con- 
siderabie reputation ; which was ruined by the part he took 
in the affair of Mary Tofts, as well as by many other irre^ 
gularities of character. He died in 1776, after having 
been for many years the subject of more curiosity and con- 
versation than any of his contemporaries, though without 
any extraordinary talents, or claims to distinction. They 
who are curious to know more of his character may have 
their curiosity grati6ed in the ^' Anecdotes of Hogarth*' by 
Nichols.^ 

ST. EVREMOND. See EVREMOND. 

ST. GERMAN, or SEINTGERMAN (Cheistopheb), 
an English lawyer and law-writer of the sixteenth ceqtury, 
is supposed to have been born at Skilton, near Coventry, 
in Warwickshire, and educated for some time at Oxford, 
whence he removed to the Inner Temple for the study of the 
law. After being admitted to the bar, be became an emi- 
nent counsellor, and we should suppose a very popular one, 
as be frequently refused or returned his fees. What he 
got by honourable practice and some paternal estate, he 
expended in the purchase of books, and gathered a very 
. fine library, which was all the property he left to his heirs. * 
Besides his legal knowledge, be was conversant in philo- 
sophy and the divinity of the times, and wrote on the latter 
subject with so much freedom as to render his sentiments 
suspected^ for which reason Bale has given him a very ad- 
vantageous character. He is commended too for bis piety, 
and pious ordering of his family, to whom he read every 
night a chapter in the Bible, and expoi^ed it. He died 
Sept. 28, 1549> and not 1539, as Bale states. He was 
buried in the church of St. Alphage, within Cripplegate, 
London. It appears by his will that he was a conaidenble 
benefactor to Skilton church, where his &tber sir Henry 
St German, knt. and his mother lie buried, and to that of 
Laleford. ,St German has immortalized bis name by bis 
valuable and well-known work, which bears the title of 
** The Doctor and Student, or Dialogues between a doctor 
^f divinity, and a student in the laws of Enghind, concera- 

1 Nicholi's Hofartb. 



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S T. G E R M A N. 4$ 

ing the grounds of those laws,*' first printed by Rastell, ib 
Latin, 1523, 12mo, and reprinted in 1528. Mr. Bridgman 
enumerates above twenty editions which followed, the last 
in 1787, 8vo, with questions and cases concerning the 
equity of the law, corrected and improved by William < 
Muchall, or MurchalL On the subject of this celebrated 
work, Mr. Hargrave (in his Law Tracts, 32 1), has published 
from a MS. in the Cotton library, << A Replication of a 
Serjaunte at the Laws of England, to certayne pointes al- 
leaged by a student of the said lawes of England, in a Dia- 
logue in Englishes between a doctor of divinity and the 
said student ;*' and a little ^' Treatise concerning writs of 
Subpcena." Two other tracts are attributed by Ames to 
St. German, though they bear the name of Thomas God- 
frey, viz. ** A Treatise concerning the power of the Clergy 
and of the lawes of the Realme,'' 12mo, no date ; and ** A 
Treatise concernynge divers of the Conttitueyons provyn- 
cyail and legan tines,'* 12mo, bo date. Tanner attributea 
to him ** A Treatne concerning the division between the 
Spiritualitie and the Temporaltie," printed by Redman 
without date ; and this seems to be the same work as ^* The 
Pacyfyer of the division between the Spiritualitie and Tem- 
poraltie,*' printed by Berthelet, which being remarkable 
for impartiality and temperate language, was pointed out 
to sir Thomas More, as an example for him to follow in . 
his controversial writings. This incited sir Thomas to pub- 
lish << An Apologye made by him, anno 1533, after he had 
gevin over th' office of lord chancellor of Englande," print* 
ed by Rastell, 1533, 12mo. St. German was also probably 
the author of '^ Newe addicions treating most specially oi 
the power of the Parlyameiit concernynge the Spiritualitie 
and the SpiritualJurisdiction,'* 1531, 12mo, now reprinted 
in all the modern editions of the ** Doctor and Student.** 
He had a controversy with sir Thomas More, which pro- 
duced *^ Salem and Bizance, being a dialogue between two 
Englishmen, one called Salem, and the other Bizance,'* 
1533, avo. This was written in answer to More's " Apo- 
logye" above mentioned ; and sir Thomas replied in the 
'< Debellation of Salem and Bizance," by Rastell, in 1533^ 
tvo.* 

SAINT-JOHN (Hbnry), lord viscount Bolingbroke, an 
eminent statesman and writer, was descended from an 

1 T«a»«r.— Bale,— Ath. 0«. voU I.— Bridgnun'* Ugal Bibliography. 

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4e S A I N T- J O H N. 

mncieat and noble family, and born, as all bb biograpben 
aay, in 1672, but it appears by tbe register of Battersea 
parish that be was baptised Oct. 10, i678« His father, sir 
Henry St. John, son of sir Walter St John, died at Bat- 
tersea, his family -seat, July 3, 1708, in his eigfaqr-seventh 
year : his mother was lady Mary, second daught^ and co- 
heiress of Robert Rich, earl of Warwick. He was bred 
up, with great care, under the inspection of bis grand- 
father, as well as his father, who neglected do means to 
cultivate bis mind. It was opce noticed in parliament that 
be was educated in dissenting principles, and it is very 
certain that the first director of his studies was tbe famous 
Daniel Burgess, who, with all his oddities (See Burgess) 
was frequently employed as tutor to tbe sons of men of 
rank. Goldsoiitb seems desirous to impute Bolingbroke's 
infidelity to this divine, and to his being obliged to read 
Blanton's Sermons on the I19tb Psalm ; but such an opi- 
nion is as dangerous as it is absurd. From Burgess or 
Manton, be could have imbibed only a higher reverence 
ibr religion than was to-be expected from a lively youth ; 
and as to the disgust be felt, to which hb biographer 
seems inclined to trace his infidelity, it is probable that a 
boy would not have entertained much less dislike to a vo- 
luminous history of England, if obliged to read it when he 
wished to be idle. But, whatever instruction he might re- 
ceive from bis first tutors, it is very certain, that he had a 
regular and liberal education. He was sent to Eton, 
where he had for his companion and rival sir Robert Wal- 
pole. " The parts of Mr. St. John," says Coxe, *• were 
jnore lively and brilliant, those of Walpole more steady 
and solid. Walpole was industrious and diligent, because 
bis talents required application; St. John was negligent, 
because his quickness of apprdiension rendered labour 
less necessary.'' These characteristics prevailed in both 
throughout life. From Eton Mr. St. John was removed to 
Christ-church, Oxford, where he made a shining figure as 
■z polite scholar, and when be left tbe university, he was 
considered as a youth highly accomplished for public life. 
His person was agreeable, and be had a dignity mixed with 
sweetness in bis looks, and a manner very prepossessing, 
and, as some of bis contemporaries said, irresistible/^ He 
bad much acuteness, great judgment, and a prodigious 
memory. Whatever he read he retained so as to make 
it entirely his own ; but in youth, he was not in general 



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S A I N T.J O H N. ' 47 

touch given either to reading or reflection. With great 
parts^ be bad, as, it usually bappeas, great passions; 
which harried him into those indiscretions and follies that 
distinguish the libertine. He does not, howeTer, appear 
to have been without his serious moments, nor always on- 
willing to listen to the voice of conscience. *^ There has 
been something always/' says he, ^' ready to wbisper> in 
my ear, while I ran the course of pleasure and of business, 
' Solve senescentem mature sanus equum;' ^ and while 'tis 
well, release thy aged horse.' But my genius, unlike the 
demon of -Socrates, whispered so softly, that very often I 
lieard him not, in the hurry of those passions with ^^ch I 
was transported. Some calmer hours there were ; in them 
I hearkened to him. Reflection had often its turn ; and 
the love of study and the desire of knowledge have never 
quite abandoned me* I am not, therefore, entirely unpre- 
pared for the life I will lead ; and it is not without reason 
that I promise myself more satisfaction in the latter part of 
it than I ever knew in -the former.'* 

As these youthful extravagances involved Imn in discre- 
iiity his parents were very desirous to reclaim him. With 
this view, when in his twenty-second year, they married 
him to the daughter and coheiress of sir Henry Wincbe- 
comb of Bucklebury, in the county of Berks, bart. ; and 
iqwn this aiarriage a large settlement was made, which 
pioved very serviceable, to him in his old age, though a 
great part of what his lady brought was taken from him, in 
<M>nseqttence of his attainder. The union in other respects 
was not much to his liking. The same year he was elected 
for the borough of Wotton-Basset, and sat in the fifth 
partiament erf king William, which met Feb. 10, 1700; 
and in which Robert Harley, esq. afterwards earl x>f Ox- 
ford, was chosen for the first time speaker. Of this short 
parliafBeat, which ended June 24, 1701, the business was 
the impeacbmenc of the king's ministers, who wer<e con- 
earned in the oondasion of the two partition-treaties ; and, 
Mr. St. John tiding with the ma^ority^ who were then con- 
sidered as tories, ought to be looked upon as commencing 
hk pdkieal career in that character. He sat i^o in the 
neirt, which im» the last parliament in the reign of William, 

wmA the first iq that, of Anae. He was charged, ao early 
as 1710, wkii hairiog voted this year against the succes- 
siM in :the Hmse of Hanover^^ but this be has peremp- 
CMily^depied, becauie in 1701 a bill waa brought into par- 



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48 S A I N T-J O H N. 

liament, by sir Charles Hedges aiid himselfy entided *^ A 
Bill for the farther security of his majesty's person, and 
the succession of the crown in the Protestant line, and 
extinguishing the hopes of the pretended prince of Wales, 
and all other pretenders, and their open and secret abet- 
tors/' In July 1702, upon the dissolution of the steond 
parliament, the queen making a tour from Windsor to 
Bath, by way of Oxford, Mr. St. John attended her; and, 
at that university, with several persons of the highest dis- 
tinction, had the degree of doctor of laws conferred upon 
him. 

Persevering steadily in the same tory-connecUons, to 
which he adhered against the whig principles of his family; 
his father and grandfather being both of that party, be 
gained such an influence in the house, thaton Apnl 10^> 
1704, he was appointed secretary of war, and of the ma-» 
rines. As this post required a constant correspondence 
with the duke of Marlborough, it appears to have been the 
principal foundation of the rumours raised many yean 
after, that he was in a particular manner attached to the 
duke. It is certain, that he knew his worth, and was a 
sincere admirer of him ; but he always denied any particu- 
lar connection ; nor was he ever charged by the duke or 
duchess with ingratitude or breach of engagement to them. 
In all political measures, Mr. St. John acted with Mr. 
Harley : and, therefore, when this minister vms removed 
from the seals in 1 707, Mr. St John chose to follow his for- 
tune, and the next day resigned his place. He was not 
returned in the subsequent parliament ; but, upon the dis- 
solution of it in 1710, Harley being made chancellor and 
under-treasurer of the Exchequer, the post of secretary of 
state was given to St. John. About the same time he wrot^ 
tlie famous ^* Letter to the Examiner," to be found among 
the first of those papers : it was then universally ascribed 
Co him, and gave no inconsiderable proofs of his abilities 
as a writer ; for in this single short paper are comprehended 
the outlines of that design on which Swift employed him- 
self for near a twelvemonth. 

Upon the calling of a new parliament in November, he 
was chosen knight of the shire for the county of Berks, 
and also burgess for Wotton-Basset; but made bis election 
for the former. He appeared now upon a scene of action, 
which called forth all his abilities. He sustained almost 
the whole weight of the business of the peace of « Utrecht, 



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S A I K T-J O H N. 4d 

whtck however lie was not supposed to negotiate to the 
adrantage of hi« countty: arid tberefore had an ample 
share of the censure bestowed od t)>at treaty ever since. 
The real state of the case is, that ^* the two paHies/' as 
he himself owns, ^' were become focttons in the strict seni^ 
of the word/' He was of that wbiob prevailed for peaee, 
against those who delighted in war ; for this was Uie Ian* 
goage of the times : and, a peace being resolved on by the 
English ministers at all risks, it is no wonder if it was made 
with less advantage to the nation. Heiywnsthis^ yet jaitl* 
fies the peace in general : ** Though it was a duty/' sajs 
he, ^^ that we owed to our couDtrj, to deliver her from the 
necessity of bearing any longer so unequal a part in so 
unnecessary a war, yet was there some degree of merit in 
performing it. I think so strongly in this manner, I mm 
so incorrigible, that, if I could be placed in the same eir*- 
cumstances again, I would take the same resolutioif, im4 
act the same part* Age and experience might enable me 
to act with more ability and greater skill ; but all I have 
suffered since the death of the queen should not hinder me 
from acting. Notwithstanding this, I shall not be surprised 
if yon think that the peace of Utrecht was not answerable 
to the success of the war, nor to the efforts made in it. I 
think so myself; and have always owned, even when it 
was making and made, that I thought so. 8ifioe we had 
committed a successful folly, we ought to have reaped 
more advantage from it than we did.*' 

In July 1712, he was created baron St. John of Lediard* 
Tregose in Wiltshire, and viscount Bolingbroke ; and wa# 
also, the same year, appointed lord-UeutJlMMitof tbeoMwty 
of Essex. But these honours not coming sp to the mea- 
sure of bis ambition, he meditated sapplanttng Harley, 
BOW earl of Oxford, who had offended him, even >a the 
matter of the peerage. Paulet St. John, the last earl of 
Bolingbroke, died tie 5th of October preeeding his crea- 
tioo ; and the earldom became extinct by his deceube, and 
iim honour bad beea promised to him ; bat, his ptfeitce 
in the Hoose of Commons being so necessary at tlAtt time, 
HaWey prevailed upon htm to remain there during that 
session ; with an assu ranee, that JNs rank sfhould be pi^ 
served for him. But, when he exipected the old title should 
have been renewed in his favour, he received only that of 
viscount ; which he resented as an intended aflfiront on the 
part of Harl^, who bad got a» earldom foe himsdf « J 

V0L.XXVn. E 

I 

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50 SAINT. JOHN. 

continued/' says Bdlingbroke, ** in the House of Com** 
mons during tbat important session which preceded the 
peace ; and which, by the spirit shewn through the whole 
course of it, and by the resolutions taken in it, rendered 
the conclusion of the treaties practicable. After this, I 
was dragged into the House of* Lords in such a manner at 
to make my promotion a puoisbment, not a reward ; and 
was there left to^ defend the treaties alone. It would not 
bare been bard/' continues he, ^ to have forced the earl 
of Oxford to use me better. His good intentions began to 
be very much doubted of: the truth is, no opinion of his 
sincerity had ever taken root in the party; and, which 
was, worse for a man in his station, the opinion of his 
capacity began to fall apace. I began in my heart to re- 
nounce th^ friendship which, till tbat time, I had presenred 
inviolable for Oxford. I was not aware of all his treachery, 
nor of the base and little means which he employed then, 
and continued to employ afterwards, to ruin me in the 
opinion of the queen, and every where else. I saw, how- 
ever, that he had no friendship for any body; and that, with 
Respect to me, instead of having the ability to render that 
merit, which I endeavoured to acquire, an addition of 
strength to himself, 4t became the object of bis jealousy, 
and a reason for undermining me." There was also ano- 
ther transaction, which passed not long after lord Boliog- 
broke's being raised to the peerage, and wbicb a^rgravated 
bis animosity to that minister. In a few weeks after his 
return from France, her msyesty bestowed the vacant rib- 
bqns of the order of the garter upon the dukes Hamilton, 
Beaufort, and Kent, and the earls Powlet, Oxford, and 
Strafford. Bolingbroke thought himself here again ill 
t9sed, having an ambition, as the minister well knew, to 
receive such an instance as this was of his mistress's grace 
and favour. Indignant, at all these circumstancea, > we are 
told that Bolingbroke, when the treasurer's staff was taken 
Arom Oxford, expressed his joy by entertaining that very 
day, July 7, 17 14^. at dinner, the generals Stanhope, Ca- 
dogan, and Palmer, sir William Wyndham, Mr. Craggs, 
and other gentlemen. Oxford said upon his going out, 
tbat <' some of them would smart for it ;" and Bolin^roke 
was far from being insensibly of the. danger to which. be 
stood exposed ; yet be was not without hopes still of se- 
curing himself, by making his court to the.wbigs^ and it 
is certain, that a little before this be bad proposed to bring 



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S A I N T i J O H N. 51 

iii a bill to the House of Lords, to make it treasdn X6 enlist 
soldiers for the Pretender, wbic^ was passed into an act. 
Soon, however, after the accession of king George I. in 

1714, the ^eals were taken from him, and all ^e papers 
in his office secured. During the short session of parlia- 
ment at this juncture, he applied himself with bis usual 
industry and vigour to keep dp the spirits of the friends to 
the late administration, without omitting any proper occa- 
sion of testifying his respect and duty to his majesty, by 
assisting in settling the civil list^ and other necessary 
points. But, when after thd meeting of the new pa^rlia- 
ment, his danger became more imminent, he withdreit 
privately to France^ in March 1715. It is said, by the 
continiiator of Rapines history, that his heart began to fail 
him as soon as be heard that Prior was landed at Dover, 
and had promised to reveal all he knew. Accordingly that 
evening his lordship, who had the night before appeared 
at the play-house in Drury-larie, and bespoke another play 
for the next night, and subscribed to a new opera that was 
to be acted some time after, went off to Dover in disguise, 
as JBL servant to Le Vigne, one of the French king*s messen- 
gers. His lordship, however, alv\ ays affirmed that he took 
this step upon certain and repeated informations, that a 
fesolution was taken, by the men in power, not orily to 
prosecute, but to pursue him to the scaffold. 

Upon his arrival at Paris, he received an invitation from 
the Pretender, then at Barr, to ^gage in his service: 
which he at first absolutely refused, and thought it wiser 
to nniake the bedt application, that bis present circumstances 
would admit, to prevent the progress of his prosecution in 
England. While this was in doubt, he retired into Dau- 
phin4, where he continued till the beginning of July ; and 
then, upon receiving^ unfavourable news from some of his 
foarty in England, he complied with a second invitation 
nrom the Pretender; and, taking the seals of the secretarj^'s 
office at Commercy, set out with' them for Paris, and ar» 
rived thither the latter end of the same month, in order to 
procure from that court the necestory succours for his hew 
master^s intended invasion of England. The vote for im- 
peaching him of high treason had passed in the House of 
Commons the Jiine preceding; and six articles were 
brought into the house, and read by Walpole, August 4, 

1715, which were in substance as follows: l. "That 
whereas be*had assured the minitteVs of the States General> 

e2 

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ffS SAINT. JOHN. 

by order from her majesty io 171 1, tbat sbe would make 
DO peace but in concert with them ; yet be sent Mr. Prior 
to France, that same year, with proposals for a treaty of 
peace with that monarph, witboat the consent of the allies.'* 
2. '' That he advised *^ud promoted the making of a sepa- 
rate treaty or coavention, with France, which was signed 
in September.** 3. *^ That be disclosed to M. Mesnager, 
the French minister at London, this convention, which was 
the preliminary instniction to her majesty's plenipotenti- 
aries at Utrecht, in October." 4. ** That her mi^esty's 
final instructions to her said plenipotentiaries were disclosed 
by him to the abbot Gualtier, an emissary of France." 5« 
" That he disclosed to the French the manner how Tour- 
nay in Flanders might be gained by them." 6. ** That he 
advised and promoted the yielding up of Spain and the 
West-Indies to the duke of Anjou, then an enemy to her 
majesty." These articles were sent up to the Lords in 
August; in consequence of which, he stood attainted of 
high-treason, September the 10th of the same year. 

In the mean time, his new engagemenu with the Pre- 
tender were so unsuccessful as to bring on him a similar 
disgrace; for the year 1715 wt^ scarcely expired, when 
the seals and papers of his new secretary's office were de* 
manded, and given up ; and this was soon followed by an 
accusation branched into seven articles, in which he was 
impeached of treachery, incapacity, and neglect. Thus 
discarded, he turned his thoughts once more to a reconci*^ 
liation with his country, and in a short time, by that cha* 
racteristic activity with which he prosecuted all his designs, 
be procured, through the mediation of the earl of Suir, 
then the British ambassador at the French court, a promise 
of pardon, upon certain conditions, from the king, who, 
in July 1716, created his father baron of Battersea and via* 
count St John. In the mean time these vicissitudes had 
thrown him into a state of reflection ; and this produced, 
by way of relief, a << Coiisolatio Phifosophica," which he 
wrote the same year, under the title of ^* Reflections upon 
Exile." In this piece he has Amwii the picture of his owo 
exile ; which, being represented as a violence, proceeding 
solely from the mplice of bis persecutors, to one who had 
served his country with ability and integrity, is by the 
magic of his pen converted not only into a tolerable, but 
what appears to be an honourable, station. He had also 
this year written severml letters, in answer to the charge 
brought against him by the Pretender and his adherenu, 

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SAINT. JOHN. «S 

which vwre prioltd at London in 1735, 8vo, together with 
answers to tbeas by Mr. James Murray, afterwarcis made 
tarl of Dnnbar by the Pretender ; but, being then imme- 
diately suppressed, are reprinted in <^ TkndaVs Continua- 
ti^ of Rapin's History of England.'* The following year, 
he drew up a vindication of bit whole conduct with respect 
to the toriesy in the form of a letter to sir William Wynd* 
ham, which was printed in 1753, 8vo. It is written with 
the utmost elegance and address, and abounds with interest- 
ing and entertaining anecdotes. 

His first lady being dead, he espoused about this lim^ 
1716, a second of great merit and accomplishments, niece 
to madam de Maintenon, aod widow of the marquis de 
Villette ; with whom he had a very large fortune, encum- 
bered, boweyer, with a long and troublesome law-suit. In 
the company and conversation of this lady, he passed his 
tima in France, sometimes in the country, and sometimes 
at the capital, till 1723; when the king was pleased to 
grant him a fall and free pardon. Upon the first notice of 
this favour, the expectation of which had been the govern- 
ing principle of iiis political conduct for several years, be 
leturoed to bis native country. It is observable, that bi- 
shop Atterbury was banished at this very juncture ; and 
happening, on his being set ashore at Culais, to bear that 
lord Bolingbroke was there, he said, ^' 1 hen 1 am ex- 
changed 1'' His lordship having obtained, about two years 
after his return, an act of parliament to restore him to his 
fkniily^inheritance, and to enable him to possess any pur- 
chase be should make, chose a seat of lord TankerviUe, at 
Dawley near Uxbridge in Middlesex; where be settled 
with his lady, and gratified his taste by improving it into a 
most elegant villa. Here he amused himself with rural 
employments, and with corresponding and conversing with 
Pope, S^ift, and other friends; but* was by no means sa- 
tisfied within : for he was yet no mure than a mere titular 
lord, aod stood excluded from a seat in the House of Peers. 
Inflamed with this taint that yet remained in his blood, he 
entered again, in 1726, upon the public suge ; and, dis- 
avowing all obligations to the minister Walpole, to whose 
secret enmity he imputed bis not having received the full 
effects of the royal mercy intended, be embarked in the op- 
position, and distinguished himself by a multitude of pieces, 
written during the short remainder of that reign, aiul for 
some years under the following, with great boldness mgainsi 
the measures that were then pursued. Besides his papers 

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54 &AINT-JOHN. 

in the ** Craftsman/' which were the most popular in that 
celebrated collection, be published several pamphlets^ 
which were afterwards reprinted in the second edition of 
his *^ Political Tracts/' and in the authorized edition of 
bis works. 

Having carried on his part of the siege against the mini* 
ster with inimitable spirit for ten years, he laid down his 
pen, owing to a disagreement with bis principal coadju- 
tors; andy in 1735, retired to France, with a full resolu- 
tion never to engage more in public business. Swift, who 
l^new that this retreat was the effect of disdain, veza- 
(iopy and disappointment, that his lordship's passions ran 
high, and that bis attainder unreversed still tingled in hia 
veins, concluded him certainly gone once more to the Pre- 
tender, as bis enemies gave ou^ ; but he was rebuked fop 
this by Pope, who assured him, that it was absolutely un- 
true in every circumstance, that he had fixed in a very 
agreeable retirement near Fontainbleau, and made it bis 
whole business vacate Uteris. He had now passed the 60th 
year of his age ; and through a greater variety of scenes, 
both of pleasure and business, than any of his conteoppo- 
raries. He had gone as far towards reinstating himself in 
the full possession of his former honours as great parts and 
great application could go ; and seemed at last to thii|k, 
that the door was finally shut against him. He t^td hot 
been long in his retreat, when he began a course of ^ Let- 
ters on the 6tudy and use of History,'* for the use of lord 
Cornbury, to whom they are addressed. They were pub- 
lished, in 1752 ; and, though they are drawn up, as all his 
works are, in an elegant and masterly style, and abound 
with just reflections, yet, on account of some freedoms 
taken' with ecclesiastical history, they exposed him to much 
censure. Subjoined to these letters are, his piece ^^ upon 
Exile," and a letter to lord Bathurst V on the true use of 
study and Retirement" 

Upon the death of his father, who lived to be extremely 
old, he settled'at Battersea, the ancient seat of the family, 
where he passed the remainder of his life. His age, his 
genius, perfected by long experience and much reflection, 
gave him a superiority over most of his contemporaries, 
which bis works have not altogether preserved. Pope and 
^wift, however, were among his most ardent admirers; 
and it is well known, that the former received from him 
the materials for his ^^ Essay on Man.'* Yet, even in this 



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SAINT. JOHN 55 

retirement, he did not neglect the consideration of public 
affairs; kr^ after the conclusion of the war in 1747, upon 
measures being taken which did not agree with his notions 
qf political prudence, he began <^ Some Ueflections on 
the present state of the nation, principally with regard to 
her taxes and debts, and on the causes and consequences 
of them .'' but he did not finish them. In 1749, came out 
his << Letters on the spirit of Patriotism, on the idea of a 
Patriot King, and on the state of parties at the accession of 
king George I :** with a preface in which Pope's conduct, 
with regard to that piece, is represented as an inexcusable 
act of treachery to him. Of this subject we have already 
taken sufficient notice in our accounts of Mailet and Pope. 
Boiiagbroke was now approaching his end. For some time 
a cancerous humour in his face had made considerable pro^ 
gress, and he was persuaded to apply an empirical remedy, 
which exposed him to the most excruciating tortures. Lord 
Chesterfield saw him, for the last time, the day before 
these tortures began. Bolingbroke, when they parted, 
eoabraced his old friend with tenderness, and said ^< God, 
who placed me here, will do ^^hat he pleases with me here- 
after, and he knows best what to do. May he bless you !'* 
About a fortnight after he died, at his house at Battersea, 
Nov, 15, 1751, nearly eighty years old, if the date usually 
asfigned to bis birth be correct. His corpse was interred 
with those of his ancestors in that cbureh, where there is a 
marble monument erected to his memory. 

His lordship's estate and honours descended to his ne-^ 
phew ; tiie care and profits of his manusdripts he left to 
Mallet, who published them, together witlf his works already 
printed, in 1754, 5 vols. 4to. They may be divided into 
political and philosophical workf :. the former of which have 
been mentioned already, and consist of ^^ Letters upon 
History," " Letter to Wyndham,'' " Letters 6n Patriotism," 
and papers in the ^^ Crafuman ;'' which had ^en 'sepa* 
rately printed in 8 vols. 8vo, under the title of ** Disserta- 
tiou upon Parties," " Remarks on the History of England," 
and << Political Tracts." His philosophical works consist 
of, «< The substance of some letters written originally in 
French about 1720 to Mr. de Pouilly ; letter occasioned by 
one of abp. Tillotson's sermons ; and letters or essays ad- 
dressed to Alexander Pope, esq." As Mallet had published 
an 8vo edition of the " Letters on History," and the *' Let- 
ter to Wyndham/* before the 4to edition of th^ works 



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56 SAIN T.J O H N, 

came oat, he afcerwanU publUbed •eparately the pUloiov . 
pbioal writings, 5 vols. Svo. These essays, addvessed to 
Pope, on philosophy and religion, contaii) many thio« 
which deny or rfdicule the grea^ tmths of re? eiation ; and^ 
on this account, not only (exposed the deceased author to 
the just animadversions of several writers, but occasioned 
also^a presentment of his works by the grand jury of West- 
minster ; but the sale of them was very slow, and of late 
years they are perhaps still less consulted. An edition, 
however, was publbbed in 1 809, in 8 vol«. 8vo, with many 
additions, from subsequent authorities, to the l^e of Boling* 
broke, which was written by Dr. Goldsmith. Some skMi 
before this, a valuable collection of lord Boling^oke's po» 
litical correspondenpe was publifbed in 4to, and i vols. 8vo^ 
by the rev. Gilbert Parke» whiph contaiqs much informa- 
tion respecting the memorable peace of Utrecht. His eha-f 
racter has been drawn by various able pens, by Chesterfield, 
Mrs. Cookburn, Ru6Fbead (under the guidance of Warbwr- 
ton), lord Walpole, Horace Walpole, lord Orrery, kc. Ac 
and although they diflPer in some points, coincide in proytag 
that lord Bolingbroke was Considered by all as a politician 
of an important class ; that those who have been at most 
pains to defame him as an enemy, would have been veiy 
desirous to secure him as |t friend, and that they may be 
credited in every thing sooner than in their affecting tp 
undervalue bis talet^ts. Ambition and immorality constir 
tute the great objections to his public and private charac- 
ter. His infidel principles were not much known before hi^ 
death, except to bis friends. Like Chesterfield and Hume, 
he left something behind him worse than he had prodoeed 
in his life-time, and subjected himself to accusations to 
which he could no longer reply. In his character since, he 
has suffered equally by the just resentment of piety, and 
by the unforgiving prejuiiices of party; and an impartial 
history of his conduct and opinions is perhaps yet a desi- 
deratum.^ . 

ST. LAMBERT (Charles Francis db), formerly i^ 
member of the French academy, was born in Nancy, Deo. 
16, 17 17, of a family of Lorrain. He was educated among^ 
the Jesuits at the college of Pont-a-Mousson, but in early 

' Life by Ooldimiih, ia edi'. 1S09.— Bioflf. Brit— Swift's Works. *-Pope'« 
Works by Bewlcs. — Coxe*« Walpole.— Ly^ont's Environs, vol. I.— Royml and 
Noble Authors by Park.— Cbesttrfi«ld*s Memoirs and LtUett.— Lctand'i Deisir« 
cat Wrilert.-*Waf burton'i Lettara to Hard, ke. kc 



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S T, L A M B E R T. 57 

life enterdd^nto the army, which he quitted at the peace 
of Aix-la-Cbapelle iiv 1748, ^nd joined the gay party as- 
sembled by Stanislaus, kitig ot Poland, at LuoetUle. There 
be became an admirer of Madame de Chatelet, who return- 
ed bis attachment. He was afterwards intimate with, and 
the egregious flatterer of Voltaire. It is not said what 
part he took in the revolution, but he escaped its dangers, 
and died at Paris Feb. 9, 1805. He- was a man of genius, 
but his steps in the literary c;n-eer were rather slow, and in- 
commensurate with the activity of his genius ; for his first 
poetical work, ** Les F^tes- de I' Amour et de P Hymen,'' a 
theatrical performance, was published about 1760, when 
be was already turned of forty years of age. His poem 
eiititled '^ Les quatres parties dujour" appeared in 1764, 
and soon ranked him among the greatest poets of bis age. 
The composition was acknowledged to possess novelty in 
the descriptions, interest in the details, and elegance in 
the style ; although, on the other side, it was charged with 
coldness, want of unity, and monotonous episodes. The 
same year he published his ^< Essai sur le luxe," Sva His 
next, add jui»tly celebrated, poetical performance, *^ Les 
Saisons," which was published in 176V, raised him to the 
highest decree of reputation. It was generally adoaitted 
that be exhibited here a large share of ingenuity and inven- 
tion, by introducing pastoral poetry into a composition of 
a different sort, making it still preserve its native simplicity, 
and yet associate naturally, with more elevated subjects. 
An additional merit was discovered, with regard to this 
elegant work, m the motive of the author j as his professed 
design was to inspire the great proprietors of land with an 
inchnation to live on their manors, and (Contribute to the 
happiness of the cultivators. 

In 1772, he. published his " Fables Orientales," which 
did little either to increase or to diminish his poetical fame: 
and many years after he produced his ** Consolation de la 
Vieiliesse," a proof that his talents had suffered no dimi- 
nution from age or infirmity. The last publication of Saint 
Lambert is a philosophical work in prose. It appeared in 
171^8, in 3 vols. 8vo, under the title of ** Catechisme Uni- 
verseL" It was intended to exhibit a system of morals 
grounded on human nature ; and the favourite object of 
the author was to confute the doctrine of a moral sense, 
which has been supported by many eminent metaphysicians, 
ever since the writings of Shaftesbury and of Hutcheson. 



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58 S T, L A M B E R Tv 

» 

This work was justly denominated by some French criticsi 
alluding to the age of the author, Lt scir d^un beau Jour 
(the evening of a beautiful dayl) He wrote also some ar- 
ticles for the Encyclopedie, and many fugitive pieces in 
the literary journals.* 

SAINTE-MARTHE, in Latin Sanimarthanus, is the 
nameof a family in France, which produced many men of lee^ 
tars. The first, Gaucher i)E SXinte-Marthe, had a son 
Charles, born in 1512, who became physiciat) to Francis II. 
and was remarkable for his eloquence. Queen Margaret of 
Navarre and the duchess of Vendome honoured him with 
their particular esteem ; and when they died in 1550, he 
testified his grief by a funeral oratibn upon each, published 
the same year. That upon the queen was in Latin, the 
other in French. There is also some Latin and French 
poetry of his in being. He died in 1555; — Scevole, or 
SCiEVOLA, the nephew of Charles, was born at Loudun in 
1536, and became very distinguished both in learning and 
business. He loved letters from his infancy, attained an 
intimate acquaintance with the Latin, Greek, and Hebl'e^ 
tongues ; and became an orator, a lawyer, a poet, and an 
historian ; he is also represented as a good friend, zealous 
for his country, and of inviolable fidelity to his prince. He 
bad, in the reigns of Henry III. and Henry IV. several con- 
siderable employments, which he filled with great reputa-- 
tion. In 1579, he was governor of Poitiers, and afterwards' 
treasurer of France for this district. In 1593 and 1594, be 
exercised the office of intendant of the finances, in the 
army of Breugne, commanded by the duke de Montpen- 
sier : and, in the latter of these years, he reduced Poitiers 
to the subjection of Heury IV. Some time after, he con- 
ceived thoughts of retiring to his own country, and de- 
voting the remainder of bis life to contemplation : but was 
again made governor of Poitiers, in so honourable a noan- 
ner that he could not decline it. Upon the expiration of 
this officej be went to Paris, and thence to Loudun, where 
he passed the rest of his days " in otio cum digntate." 
This town had been often protected from ruin in the civil 
wars merely by his credit, and therefore regarded him as 
its protector.. He died there in 1623, universally regretted ; 
, and his funeral oration was pronounced by the famous 
Urban Graudier. He was the author of ^' La loUange de 

1 Diet. IlisL — Baldwin's Literary Jouru^l. 



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S A I N T E-M A R T H E. 59 

UTiUe de Poitiers/' 1573; " Opera Poetica/' consisting 
of odes, elegies, epigrams, and sacred poems, in French 
and Latin, 1575; ** Gallorum doctrina iUustrium elogia,'' 
1598 :'' bat bis chief work, and that which keeps his name 
still alive in the republic of letters, is his work called ^^ Pse- 
dotrophia, sen de puerorum educatione," printed in 1584, 
and dedicated to Henry III. This poem went through ten* 
editions in the author's life-time, and hath gone through as' 
many since. It was neatly printed at London in 1708, in 
12mo, together with the '^ Callipsdia" of Qoiilet. It is 
also printed with a complete edition of his and bis son 
AbePs works, under the title ^^ Sammarthanorum patris et 
filii opera Latina et Gallica, tmn soluta oratione, tum versn 
scripta," Paris, 1633, 4to. Scevble left several sons; of 
whom Abel, the eldest, bom at.Loudun in 157Q, applied 
himself, like his father, to literature. He coitivaMl 
French and Latin poetry; the latter were .printed with 
those of his father in the edition just mentioned, 'but are 
inferior to them. Lewis XIII. settled on hi^ a pension, 
for the Services he had done him, and made him a coon- 
seller of sute. In 1627, he was made Kbrariaif to the 
king at Fontainebleau ; and had after that other commis* 
sions of importance. He died at Pbitiers in 1652, where 
W^^Opuscula Varia" were printed in 1645, 8vo. This 
Abel had a son of his own name, bom ii) 1630, and after- 
wards distinguished by his learning. He siicceeded his fa- 
ther as librarian at Fontainebleau, and in that quality pre^ 
seoted to Lewis XIV. in 1668, ^^ Vn Dtscours pour le rf- 
tabiissement decette Bibliotheqoe.*' He died in 1706. 

Scevo}e*s second and third sons, Sc£VOL£ and Lswis, 
were born in 1571. They w^re twin-brothers, of the same 
temper, genius, and studies; with this ditference only, 
that Scevole continued a layman, and married, while Lewis 
embraced the eccte2»iastical state. They spent their lives 
togelher in perfect union, and were occupied in the same 
labours. They were both counsellors to the king, and his- 
toriographers of France. They were both interred at 9t. 
Severin in Paris, in the same grave ; though Scevoie died 
in 1650, and Lewis did not die till 1656. They distin- 
guished themselves by their knowledge, and in conjunc- 
tion composed the " Gallia Christiana, seo series omnium 
Episc. &c. Franciat," of which there is an edition in 13 
vols, folio, 1715—1786, but three more volumes are yet 
necessary to complete it. 



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$0 SAINT E-M A RT H E. 

Betides th«t| there, were Dbmis, Peter Scetole, 
Abel Lewis, and Claude, de Saoite-Marths, rU men 
of leamiDgi tnd who difltinguitbed themselvea by various 
publieatioos ; but their works are not of a nature to nudce 
a particular entiineration of them necessary here J ^ 

ST. PALAYE (John Baptist db la Curnb-de), an in- 
genious f*rench writer, was bom at Auxerre in 1697. The 
ooiy information we have of his early life is restricted to a 
notice of the affection which subsisted between him and hk 
twin-brother M. de la Come. It afq>ears that he devoted 
himself to researches into the language and antiquities of 
bis country, and was admitted a member of the French 
academy, and that of inscriptions. In all his labours he 
was assisted by his brother, who lived with him, and was 
Ua inseparable associate in his studies, and even in his 
amusements* St. Palaye died in 1781. La Harpe has 
published some spirited verses which he addressed in hit 
eightieth year to a lady who had embfoidered a waistcoat 
for him ; but he is chiefly known as an author by .<< Me- 
moires surrAncienneChevalerie,'V 3 vols. Idmo, in which 
he paints in very lively colours the manners and customs 
of that institution. Mrs* Dobson published an English 
translation of this in 1784. After his decease the abbd 
Btillot drew up, from his papers, *^ L*Histoire des Trouba* 
dours," in 3 vols. ]2mo. St. Palaye had meditated on an 
** Universal French Glossary," which was to be more co* 
inous than that of Du Cange, and left two works in manu* 
script, one a history of the variations that have taken place 
in the French language, the other a Dictionary of French 
antiquities.' 

ST. PAVIN (Dennis Sanquin de), a French poet of 
the seventeenth century, was born at Paris, and studied 
with a view to the ecclesiastical profession, but his private 
attachment was wholly to the belles lettres and poetry, 
which be diligently cultivated. He spent the greatest part 
of his life at Livri, of which be was abbot, though no ere* 
dit to the order, for he lived in a voluptuous, indolent 
style, circulating and practising the^ pernicious maxims he 
bad learnt from his roaster, the poet Theophile, and to 
which he was so strongly attached, that Boileau in his first 
satire places St. Pavin's conversion among things morally 
impossible. The story of his having been converted by 

" Moreri.— Diet. Hist.— Dopin. « Diet. Hist. 



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ST PAVlN 61 

hearing a terrible voice at the time Theophile died, in 
1625, is entirely without foundation, for his conversion 
preceded hif own death but a very abort time. He died in 
1670, leaving several poems not inelegantly written, which 
form part of vol. IV. of Barbin's collection ; and a collec-> 
lion of his works was poblished in 1759, 12mo, withCharle- 
val, Laiane, and Montplaisir. He was rdated to Claudius , 
Sangain, steward of the household to the king and the 
duke of Orleans, who published *^ Les Heures*' in French 
verse, Paris, 1660, 4to, in which the whole Psalter is trans, 
lated.* 

ST. PIERRE (Charles Irene's Castbl i>fi), a Fi^nch 
moral and political writer, was born in 1658, of a noble 
family, at Sunt-Pierre in Normandy. He studied at the 
college of Caen, and was brought up to the church, and 
obtained some preferment ; but was more distinguished for ' 
his political knowledge. Previous to his appearing in po- 
litical life, he wrote some observations on philosophical 
grammar, in consequence of which be was admitted a mem- 
ber of the academy in 1695. His political fame induced 
the cardinal Polignac ui take him with htm to the confer* 
ences for the peace of Utrecht ; and here he appears to 
have announced one of his favourite projects, the esublish- 
ment of a kind of European diet, in order to secure a per^- 
petual peace, which cardinal Fleury received with good 
humour, but saw at onte its practical diflSculties. Such 
indeed was the case with most of the schemes he published 
in his works, which are now nearly forgotten. He cer- 
tainly, however, had the merit of discovering the defects 
of the government of Louis XIV. and pleaded the came of 
a more free constitution with much boldness. One of his 
best works was ** A Memorial on the establishment of i 
proportional TaUle," which is said to have meliorated th» 
state of taxation in France. IJe died in 1743, aged eighty-^ 
five. After the death of Louis XIV. he published some of 
bis spirited sentimenu of that monarch to a pamphlet en- 
titled *^ La Polysynodie," or the plurality of councils, for 
which he was expelled the French academy, Fontenelle 
only giving a vote in his favour. An edition of his works 
was published in Holland^ 1744, 18 vols. 18mo.' 

ST. REAL (Cjbsae Vichard de), a polite French writer, 
was the son of a counsellor to the senate of Chamberri in 

» Mortri.-Dict Hirt. • Wogw by IVAl^mbert—Dict. Hiit 

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62 S T. R E A t. 

Savoy, where he was bom, but it is DOt mebtioned in what 
jear. He came very young to France, was some time a 
disciple of M. de Varillas, and afterwards distinguished 
himself at Paris by several ingenious productions. In 1 675, 
he returned to Cbamberri, and went thence to England 
with the duchess of Mazarin ; but soon after came back to 
Pi^ris, where he lived a long time, without title or dignity^ 
intent upon literary pursuits. He returned a second time 
to Cbamberri in 1692, and died there the same year, ad- 
vanced in years, but not in the best circumstances. He 
was a man of great parts and penetration, a lover of the 
sciences, and particularly fond of history, which he wished 
to have studied, not as a bare recital of facts and speeches^ 
but as a picture of human nature philosophically contem'* 
plated. He wrote a piece, with this view, ^< De TUsage 
de THistoire,'' Paris, 16.72, 12mo, which is full of sensible 
and judicious reflections. In 1674, he published ** Con* 
juration des Espagnols contre la R^publique de Venise en 
16 IS," 12mo, in a style which Voltaire compares to that of 
Sallust ; but what he gained in reputation by this, he is said 
to have lost by his ^< La Vie de J^sus Christ,'* published 
four years after. He wrote many other things : some to 
illustrate the Roman history, which he had made his parti* 
cular study; some upon subjects of philosophy, politics, 
and morals ; and notes upon the 6rst two books of Tully's 
" Letters to Atticus," of which he made a French transla- 
tion. A neat edition of his works was published at the 
Hague in 1722, in 5 vols. t2mo, without the letters to At- 
ticus; which, however, were printed in the edition of Parisi 
1745, in 3 vols. 4to, and six 12moJ 

ST. SIMOl^ (Louis de Rouvroi, duke OF),a French wri- 
ter of meinoirs, was the sou of a duke of the same title, born 
June 16,1675, and was introduced at the court of Louis XIV. 
in his fifteenth year, but had l)een educated in virtuous prin- 
ciples, and never departed from them, either at court or 
in the army, in which he served till 1697. In 1721 he was 
appointed ambassador extraordinary to the court of Spain» 
for the purpose of soliciting the infanta in marriage for 
Louis XV. After being for some time confidential adviser to 
the regent, duke of Orleans, he retired to his estate, and 
passed most of his time in his library, where he read in- 
cessantly and forgot notiiing. The marshal de Belle-Isle 

» Niceroo, to!. II. " 



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S T. S I M O N/ 6S 

used to say that he was the ino^t interesting and agreeable 
dictionary* he had ever consulted. At fourscore he enjoyed 
all his faculties as perfect as at forty : the precise time of 
his death is not mentioned, but it appears to have takeu 
place about 1757. He composed '^ Memoirs of the reign 
of Louis XIV. and the Regency,"' which consist of a va- 
riety of anecdotes relative to the courts of Louis XIV. and 
XV. which are told in an elegant style, but his manner is 
often sarcastic, although his justice has never been called 
in question. M. Anquetil has made this nobleman^s me- 
moirs the basis of his history of ^' Louis XtV. his Court and 
the Regent.*' Some-of the editions of these Memoirs have 
been mutilated, but the most complete was printed at Stras- 
burg, in 1791, 13 vols. 8 vo.* 

SALDEN (William), a learned writer in the sixteenth 
century, born at Utrecht, was successively minister of se- 
veral churches in Holland, and lastly at the Hague, where 
be died in 1694. His most known and valuable works are, . 
f' Otia Theologica/' 4£o, containing dissertations on difie* ' 
rent subjects, from the Old and New Testament ; *^ Con- 
cionator Sacer,'* 12mo; and ^' De Libris varioque eorum 
usu et abusu,*' Amsterdam, 1668, 12mo.' 

SALE (George), a learned Englishman^ who died at 
London in 1736, was a man who did much service to the 
republic of letters, but of his private hbtory we have no 
account. He had a. hand in the ^' Universal History,*^ and 
executed the cosmogony and a part of the history follow* 
ing. He was also engaged in other publications ; but his 
capital work is ^^ The Koran, commonly called the Alcoran 
of Mohammed, translated into English immediately from 
the original Arabic; with explanatory notes taken from the 
most approved commentators. To which is prefixed, a 
preliminary Discourse," 1734, 4to. The preliminary dis- 
course consists of 186 pages, and is divided into eight sec- 
tions, which treat of the following particulars: h>ect. !• 
'^Of the Arabs before Mohammed, or, as they express it, 
in the * time of ignorance ;* their history, religion, learning, 
and customs." Sect. 2. " Of the state of Christianity, par- 
ticularly of the. Eastern Churches, and of Judaism, at the 
time of Mohammed's appearance; atid of the methods 
taken by him for establishing his religion, and the circum- 
stances which concurred thereto." Sect. 3. ** Of the Ko- 

» Anqv^til, aW iopra.-JWct. Hiti. « Burm»n Trij. Erodit.— Moreri. 

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64 SALE. 

ran itsclfi the peculiarities of that book, tbe maimer of its 
being written and published, and the general design of it.^* 
Sect 4. ** Of the doctrines and positive precepts of the 
Koran, which relate to faith and religious duties.'* Sect. 5. 
" Of certain negative orecepts in the Koran.*' Sect. 6. 
^^ Of the institutions of the Koran in civil affairs." Sect. 
7. ** Of the months commanded by the Koran to be kept 
sacred^ and of tbe setting apart of Friday for tbe especial 
service of God." Sect. 8. ** Of the principal sects among 
the Mohammedans ; and of those Who have pretended to 
prophesy among the Arabs in or since the time of Moham* 
med." This preliminary discourse, as should seem, might 
deserve to be published separately from the Koran. Mr# 
Sale was also one of the members of the society for the en- 
couragement of learning, begun in 1736, but as be died 
in that year, could not have enjoyed tbe promised advan«» 
tages of it. He was one of the authors of tbe *^ General 
Dictionary," to which we so often refer, which includes a 
translation of Bayle, 10 vols, folio. Mr. Sale left a son, 
wiio was fellow of New college, Oxford, where he took his 
degree of M. A. in 1756. He was afterwards a fellow of 
Winchester college, in 1765, and died a short time after.' 

3ALIAN, or SALLIAN (James), a learned Jesuit of 
Avignon, where he was born in 1557, entered into that 
society in 1578, and became a noted tutor. He was after- 
wards made rector of the college of Beaan^on, and died at 
Paris Jan. 23, 1640, in tbe eighty ..third year of his age. 
He wrote some pious tracts, but is principally known for 
bis '< Annals of tbe Old Testament," published in 1618 — 24^ 
6 vols, folio. As this work appeared too voluminous for 
general use, M. de Sponde, bishop of Pamiers, requested 
feave to publish an abridgment in the manner of his abridge 
ment of Baronius ; but Saliao, conscious how much origin 
Bab suffer by abridgments, refused this request with much 
politeness ; and when induced at last to make an abridg- 
ment himself, contrived to do it in such a manner as to 
render the original almost indispensable to his readers.* 

SALISBURY (John of),^ one of the greatest ornaments 
ef ^be twelfth century, was born at Old Sarum, whence be 
derived the name of Sarisburiensis, about 1116. Afler 
be had gone through a course of education in England, he 
went to the onivensity of Paris in i 136, and attended upon 

* Gent. Maf.i teelDdev. — B^wdl^s Life of JobnioO. * Mortri..»iles«inWe. 

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SALISBURY. 65 

tbe lectures of Abelard and other masters, with such in* 
dustry aod success, that be acquired an uncommon share of 
knowledge both in philosophy and letters. At. an early 
period of life, his poverty qbliged him to undertake tbe 
office of preceptor ; yet amidst engagemeois of ihia kind, 
he found leisure to. acquire a competent knowledge of dia-* 
lectics, physics, and morals, as well as an acquaintance 
with the Greek, and (wliat was at that time a rare acoom« 
plishment) with the Hebrew, languages. He may justly 
be ranked among the first scholars of his age. After many 
years had elapsed, be resolved to revisit tbe companions 
-of bis early studies on Mount St. Genevieve, lo .order to 
confer with them. on the topics on which they had formerly 
disputed. His account of this visit affords a striking pic« 
lure of the philosophical character of this age. ^^ I found 
them,'' says be, <' tbe sane qien, and in the same place; 
BOr had they advanced a single step towards resolving our 
antient questions, nor added a single proposition, how- 
ever smallj to their stock of knowledge. Whence 1 in- 
ferred, what indeed it was easy to collect, that dialectic 
studies, however useful they may be when connected with 
other branches of learning, are in themselves barren and 
useless." Speaking in another place of the philosophers 
of his time, he complains, that they collected auditors 
solely for the ostentation of science, and designedly ren« 
dered their discourses obscure, that they might appear 
loaded with the mysteries of wisdom ; and tbaft tboiigh all 
professed to follow Aristotle, they were so ignorant of bis 
true doctrine, that in attempting to explain bis meaning, 
they often advanced a Platoiiic notion, or some erroneous 
tenet equally distant from tbe true system of Aristotle and 
of Plato. From these observations, and from many similar 
passages to be found in his writings, it appears, that John 
of Salisbury was aware of the trifling character both of the 
philosophy and the philosophers of his age ; owing, pro- 
bably, to the uncommon share of good sense which he pos- 
sessed, as well as to the unusual extent and variety of his 
learning. Throughout his writings there are evident traces 
of a fruitful genius, of sound understanding, of various 
erudition, and, with due allowance for the age in which h^ 
fired, of correct taste. 

At bis return into * England, after hU first visit to Paris, 
be studied the civil law under Vacarius, who taught witfe 
great applause at Oxford in 1 149. Embraciug the moftas- 

VQL.XXVIL - F 

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66 • SALISBURY. 

tic life at Canterbury^ he became the chief confidant of 
two successive archbishops of that see, Theobald and 
Thomas a Becket. To the last of these he dedicated hi? 
celebrated work '^ Polycraticon, or De nugis curialium, et 
yestigiis philosophorum/' a very curious and valuable mo-* 
nument of the literature of his times. Although he did 
not approve some part of the conduct of Becket, he sub- 
mitted to Henry the Second's sentence of banishment, and 
remained in exile for seven years, rather than give up the 
party of the archbishop, which was the condition on which 
he might have been permitted to return. In negotiating 
Becket^s aflairs, he performed no less than ten journeys 
into Italy. In one of these journeys, he obtained familiar 
intercourse with pope. Adrian IV. his couutrylnan, who 
having asked him what the world said of him and of the^ 
Koman church, John returned such an answer as might 
have been expected from the boldest of the reformers in 
the sixteenth century, telling his holiness, among other 
things, that the world said, <* the pope himself was a bur^ 
then to Christendom which is scaccely to be borne." The 
whole of this curious dialogue may be seen in the work 
above mentioned. 

At length he was permitted to return to England in 1 1 71, 
and was a spectator of the murder of his friend Becket, 
from whom he endeavoured to ward off one of the blows, 
and received it on hh arm, which was seriously hurt. In 
1172 he was promoted to the French bishopric of Char*^ 
tres, in the province of Sens, which he held ten years, 
dying in 1182. He composed many other .works besides 
the " Polycraticon,'* which is written in a plain concise 
style, and is an excellent treatise upon the employments, 
occupations, duties, virtues, and vices, of great men, and* 
contains a number of moral reflections, passages from au- 
thors, examples, apologues, pieces of history, and com- 
mon-places. His familiar acquaintance with the classics 
appears, not only from the happy facility of his language, 
but from the many citations of the purest Roman authors, 
with which his works are perpetually interspersed. . Mont- 
fiiucon says, that some part of the supplement to Petronius, 
published as a genuine and valuable discovery a few years 
ago, but since supposed to be spurious, is quoted in the. 
** Poiycraticon.V It was published at Paris in 1513, and 
at Leyden in 1595, 8vo; and a French translation of it, 
entitled *^ Les Vanitez de la Cour," at Paris^ 1640> in 4to^ 



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SALISBURY^ 67 

Witfat a life of the author preBxedi Amotig his other works 
are a rolame of " Letters,'* published at Paris in 16lt, 
for which his style seems best adapted, and his corre* 
spondents were some of the first personages of the age. 
Their contents, as detailing importiUit occurrences, are in- 
teresting, and their turn of expression sometimes elegant. 
Another of bis works was a learned defence of grammar^ 
rhetoric, and logic, against one whom he calls Cornificius^ 
which contains a most curious account of the state of these 
sciences at this period. ' . 

SALISBURY, or SALESBURY (William), a Welsh 
antiquary, was born of an ancient family in Denbighshire, 
and studied for some time at Oxford> whence he removed 
to Thaives-Inn, London. Here he applied to the la««r, but' 
does not appear to have risen to any eminence, as Wood 
speaks of him as living in his latter days in the house of 
a bookseller in St. Paul's church-yard. His principal obv 
ject appears to have been the cultivation of the Welsh 
language, and the translation into it of tlie Bible, &c. It 
would appear that queen Elizabeth gave him a patent, for 
seven years, for printing in Welsh the Bible, Common- 
Prayer, and ^* Administration of the Sacraments." He 
compiled " A Dictionary in English and Welsh,'* Lond. ^ 
1547, 4to. " A Little Treatise of the English pronunci- 
ation of the Letters.'' ^^ A plain and familiar introduction" 
to the sakne, Lbnd. 1550, 4to. " Battery of the Pope's 
Bottereulx, commonly cidled the High- Altar," ibid. 1550, 
Svo. ** The Laws of Howell Dha." « A Welsh Rheto- 
rick," revised, enlarged, &c. by Henry Perry, B. D. 
The period of his death is uncertain, but he was living in 
1567.* , 

SALISBURY. See CECIL. 

SALLENGRE (Albert Henry de), an ingenious and 
laborious writer, was bom at the Hague in 1694. His 
father was receiver-general of Walloon Flanders, and of 
an ancient and considerable family. , He was educated with 
great care, and sent a^ a proper age to Leyden j where he 
uudied history under Perizonius, philosophy under Ber- 
nard, and law under Voetius and Noodt. Having 6pished 
his academical studies with honour, he returned to his pa- 
rentoat the Hague, and was admitted an advocate 'in the 

' Leiaod.— Tanner.— Gen. Diet.— Brocker.— Henry's Hirt, of Great Britain. 
— BerrioftoQ's Literary History of the MMdte Ages. 
* Alk Oju new edit vol. L 

F2 

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€i S A L L E N O 11 E. 

court of Holland. After the peace of Utrecht in 1713, h« 
went to France ; and spent some time at Paris in viiiting 
libraries, and in cultivating friendships with learned men. 
In 1716, he was made counsellor to the princess of Nas- 
sau ; and, the year after, commissary of the finances of 
the States General. He went again to France in 1717; 
and two years after to England^ where he was elected fel- 
low of the Royal Society, in the list of which be is called 
** Auditor-Surveyor of the Bank of Holland.'* He was au- 
thor of several publications, which shewed parts, learnings 
and industry ; and without doubt would, if be bad lived, 
have been of great use and ornament to the republic of 
letters; but, catching the smalUpoz, he died in 1723, ia 
his thirtieth year. 

He was for some time editor of the *^ Literary Journal,'* 
which began at the Hague in 1713. His part consists of 
four volumes, 171S — 1717. The continuation was by 
Desmolets and Gouget In 1714, he published *^ L'Eloge 
de PYvresse," a piece of much spirit and gaiety ; in 1715, 
** Histoire de Pierre de Montmaur," 2 voU. 8vo, a collec- 
tion of all the pieces written against that singular charac- 
ter*. In 1716, '* Commentaires sur les Epitres d'Ovide 
par M. de Meziriac," with a discourse upon the life and 
works of Meziriac ; the same year, ^< Poesies de M. de la 
'Monnoye;'Mn 171:6, 1718, 1719, "Novus Thesaurus Anti^ 
quitatum Romanaruni," a Supplement to Grsevius's cqIp- 
lection, in 3 vok folio; in 171ft, '< Huetii de rebus ad 

* Pettr de MoptniMr wtt ^ JesiHt dovndcd nudi'to tlie creiiit of ehber 

Af the MveDtetfnth century, who was party. Among other 6xpedient« thej 

sent in early life by bis order to Home, accused Montmaur of having kUIed the 

and ihere he taught grammar with ere- porter of the college of BoocfMirt, qn 

dit during three ye.irs. He tfterwardf wbieh he was sent tn prisoo. aw) scarce 

ieft the Jesuits, and set up as a drug- cleared of this itaiagiuary crime, befbra 

gi«i at Avignon, which siiuatioB pretred they accused him of others mpre infa- 

very proltable to him. Tlien going to nioos. V»ripus attempts were also 

Paris, be attended the bar, which he piade to render him ridiculous. Me- 

ouitted to deTote himself to poetry, nage set the fashion by a fictitiout 

^displaying his taste chiefly in ana- ** Life of Mootmam*/* whiob he pii^ 

graNia, and puns. This dnl not, bow- Usbed in Latin, 1636, under the name 

ever, prevent his succeeding Goulu as of •* Om-gilius Mamurra,** Others fol- 

regins professor of Greek, from whence lowed his enample, and M. de Sallaa- 

lM,was>urnamedMontmaurth«Qrecian. gre pqtiftalied tiie work ahove-mtn. 

Uvt constant practice was to ridicule tiooc'd^ which forms a curious and eq- 

men of leamiog by satires and sar- tertainiog collection. Montmaar w«0 

eaecBS, frequenUy making allnsiMis to OMiafaly a bad p«4t. but m o\ktr at- 

their names, taken from Greek and specu was not «o despicable as most 

Im^9 which were called Mootmiur* autboff rcpvesent him. He died m 

bms. Hence a warfare ooQiVieBced 1648, |||ii4 fevcii^-f^ur* 
which does aot appear to hafe re- 



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SALLENQRE. Cft 

etnii ptrttntntibus Coitimentariusy'* wit\) a pfe&ce Written 
by bimselE About the time of his d«ath be was engaged 
io writiog ** A History of the United Provinces from 1609, 
to the concintion of the peace of Munster in 1648/' wbieb 
was published at the Hagile in 1728, with this title, << £s-» 
sai d'une Histoire des Profinces Unies pour l*ann6e 1621^ 
on la Treve finit, et le Guerre recooiiDence avee TEs- 
paorne,** 4to. ' 

8ALLO (Dbnis Dfi), a French writer, the first projector 
of literary journals, was descended from an ancient and 
noble &inily, and bom at Paris in 1626. During his edu* 
cation, he gaire no proofs of precocious talent, and afforded 
little hope of much progress in letters or science. But this 
seems to have been the effect rather of indolence than Jn« 
capacity, for he afterwards became an accomplished Greek 
and Latin scholar, and maintained public tbeiies in philoso^ 
pfay with the greatest applause^ He then studied tlie law, 
and was admitted a counsellor in the parliament of Paris in 
1652. This, howerer, did not seem so much to hb tast^ 
as general inquiries into literary history and knowledge^ 
and desultory reading. It is said that he occasionally 
perused all kinds of books, made curious researches, and 
kept a person always near him to take down his reflections, 
ahd to make abstracts. In 1664, he formed the project of 
the ** Journal des S^avans ;*' and, the year following, be« 
gan to publisli it under the name of Sieur de Hedouville, 
which was that of his valet de chambre ; but the sererity of 
hi» censures gave offence to many who were able to make 
reprisals. Menage's ** Amcenitates Juris Civilis'* was one 
of the first of those works which fell under Sallows cogni.« 
sance, and his mode of treating it provoked Menage to 
return his abase with equal severity in bis preface to the 
works of Malherbe, printed in 1666. Charles Patin*a 
** Introduction ft la connoissance des M^dailles*' was ano« 
ther work with which he made free, and incurred a severe 
retaliation. This warfare soon proved too much for his 
courage; and therefore, after having published his third 
journal, he turned the work over to the Abb6 Gallois, who 
dropped all critieism, and merely gave titles and extracts^ 
The plan, however, in one shape or other, was soon adopt<» 
ed in most parts of Europe, and continues until this day^ 
whether with Mai iwlvantoge to literature, has never 



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7a S A L L O. 

fully discussed. Voluire, after mentiotiing Sallo as the in* 
ventor of this kind of writing, says^ with a justice applt* 
cable in our own days, that Sallo's attempt ^' was after- 
wards dishonoured by other journals, which were published 
at the desire of avaricious booksellers, and written by ob« 
scure men, who filled them with erroneous extracts, follies, 
and lies. Things,*' he adds, ^^ are come to that pass, that 
praise and censure are all made a public traffic, especially 
m periodical papers ; and letters have fallen into disgrace 
by the management and conduct of these infamous scribe 
biers.*' On the other band, the advantages arising from 
such journals, when under the management of men of can«> 
dour and independence, will scarcely admit of a doubt. 
Sallo died in 1669 ; and, although he published a piece or 
two of bis own, yet is now remembered only for his plan 
of a literary journal, or review.\ 

SALLUSTIUS (Caius Crispus), an eminent Roman 
historian, was born at Amiternum in 86 B. C. The rank 
of his ancestors is uncertain, but from some circumstances 
in -his writings, it is not improbable that his family was 
plebeian. Having passed his more early years at his native 
town, he was removed to Rome, where he had the advan- 
tage of profiting by the lessons of Atticus Prsetextatus, 
sur named Pbilologus, a grammarian and rhetorician of 
great celebrity. Under this teacher he applied to learning 
with diligence, and made uncommon progress. It appears 
that he had turned his thoughts in his yourvger days to the 
writing of history, for which he had unquestionably gr^at 
talents ; but, as he himself intimates in his preface to the 
history of Catiline's conspiracy, he was diverted from this 
pursuit by the workings of ambition. His early life too, 
appears to have been stained by vice, which the gross enor- 
jnlties of his mpre advanced years render highly^probable., 
In this respect he has found an able advocate in his late 
learned translator and commentator; but although Dr. 
-8teuart's researches have removed some part of the re-* 
proaches of ancient authors, enough remains to shew that 
Sallust partook largely of the corruption of the age in 
which he lived, and added to it by his own example. The 
story of his havijig been detected in an adulterous inter- 
course with the wife of Milo, who, after a severe whipping. 
Blade him pay a handsome sum of money, miy rest uppi^ 

. 1 Nlceiop, voU IX^^Monri^ 



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SALLUSTIUS, 71 

little authority, or may be altogether discarded as a. ficCioo, 
t>ut the general conduct of Sallust shows that the noble 
sentiments in bis works bad no influence on his conduce 

He appears to have been advanced to the office of quaes- " 
tor in the year of Rome 693, and in 701 was made tri- 
bune of the people. It was now that he employed all the 
aris of faction to inflame the minds of the people against ' 
Milo, the murderer of Clodius ; and those biographers who 
«dmit the fact of bis being disgraced by Milo, as we have 
above related* impute to him motives of revenge only; and 
be was e()ually industrious in raising a clamour against 
Cicero^ in order to deter him from pleading Milo's cause. 
In 703 he was expelled the senate by the then censors, 
Appius Claudius and Calphurnius Piso, on account of his 
profligacy, but restored in the following year by Julius 
Csesar, and was likewise made, quatstor, an office whiqk 
he employed in accumulating riches by every corrupt mea« 
sure. During Csesar^s second dictatorship he was made 
praetor, and when Csesar went into Africa with part of bis 
^ army, be took Sallust with him, who performed some im- 
portant services, in return for which Cssar made him go- 
verac^r of Numidia. It is here that his public character 
appears most atrocious and indefensible. He seems to 
have cQusadered this province as a fund destined to the im- 
provement of bis private fortune, and plundered it in tho 
most inhuman manner.. In vain did tbe oppressed Numi- 
dians exclaim against his rapacity, and commence a prose* 
GUtion against him. His wealth was a sufficient guard 
against tbe arm of justice, and by aliaring with Cjoesar a 
part of the spoils, he easily baffled all inquiry into his pro- 
vincial administration. On his Return, laden with this 
wealth, he purchased a countiy house at Tivoli^ and one 
of the noblest dwellings in -Rome on tbe Quirinal mo^int, 
with beautiful gardens, which to this day are called the 
gardens of Sallust. In this situation it is supposed that be 
wrote his account of ^^ Catiline's conspiracy,'' and the 
^^Jugurthine war," aud that lareer history, the loss of 
which there is so mach reason to deplore. He died at the 
age of fifty-one, B. C. 35. Having no children of bja 
own, his ample possessions passed to the grandson of his 
sister ; and the family flourished, with undinainisbed splen- 
dour, to a late sera of the Roman empire. 

Whatever objections may be made to Sallusfs character 
as a man, he hat ever been justly admired aa a historian. 



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12 SALLUSTIUS, 

He is equally pempicuoos and instructive : bis style is dear 
and nervous, his desoriplions, reflections.^ speeches^* and 
characters^ all shew the hand of a master. But his purtia- 
lity may be blamed with equal justice, and even some of 
his most virtuous sentiments and bitter invectives against 
corruption in public men may be traced rather to party 
spirit) than to a genuine abhorrence of corruption^ whichy 
indeed, in one who had practised it so extensively, could 
not be expected, unless the result of a penitence we no 
where read of. His attachment to C«esar, and his disre** 
ipect for Cicero, are two glaring defects in his merit as a 
faithful historian. 

Of Sallust there are many excellent editions. His works 
were first printed at Venice, in 1470, and reprinted thirty 
times- before the conclusion of that century, but thesq 
editi9ti$ are x>f great rarity. The best of the more modern 
lire the Aldus of .1521, 8vo, the Variorum of 1690, 8vo, 
Wasse's excellent edition, printed at Cambridge in 1710, 
4to; Cortius's edition, 1724, 4to; Havercamp's, 1742^ 
2vol8. 4to; the prize edition of Edinburgh, 1755, 12mo; 
the Bipont, 1779, 8vo; that very accurate one by Mr, 
Homer, L6nd. 1789, 6vo; and one by Harles, 1799, 8vo. 
The late Dt. Rose of Chiswick, published a very correct 
translation of Sallust in 1751, 8vo, with Cicero's Four 
Orations against Catiline ; and more recently Sallust has 
found a translator, and an acute and teamed commentator 
and advocate, in Henry Stcuart, LL.D. F.R.S. and S. A.E. 
Who published in 1806, in 2 vols. 4to, "The Works of 
Sallust. To which are prefijced, two Essays on the Life, 
literary chairacter, and writings of the historian ; with 
notes historical, biographical, and critical." * 

SALMASIUS, or 8AUMAISE (Claude), one of the 
oAost learned men of the seventeenth century, and whodq( 
Baiilet has ^ith great propriety classed among his " Enfens 
celebres par les etudesF," was bOm at Semur-en-Auxois, in 
Burgundy. His family was ancient and noble, and his fa- 
ther, ail Eminent lawyer, and a liiember of the parliament 
of Burgundy, was*a man of worth and learning. Respect- 
ing the time of bis" birth, all his biographers differ^ Peter 
Burmart, wh6 had compared their differenccfs, justly thinks 
tt very strange that so m&ny persons who were his contem- 
pprairies an^ keew him intimately, should not have ascery 

> Life by Dr. SUuart,— ud by Dr. R4Mt.^Dibdin'i daitict. 



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9ALMA.BIUS. t$ 

Uitied the exact dat^t either of his birtli or deiith. The 
former^ however^ we presume may be fixed either in l S9$ 
er 1594. He #&« edacated at first solely by his father, 
who taught him Latin and Greek with astonishing success 
At the age 6f ten he was able to translate Pindar very cor-* 
rectly, and wtote Greek and Latin verses. At the age of 
eleven, his father wished to «end him for farther education 
lo the Jeftnits* college at Dijon, not to board there, but td 
attend lessons twice a day, and improve them at his lodg* 
ings. In thift scheme, however, he was disappointed. His 
mother, who was a protestant, had not only inspired Claude 
irith a hatred of the Jesuits, but encouraged htm to write 
satites against the order, which he did both in Greek and 
Latin, and entertained indeed throughout life the same 
aversion to thetn. Having refused therefore to comply 
with his father's request in this respect, his mother proposed 
to send him to Paris, where her Secret wish was that he 
should be confirmed in her religion. This being eomplied 
with, he soon formed an acquaintance with Casaubon and 
some other learned men in that metropolis, who were asto- 
nished to find such talents and erudition in a mere boy. 
J)uring his residence here he conversed much with the 
clergy of the reformed church, and being at length deter- 
mined to make an open avowal of his attachment to protes- 
tantism, he asked leave of his father to go to Heidelberg, 
partly that he might apply to the study of the law, but 
principally that he might be more at bis freedom in reli- 
gious matters. Bidllet calls this a trick of his new precep- 
tors, who wished to persuade Salmasius's father that Paris, 
with respect to the study of the law, was not equal to Hei«* 
delberg, where was the celebrated Denis Godefroi, and an 
excellent library. 

8alraasius*s father hesitated long about this proposition* 
As yet he did not know that his son was so far gone in a 
change of religion, but still did not choose that he should 
be sent to a place which swarmed with protestants. He 
therefore wished his son would prefer Toulouse, where 
Were at that time some eminent law professors; but 
Clande refused, and some unpleasant correspondence took 
place l^etween the father and the son, as appears by the 
words in which the former at last granted his' permission— 
** Go then, I wish to show how much more I -am of an in- 
dulgent father than you ar^ of an obedient son.*' The son 
indeed in thb manifested a little of that conceit and arro- 



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74 9ALMASIUS. 

gance which appeared in- many instances in hit future life^ 
and lin moved by the kindness he had just received, refused to 
trav,el by the way of Dijon, as his father desired, but joined 
some ipercbants who were going to Francfort fair, and ar- 
rived at Heidelberg in Oct.. 1606, or rather 1607, when 
he was only in his fourteenth year. Whatever may be 
thought of his temper, we need no other proof that he was 
one of the most extraordinary youths of this age that the 
world ever knew, than the letters addressed to him at this 
time by Jungerman and others on topics of .philology. 
They afford an idea of his erudition, says Burman, which 
could only be heightened by the production of his answers. 

To Heidelberg he brought letters of recommendation 
from Casaubon, which introduced him to Godefroi, Gruter, 
and Lingelsheim, and his uncommon merit soon improved 
this into an intimacy. Under Godefroi be applied to the 
study of civil law with that intenseness with which he ap- 
plied to every thing, but as he now had an opportunity of 
indulging his taste for the belles lettres, and was admitted 
to n;ake researches among the treasures of the Palatine li- * 
brary, he spent much of his time here, abridging himself 
even of sleep. By such extraordinary diligence, he accu- 
mulated a vast fund of general knowledge, but in some 
measure injured his health, and brought on an illness which 
lasted above a year, and from which he recovered with dif*" 
ficulty. 

With an insatiable thirst tor knowledge, Salmasius bad 
an early and strong passion for fame. He cofnmenced au- 
thor when between sixteen and seventeen years of age, by 
publishing an edition of ** Nili, archiepiscopi Thessaloni- 
censis, de primatu papcB Romani, libri duo, item Barlaam 
monachus, cum interpreuttone Latina : CI. Salmasii opera 
et studio, cum ejusdem in utrumque notis," Hanover, 160S, 
and Heidelberg, 1608 and 1612, 8vo. By this publication 
against the authority of the pope, he seemed determined 
to make a more public avowal of his sentiments than he had 
yet done, and to shew his 2eal for the protestants, by con- 
secrating his ikst labours as an author to their service. In 
1 609 appeared his edition of ** Florus," priuted at Paris, 
8vo, and dedicated to Gruter, whose notes are given along 
with those of Salmasius. This was reprinted in 16^6, and 
in 1638, to which last he added <<Lucii Ampelii libellus 
memArialis ad Macrinuip," which bad never before ap- 
peared. , 



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SALMASIUS? 75 

In 1610, he returned borne and was admitted an advo-* 
cate» but bad no intention to follow that .profession, and 
preferred literature and criticism as the sole employment 
of bis life, and derived the highest repuution that erudi* 
tion can confer. Such was bis reputation, that he began 
to be courted by foreign princes and universities. The 
Venetians thought his residence among them would be such 
an honour, that they offered him a prodigious stipend ;^Qd 
with this condition, that he should not be obliged to read 
lectures above three times a yeiir. We are told, that our 
university of Oxford made some attempts to get him over 
into England ; and it is certain, that the pope made similar 
overtures, though Salmasius had not only deserted his re- 
ligion, and renounced bis authority, but bad actually writ- 
ten against the papacy itself. He withstood, however, all 
these solicitations ; but at last, in 1632, complied with an 
invitation from Holland, and went with his wife, whom be 
bad married in 1621, to Leyden. He did not go there to 
be professor, or honorary professor; but, as Vorstius in bis 
** Funeral Oration*' expresses it, ^^ to honour the university 
by his name, bis writings, and his presence.'* 

Upon the death of his father, in 1640, he returned for 
a time into France ; and, on going to Paris, was much ca- 
ressed by cardinal Richelieu, who used all possible means 
to detain him, anfl even offered him bis own terms j but 
could not prevail. 'The obligation he had to the States of 
Holland, the love of freedom and independence, and the 
necessity of a privileged place, in order to publish such 
things as he was then meditating, were the reasons which 
enabled him to withstand the cardinal. Salmasius also re-- 
fused the large pension, which the cardinal offered him, 
to write his history, because in such a work be thought he 
must either give offence, or advance many things contrary 
to his own principles, and to truth. While he was in Bur- 
gundy to settle family affairs, the cardinal died, and was 
succeeded by Mazarin, who, upon our author^s return to 
Paris, honoured him with the same solicitations as his pre- ' 
decessor had done. Salmasius, however, declined his of- 
fers, and after about three years absence, returned to^HoU 
land : whence, though attempts were afterwards made to 
draw him back to France, it: does not appear that he ever 
entertained the least thought of removing. In the sunrimer 
of 1650, he went to S*veden, to pay queen Christina a 
vUit, wilh whom he continued till the summer following,. 



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?« SALMASIUS. 

The rc^ption iind treatment he met with, as It is described 
fcy the writer of bis life, is very characteristic of that ex- 
Mnordinary patroness of learned men. << She performed 
for him all offices/* says he, " which could have been ex- 
isted even from an equal. 8he ordered him to choose 
apartments in her palace, for the sake of having him with 
her, < ut lateri adh^reret/ whenever she would. But Sal* 
aiasius was almost always ill while he stayed in Sweden, 
tbe climate being more than his constitution could bear ! at 
which seasons the queen would come to the side of his bed, 
bold long discourses with him upon subjects of the highest 
concern, and, without any soul present, but with tbe doors 
all shut, would mend his fire, and do other necessary of- 
fices for hirh.** She soon, however, changed her mind 
with regard to Salmasius, and praised his antagonist Mil- 
ion, with whom his celebrated controversy had now begun. 
After tbe murder of Charles I., Charles IL, now in HoU 
land, employed Salmasius to write a defence of his filther 
and of monarchy. Salmasius, says Johnson, was at this 
time a man of skill in languages, knowledge of antiquity, 
and sagacity of emendatory criticism, almost exceeding alt 
bope of human attainment; and hatinpry by excessive 
praises, been confirmed in great confidence of himself, 
though he probably had not much considered the principles 
•f society or the rights of government, undertook the em- 
ployment without distrust of bis own qualifications, and, as 
bis expedition in writing was wonderful, produced in 1649 
his *^ Defensio Regia pro Carolo I. ad Serenissimum Mag- 
nm Britannise Regem Carolum II. filium natu majorem, 
bieredem et successorem legitimum. Sumptibus Regiis, 
anno 1649." Milton, as we have notrced in his life, was 
employed, by the Powers then prevailing, to answer this 
book of Salmasius, and to obviate the prejudices which 
tbe reputation of his great abilities and learning might raise 
against their cause; and he accordingly publisned in 1651, 
a I-atIn work, entitled " Defensio pro Populo Anglicano 
contra Claudii Salmasii Defensionem Regiam." Of these 
two .works Hobbes declared himself unable to decide whose 
languaite was best, or whose arguments were worst, he 
might have added, or who was most to blame for scurrility 
and personal abuse* Dr. Johnson remarks, that Salmasius 
bad been so Idng not only the monarch, but the tyrant of 
literature, that almost all mankind were delighted to find 
him defied and insulted by a new name, not yet considered 



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S A L M A 8 I U 8. 7f 

as any one'i rival. There is no proof, however, that SaU 
masius^s general reputation suffered cnuQb from a contest in 
which be bad not employed the powem which he was ac- 
knowledged to possess. His misfortune was to treat q( 
subjects which be had not much studied, and any repulse 
to a man so accustomed to admiration^ roust have been very 
galling. He therefore prepared a reply to Milton, but did 
not live to finish it, nor did it appear until published by bia 
soia in the year of the restoration, when the subject, in 
England at least, was no longer fit for discussion. He 
died at the Spa, Sept. 3^ 1653, in consequence of an im- 
prudent use of tbe waters ; but as be had reproached Mil*- 
ton with losing bis eyes in their contest, Milton deljgkted 
himself with tbe belief that be bad shortened Salmastu8*s 
life. Nothing, however, can be more absurd, if any cre- 
dit is to be given to the account which Salmasius'iS biogra- 
pber, Clement, gives of bis feeble constitution, and long 
illness. 

Salmasius, Dr. Johnson has observed, was not only tb# 
mooarcb, but tbe tyrant of literature, and it must be al* 
lowed that altbougb be bad few, if any equals, in extei|t 
of erudition, and therefore little cause of jealousy^ be wsa 
impatient of contradiction, and arrogant and supercilious 
to those wbo diifered fro^i him in opinion. But he must 
bava bad qualities to balance these imperfections, before he 
could have attained the very high character given by th^ 
iQOst learned men of his age, by Casaubon, by Huetius, by 
Gronovius, by Scioppius, by our Selden, by GrDtilN^ 
Gruter, Baleac, Mennge, Sarravius, Vorstius, ^c. &c. ko. 
Those wbo have critically examined bis writings attribati^ 
tbe imperfections occasi43aially to be found in them tp the 
buty mwiWT in which he wrote,. and a certain hurry an4 
impetuosity of teinper when be tpok up any. subject whii^b 
engaged bis Mtention. Gronovius setms tp tbiiik tbatbe 
was sometimes overwhelmed with the vastness of his eru- 
dition, and knew not bpw to restrain bis pen. Henae* 
QronQvigs adds, we find so many contradii^tions in bia 
works» for be employed no amanuensis, and was e^^erse Ip 
tbe task of revision. 

Of bis numerous wprks, we may notice as the pnost w 
Uiable, I. " Amici, ad amicuip, de suburbicarib regionib^s 
et ecclesiis suburbicariis, epistola," 1619, 8vo, reprinted 
awre eorreotly at the end of his epistles in 1656. TbU 
was written in consequence of a dispute between Godefroi 



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78 SALMASIUS. 

and father Sirmond. 2. *' Historiae Angustae scriptorefs 
sex," Paris, 1620, fol. 3. ** Sept. Florentis Tertulliani 
liber de Pallio," ibid. 1622, 8vo, and Leyden, 1656, 8vo- 
This involved him in a controversy with Denis Petau, 4.6 
whom he published two answers. 4. ^ Pliniani exercita-^ 
tiones in Caii Julii Solini Polyhist'* &c. ibid. 1629, 2 vols, 
fol. and Utrecht, 1689, which last edition has another work 
edited by Saumaise, ^* De homonymis Hiles iatrics exer* 
citationes ineditae," &c. 5. " De Usuris," Lejrden, 1638^ 
8vo. 6. "Notae in pervigilium Veneris,'* ibid. 1638> 12mo. 
7. " De modo usurarum," ibid. 1639, 8vo. 8. " Disser- 
tatio de fosnore trapezitico, in tres libros divisa,** ibid. 1640. 
9. ** Simplicii commentarius in Enchiridion Epicteti,*' &c. 
ibid. 1640, 4to, and Utrecht, 1711. 10. << Achillis Tatii 
Alexandrini Eroticon de Clitophontis et Leucippes amori- 
bus, libri octo,** ibid. 1640, 12mo. 11. ^Mnterpretatio 
Hippocratis aphorismi 69, sect. iv. de calculo,'' &c. ibid. 
1640, 8vo. 12. ** De Hellenistica : commentarius contro- 
versiam de lingua hellenistica decidens, et plenissime per- 
tractans origines et dialecticos Graecae Hnguas,*' Leyden, 
1645; 13. ** Observationes in jus Atticum et Romanum," 
ibid. 1645, 8vo, &c. .&c. with many others on various 8ub« 
jects of philosophy, law, and criticism. A collection of 
his letters was published soon after his death by Antony 
Clement, 4to, with a life of the author, but many others 
are to be found in various collections.^ 

SALMON (Francis), a learned doctor and librarian of 
the house and society of the Sorbonne, was born of an 
opulent family at Paris, in 1677. He was well acquainted 
with the learned languages, particularly Hebrew, possessed 
great literary knowledge, and discovered much affection 
for young persons who were fond of stud}, encouraging^ 
them by his example and advice, and taking pleasure in 
lending them his books. He died suddenly at his country 
bouse, at Chaiilot, near Paris, Sept. 9, 1736, aged fifty- 
nine. He published a very useful work illustrative of a 
part of ecclesiastical history, entitled " Trait6 de I'etude 
'des Conciles," with an account of the principal authors and 
works, best editions, &c. upon the subject of councils, 
Paris, 1724, 4to. This has been translated into German^ 
and printed at Leipsic, in 1729. He intended ai^o to have 

. > Life by' Clement .—Baillet Jugemeni,— BtooQt'f Censiira.— Mgi«ri«*JBiifi* 
■MQ'i '* Syllose."-— Saiii Ooomuticon. 



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SALMON. 7b 

given a supplement to ** Father Labbe^s Collection of Coan- 
cils,^' and an ^^ Index Sbrbonicus/' or alphabetical library^ 
in which was to be given, under the names of the respective 
authors, their acts, lives, chronicles, histories, books, trea- 
tises, bullsj &c. but did not live to complete either.^ 

SALMON (Nathaniel), an English antiquary, was the 
son of the rev. Thomas Salmon, M. A.*Yector of Mepsall in 
Bedfordshire, by a daughter of the notorious Serjeant Brad- 
shaw. He was admitted of Bene't college, Cambridge, 
June 1 1, 1690, where his tutors were dean Moss and arch- 
deacon-Lmrn, and took the degree of LL. B. in 1 695. Soon 
after he went into orders, and was for some time curate of 
^ Wctetmill in Hertfordshire ; but, although he had taken 
the Oaths to king William, he had so many scruples against 
taking them to his successor, queen Anne, that he became' 
contented to resign the clerical profession, and with it a 
living of 140/. per annum offered him in Sufi^olk. He theii 
applied himself to the study of physic, which he practised 
first at St; Ives in Huntingdonshire, and afterwards at Bi- 
shops Stortford, in the county of Hertford. His leisure 
time appears to have been employed^in studying the history 
and antiquities of his country, on which subiects he pub- 
lished, 1. *< A Survey of the Roman Antiquities in the Mid- 
land Counties in England," 1726, 8vo. 2. "A Survey of 
the Roman Stations in Britain, according to the Roman 
Itinerary," 1721, 8vo. 3. "The History of Hertfordshire/ 
describing the county and its ancient monuments, particu- 
larly the Roman, with the characters \>f those that have 
been the chief possessors of the lands, and an account of 
the most memorable occurrences," 1728, folio. This was 
designed as a continuation of Chauncey's History, and was 
dedicated to the earl of Hertford. 4. " The Lives of th6 
English Bishops from the Restoration to the Revolution, fit 
to be opposed to the Aspersions of some late Writers of 
Secret History," 1733, a work which we have occasionally 
found very useful, although the au thorns prejudices, in 
Kome instances, appear rather strong. 5. " A Survey of 
the Roman Stations in England," 1731, (an improvefd edi- 
tion probably of the first two works above mentioned) 2 
vols, 8vo. 6. << The Antiquities of Surrey, collected from 
the most anciekit records, and dedicated to Sir John Eve- 
lyn, hart, with some Account of the Present State and 

* Morcri.— Diet. Hist. ... 



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90 3 A L M O N. 

Natural History of the County,'* 1736, 8vo. 7. " The His- 
tory and Antiquities qf Essex^ from the Collections of Mn , 
Strangeman/' in folio, with some notes and additions of 
his own ; but death put a stop to this work, when be bad 
gone through about two thirds of the county, so that the 
hundreds of Chelmsford, Hinkford, Lexd^n, Tendring, 
and Tburstable, were left unfinished. 

Mr. Salmon died April 2, 1742, leaving three daughters. 
|lis elder brother, Thomas, honoured with the Dame of 
the historiographer, is said to have diecl in 1743, but must 
have been living some years after this, when he published 
bis account of Canibridge, &c. Mr. Cole says, ** he was 
brought up to no learned profession, yet had no small turn 
for writing, as bis many productions shew, most of which 
were written when he resided at Cambridge, where at last 
be kept a coffee-house, but not having sufficient custom, 
removed tg London." He told Mr, Cole that he had been 
much at sea, and had resided in both Indies for some time. 
His best known publication, and that is not much known 
now, is his *^ Modern History, or Present State of all Na- 
tions," published in many volumes, 8vo, about 1731, &c. 
and re-published, if we mistake not, in 3 vols* folio, from 
which it was afterwards abridged in 2 vols, and long conti<r 
nued to be published under various fictitious names. He 
wrote also *^ Considerations on the bill for a general natu« 
nilization, ai it may conduce to the improvement of our 
manufactures and traffic, and to the strengthening or eni> 
dangering of the constitution^ eKemplified in the cevolu*' 
tions that have happened in this kingdom, by inviting over 
foreigners to settle among us. With an Inquiry into the 
nature of the British constitution, and the freedom or ser* 
jfitiide of the lower class of people, in the several ohaugsa 
it has undergone," Lbnd. 1748, 8va " The Foreigner's 
Companion through the universities of Oxford and Cam* 
VridgQ, and the adjacent counties, describing the several 
c^olleges and other public buildings, with an account of theit 
r^sp^otive founders, benefactors, bishops, and other emi^ 
j^0nt men educated in them," ibid. 1748, 8vd. This title 
WP give from Cole, as we have not seen the work. Pvevi^ 
Qa»ly tQ this, Mr. Salmon intended to write ** The present 
staft^ pf the Universities, and of the five adjacent counties 
of Caeibridge, Huaitiogdon, Bedford, Bucks, and Oxford,'* 
but published only the first volume, 1744, 8vo, which con- 
tains the history of Oxford, county and university. To 



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SALMON. 81 

thk are added some shrewd' remarks on omveraity educa* 
lion, and a college life, with the expences attending it; 
Jo the prefice he speaks of a ** General Description of En-* 
gland, and particularly of London the metropolis/' in 2 
vols, which he had published. His name is also to a ^* Geo« 
graphical Grammar," an ** Examination of Burnetts History 
of his own Times,** and other works. The " New Historic 
cal account of St. Greorge for England, and the original of 
this order,^* Lond. 1704, is ascribed by Mr. Gough to 
Mr. Thomas Salmon, the father, who, it may now be men- 
tioned, wa^ distinguished as a musical theorist, and wrote 
^ An Essay to the Advancement of Music, by casting away 
the Perpfexity of different Cliffs ; and uniting all soru of 
Music, Lute, Viols, Violins, Organ, Harpsichord, Voice, 
&c. in one universal Character, by Thomas Salmon,' A M. 
of Trinity College, Oxford,** London, 1672. This book, 
says Dr. Bumey, **is well written, and, though very illi- 
berally treated by Lock, Playford, and some other profiss-^ 
tors, contains nothing that is either absurd or impracticable; 
nor could we discover any solid objection to its doctrines 
being adopted, besides the effect it would have upoii old 
music, by soon rendering it unintelligible. At present the 
tenor clef alone is thought an insuperable difficulty in our 
country, by dilettanti performers on the harpsichord ; but 
if Salmon*8 simple and easy musical alphabet were chiefly 
in use, the bass clef would likewise be soon rendered as 
obsolete and difficult as the tenor ; so that two parts or 
clefs out of three, in present use, would become unintel- 
ligible.*** * 

SALTER (Samuel), a learned English divine, was the 
eldest son of Dr. Samuel Salter, prebendary of Norwich, 
and archdeacon of Norfolk, by Anne- Penelope, the daugh- 
ter of Dr. John Jeffery, archdeacon of Norwich. He was 
educated for some time in the free-school of that city, 
whence he removed to that of the Charter-house, and was 

* There wm a Wiluau SaIidoo, large Herbal,'* fol. which Dr. Polteoey 
whether related io the above fainily it meolloBt with toioe degree of respect, 
viiceftahi^ a noted empiric, who prac- Hit *« Pofygraphice** hat to<d beuer 
tiled phytie with Tariouf lacoeM §or a than aH the rett of hit worh^ ; th# 
loag courte of yean. He published a teaih edition of it it dau-d L««d. 1701. 
eoMiderableaamber of medical bookt. He lived about the latter end of the 
Uie chief of whieh b hit «• Complete teirenteeoth centiiry and begianmg of 
Pfaytician, or Dmggiat't Shop opened/* the eighteenth. 
• thick octavo of 1207 pages ; " A 

" Martert't Hist, of C. C. C. C— Cole»t MS Athena Canub. In Brit Ma« — 
Oengb*! Topographs, lu.-«ent. Mag. voU LXVf. 

Vol. XXVII. G 

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%2 SALTER. 

admitted of BeneU-coUege, tSambridge, June 30» 1730^ 
under the tuitioo of Mr. Charles Skottowe. Soon after hia 
taking the degree of B. A. in 1733, be was cbosen iuio a 
£eilowsbip, and took bis master's degree in 1737. His na« 
tural and acquired abilities recommended bim to sir Philip 
Yorke, then lord-chief-justice of the King*s-beQch» and 
afterwards earl of Hardwicke, fpr the instruction of his. 
eldest son the second earl, who, with three of his brothers^ 
in compliment to abp. Herring, was educated at that col-^ 
lege. As soon as that eminent lawyer was made Jord- 
ehaocellor, he appointed Mr, Salter bis domestic chaplain,' 
and gave him a prebend in the church of Gloucester, which- 
be afterwards exchanged for one in that of Norwich. About 
the time of his quitting Cambridge, be was ope pf the writers 
in the ^^ Athenian Letters.'* , Soon after the chancellor gave. 
Mr. Salter the rectory <^ Burton Coggles, in the covuty of 
Lincoln, in 1740 ; where he went to reside soon ^fter, and, 
marrying Miss Seeker, a relation of the then bishop of 
Oxford, continued there till 1750, when he was nominated 
Ininister of Great Yarmouth by the dean and chapter o£ 
Norwich. Here he performed the duties, of that large 
parish with . great diligence, till bis promotion to the. 
preacbership at the Charter-house in January 1754, some 
lime before which (in July; 1751), abp. Herring had ho- 
noured him with the degree of D. D. at Lambelbv In 1 75f>, 
be was presented by the lord- chancel lor to the rectpry of 
St. Bartholomew near the Royal Exchange, w|iicb was tbe) 
last ecclesiastical preferment he obtained; but in Nov.- 
1761, he succeeded Dr. Bearcroft as master of the .Char- 
ter- bouse, who had been his predecessor in the preacher* 
ship. While he was a member of Beoe^ college, he 
printed Greek Pindaric odes on t;he nuptials of the princea 
oi Orange and Wales, and a copy of Latin verses on the 
death of queen Caroline. Besides a sermon preached on 
occasion of a musicmeeting at Gloucester, another before; 
the lord-mayor, Sept. 2, 1740, on tbe anniversary of tbe 
lire of London, a third before the sons of the clergy, 1755, 
which was much noticed at the time, and underwent seve- 
ral alteratidns before it was printed ; and one before the 
House of Commons, Jan. 30, 1762; he published << A 
complete Collection of Sermons and Tracts'* of his grand- 
father Dr. Jeffery, 1751, in 2 vols. 8vo, with his life pre- 
fixed, and a new edition of *^ Moral and Religious Aphg- 
risms,** by Dr. Whichcote, with large additions of tome 



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S A t 1* E tL 83 

letters thbt pkssed between hiin and Dr. Tcickttey, << cotf-s 
oernifig the Use of Riea^on in Religion^'' d&c./and a bio-^- 
graphical prefkee, 1751, 8vb. To these may be added; 
** Some Queries relative to the Jews, occasioned by a Utd 
sermon,'* with some other papers occasioned by the 
" Queries,** published the same yeaf. In 1 77S and 1774^ 
be revised through tb« press seven of the celebrated 
** Lettenof Ben Mordecai j** written by the rev. Henry 
Taylor^ m Crawley in Hants* In 1776, Dr. Salter printed 
for prit«te use, ^ The first 106 lines of the First Book of 
the Iliad ♦ j nearly as written in Hoafer*s Time and Coun- 
try f * and printed also in that year, " Extract from the* 
Statutes of the House^ and Orders of the Govemorsf, re^ 
specting the Pensioners or poor Brethren" (of the Charter- 
house), a large single sheet in folio ; in 1777, he corrected 
the proof-sheets of Bentley*s ** Dissertation on Phalaria ;'** 
and not long before his deaths which happened May 2| 
1778, he printed also an inscription to the memory of hia 
parents, an account of alt which may' be seen in the 
** Anecdotes of Bowyer.** 0r. Salter was buried, by h\§ 
own express direction^ in the most private ihaiyner, in the 
common buriaUground belonging to the brethren of the 
Charter*house. 

In the discassion of philolo^ieal ^subjects, Dr* Saltei^ 
proved btmself a very accurate Greek scholar ; his reading 
Was universal, and extended through the whole citcle or 
tneietit literatnre ; he was acquainted with the poets, tiis- 
toriinsi orators, philosophers^ Itnd critics^ of Greece 'and 
llome ; his memory was nat4]rally tenacious, and it had 
acquired great artificial powers, if such an ex))ressl6i^ be 
allowable, by usin^ no notes when be deKt^ered bis sermons. 
To extempore preaching be had accustomed fairnself for a 
long course of years. So retentive hideed were his fiaiiulties, 
that^ tilt a few years before his death, he coilld quote lonf^ 
passages from almost every author whose Wolrks he bad 
perused, even with a critical exactness. Nor were hisr 
studies confined to the writers of antiquity; he was equatty 
conversant with English literature, and with the languages 
And productions of the learned and ingenion^ iti variona^ 
parte of Europe.^ In his earlier life he had been acquainted 

• Tbeie (wiUi Dr. Scaler's tentl- *« Dawe«*t MiioelUnea Cnlica," 0«. 

mentf ob the Digammft) . have been ford, 1781, Svo, p. 434— ♦SS. 
siBoe copied m an improvod edlitoo of 

O 2 



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84 SALTER. 

with Bentley; and cberisbed hi« memonr with profoand 
respect. He preserved many anecdotes of this great critic, , 
which were pablished from his papers by our learned 
En^li^h printer, Bowyer.* 

SALUTATO. SeeCOLUCCIO. 

SAI VATOR ROSA. See ROSA. 
. SALVIAN, orSALVIANUS, an elegant and beautiful 
writer, was one of those who are usually called fathers of the 
churchy and began to be distinguished about 440. The 
time and place of his birth cannot be sefttled with any ex- 
actneti<i. Some have supposed him to have been an Afri- 
can, but without any reasonable foundation : while others 
have concluded, with more probability, that he was a Gaul, 
from his calling Gallia his *^ solum patrium ;" though per- 
haps this may prove no more than that his family came 
from that country. His editor Baluzius infers from his 
6rst epistle, that be was born at Cologne in Germany ; and 
it ifi known, that he lived a long time at Triers, where h^ 
married a wife who was an heathen, but whom he easily 
brought over to the faith. He removed from Triers into 
the province of Vieuiie, and afterwards became a priest of 
Marseilles. Some have said, that he was a bishop ; but 
this is a mistake, which arose, as Baluzius very well con- 
jectures, from this cbitupt passage in Geanadius, ** Ho- 
milias^cripsit Episcopus muitas:** whereas it should be- 
read ^* Episcopis^' instead of ^ Episcopus,** it being known^ 
that be did actually compose many homilies or sermons 
for the use of some bishops. He died very old towardt^ 
the end of the fifth century, after writing and publishing a 
great many works; of which, however, nothing remains but 
eight books ^* De Providentia Dei ^*' four books <<Adver- 
sus avaritiam, preesertim Clericorum et Sacerdotum ;*' and 
nine epistles. The best edition of these pieces is that of 
Paris 1663, in 8vo, with the notes of Baluzius; re-printed 
elegantly in 1669, $vo.. The " Commonitorium" of Vin- 
centius Lirinensis is published with it, with notes also by 
Baluzius.* 

SALVIATI (Francisco Rossi), called II Salviati, from 
^e favour and patronage of the cardinal Salviati, was the 
son of Michelangiolo Rossi, and was born at Florence in 
i510. He was first placed as a pupil under Andrea del 

> Nichok'iBowyer.— Matters' HitL of C. C. C. C. 

• C«TC, Vol. I.— Works by Baiozius. — Larintr^f Works^— Dnpin. 



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S A L V I AT I. «5 

Sirto, and afterwardt, with far more advantage, with Bac- 
cio BandinelU. Here be had for hin fellow pupil^ Vasari^ 
who afterwards pronoanced htm the greatest painter then 
in Rome. His employment kept pace with his reputation, 
and, among other beneficial orders, he was engaged by 
his patron, the. cardinal, ta adorn his chapel with a series 
of frescoes, the subjects being taken from the life of St. 
John Baptist. He produced a set of cartoons of the history 
of Alexander, as patterns for tapestries ; and, in conjunc-* 
tion with Vasari, ornamented the apartments of the Can- 
cellaria with paintings in fresco. From Rome he went to 
Venice, where he painted many pictures, both for public 
edifices and private collections, particularly the history of 
Psyche for the Palazzo Grimaldi. He afterwards travelled 
through Lombardy, and made some stay at Mantua, study- 
ing with much delight the works of Julio Romano. Ae 
Florence, he was employed by the grand-duke tq adorn the 
Palazzo Vecchio : in one of the saloons he represented the 
victory and triumph of Furius Camillus, a work greatly ad- 
mired for the truth and ta:$te of the imitation, and the vi« 
gour and spirit of the composition. 

A restless habit, and a ^disposition to rove, led Salviati 
to accept an invitation to France, from the cardinal de 
Lorraine iu the name of Francis I., then engaged in con- 
•tructiog and adorning his palaee at Fontainebleau ; and 
during his stay hece, he painted a fine picture for the 
church of the' Gelestines at Paris, of the uking down from 
the Cross. He soon after returned to Italy, where the 
turbolenee of his temper and bis continual disputes with 
faia bnediren shortened his days* Such continual agitation 
of mind brought on a fever, of which he died in 1563, at 
the age of fifty-three.* < ' 

SALVINI (AvTOVTO Maria), a learned Italian,, was bom 
at Florence in 1654, where he afterwards became professor 
of Greek, which he understood critically. He has the 
credit of having contributed much to the promotion of 
good taste irt Italy, chiefly by his translations, which com- 
prize the Iliad and Odyssey of Homer;. Hesiod; Theocri- 
tus; Auacreon; and many of the minor poets and epi- 
gramoiatists: the Clouds and Plutus of Aristophanes ; ^parts 
of Horace and Ovid; Persius; part of the Bodk of Job 
and the Lamentations; Boileau's" ArtPoetiquc;" Addisoij's 

f AiftQYilk, w^ l.-.pllkii*gt0ii.'-lt«ii^Cfclop«dU. 



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89 8 A L V I N I. 

^< Cato'* and ^^ Letters from Italy,'' aod other pieces. Aft 
these are literally translated^ which obliged him to intr6<» 
duce ioto the Tuscan laoguage a multitude of neff com^ 
poond tenps. He wrote also *^ Sonnets and other original 
Poeps,*' 4to; ^^ Tnscan prose," 1715, 2 vols. 4to; << A 
hundred Academical Discourses ;" *^ A funeral Oration for 
Antonio Magliabecchi,'' and other works, lie died in 1729. 
The Salvinia, in botany, was so yarned ia compliment to 
him, IhH of his botanical talents we have no information, 
Salvini also belonged to the academy of De la Crusca, and 
was particularly instrumental in the completion of that ce-^ 
lebrated Dictionary « He had a younger brother, a canon 
of Florence, who died at an advanced age in 1751. He 
was also a distingubhed man of letters, and published ^ 
work, entitled ^ Fasti consolari delle' Academia Fioren- 
fina," and the Lives of Magalotti and Migliorucci.^ 

^ 8AMBUCUS (John), an eminent physician, and one of 
the most learned writers in the sixteenth century, was bom 
ia 153.1, at Tirnau in Hungary, |Ie visited the universities 
of Germany, Italy, and France, and applied with almost 
equal success to the study of medicine, the belles lettres, 
poetry, history, and antiquities. His learning and repu- 
latioa introduced him with, great advantage at the courts of 
the emperors Maximilian II. and Rodolphns 11. to whom 
be became counsellor and historiographer. Sambocus died 
of an apoplexy at Vienna in Austria, June 13, 1 584, aged 
fifty^-tluree, leaving an excellent ^ History of Hungary,** 
in the German histories published by Schardius ; ^^ Lives 
pf the Roman Emperors;*' Latin translations of ^< H^siod, 
Tfaeophylact, and part of Plato^ Ovid, and Thucydides ;** 
^* Commentaries on Horace^s Art of Poetry ;** notes on se-^ 
vend Greek and Latin authors; ^Icones medicorum," 
Antwerp, 1603, ibi.; << flmbleiyiata,*' Antwerp, 1576, 16to. 
and several other works in verse and prose. * 

SAMPSON (Thomas), an eminent puritan divine, was, 
according to Strype, born at Play ford in Sufiblk, and was 
a fellow of Pembroke-hall, Cambridge. Wood says he 
waa bom in 1(517, withotlt specifying where; but addsi 
that he was edficated ac Oxford, which seems most j[)roba^ 
ble^ as that university ivas the scene of much of his ititure 
life* ^e appefurs to have imbibed the principles of the 

I FabrpQi Vit« Italoroa.— Bffor«ri.-r-S«xi'i Onomasticon. 

* BuUaitft Ac^demie de« Science«.'^Bl9Qot's Cv^ttra. — Moififi.<— Saxii Ooq- 



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SAMPSON. OT 

reformation tt a very early period, and became sQcfa an 
acute reasoner that Wooc) informs us he was the means of 
ooovertittg John Bradford, the famous martyr. He began 
likewise very early to entertain those prejadiees against 
the habits which occasioned so much mischief in the chureb^ 
and which were confirmed in him, and many others^ by 
associating with the Geneva reformers during their exile 
in the time of queen Mary. He was ordained by alrch* 
bishop Cranmer and bishop Ridley, who, at his request, 
dispensed with the habits, to which now, and ever after, 
he attached the idea of idolatry. He was chaplain in the 
army of lord Russel in bis expedition against the Scots, 
In 1551, he was preferred to the rectory of Allhallows, 
Bread-street, London, which he resigned in 1553, and the 
year following to the deanery of Chichester. During the 
j^ign of Edward VI. he was accounted one of the ablest 
liud most useful preachers in confirming the people to the 
jdoctrines of the reformation. On the accession of queen 
Mary he concealed himself for some time ; but hiiving been 
Active in collecting money for the support of poor scholars 
in the two universities, narrowly escaped beingapprehended, 
and was obliged to go abroad, where he resided chiefly at 
Stfasburgh, with the other English exiles, and had some 
hand in the Geneva translation of the Bible. 

On tlie accession of queen Elizabeth he returned home, 
Dot only confirmed in has aversion to the habits, but with a 
dislike, it would appear, to the whole of the hierarchy, and 
refused the bishopric oif Norwich because dissatisfied with 
the nature of the offie^• He continued, however, to preach, 
particularly at PauVs cross, where his wonderfuf .memory 
and eloquence were very much admired ; and in September 
1560 he was made a prebendary of Dut^ham. In MicJbaeU 
mas-term if^if be was installed dean of Chrtst-cburch, 
Oxford. On this occasion some members of that society, 
who recommended him for the situation, said, that ^ it 
was very doubtful, whether there was a better man, a 
great^i' linguist, a more complete scholar, or a more pro* 
found divine ;'' and it is certain that for some years he and 
Pr. Lawrence Humphry were the only protestant preachers 
W Oxford of any celebrity. In 1562, he resigned his pre- 
bend of Durham, and became so open and zealous in his 
invectives against the habits, that ^fter considerable for- 
bearance, he was cited, with Dr. Huntiphrey, before the 
high commission court at Lambeth, and bampson was 



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88 SAMPSON. 

deprived of bit deanery, and for some time imprisoned. 
Notwithstanding bis nonconformity, however, he was pre- 
sented, in 1568, to the mastership of Wigston-hospiul, 
at Leicester, and bad likewise, according to Wood, a pre* 
bend in St. l^aul^s. He went to reside at Leicester, and 
<;ontinued there until his death, April 9, 1589. He mar- 
ried bishop Latimer's niece, by whom be had two sons,. 
John and Nathaniel, who erected a monument to bis me-* 
mory, with a Latin inscription, in the chapel of the hos- 
pital at Leicester, where be was buried. His works are 
few : 1. '< Letter to the professors of Christ's Gospel, in the 
parish of Allhallows in Breadstreet," Strasburgh,1554, 8vo, 
which is reprinted in the appendix to Strype's *^ Ecclesi- 
astical Memorials,'' vol. Hi. 2. ** A Warning to take heed 
of * Fowler's Psalter'," Lond. 1576 and 1578, 8vo. This 
was a popish psalter published by John Fowler, once a 
Fellow of New-college, Oxford, but who went abroad, 
turned printer, and printed the popish controversial works 
for some years. 3. ** Brief Collection of the Church and 
Ceremonies thereof," Lond. 1581, 8vo. 4. ** Prayers and 
Meditations Apostolike ; gathered and framed out of the 
Epistles of the Apostles," &c. ibid. 1592, l6mo. H^was 
also editor of two sermons of bis friend John Bradford, on 
repentance and the Lord's-supper, Lond. 1574, 1581, and 
1589, 8vo. Baker ascribes to bim, a translation of ^^ a Ser- 
mon of John Chrysostome, of Pacienc^, of the end of the 
world, and the last judgment," 1550, 8vo; and of << An 
Homelye of the Resurrection of Christ," by John Brentius, 
1550, 8vo. Other works, or papers in which he was con- 
cerned, may be seen in our authorities. ^ 

SANADON (Noel-Stephen), a learned Jesuit of France, 
was born at Rouen in 1676. He taught polite literature 
with distinguished reputation at Caen, where he contracted 
an intimate friendship with Huet, bishop of Avranche. A 
taste for poetry is said to have been the principal bond of 
their union. He afterwards professed rhetoric at Paris ; and 
was for some time charged with the education of tiie prince 
of Conti. He was librarian to the king when he died, Sep- 
tember 21, 1733. He published separately various Latin 
poems, which are reckoned among the purest of modern 
times ; and also published them in a collected form, ** Car- 

1 AUi. 0«. new edit vol. I. — Strype^s Aooals. — Strype's Life of Parli«Ci 
pp. 16«, ISi, 1S6, 243, [448], 4SS. t 



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S A N A D O N, t9 

miniim Ubri quatuor/' Paris, 1715, 12mo,aiid Tarioas tfaetet 
and philological dissertations ; but is best known by bis 
translation of the works of Horace with notes; a work 
which has been very well received. The satires and 
epistles are ably translate^; but the odes are rather 
weakened by a languid paraphrase than a version answerable 
to the original. His notes are learned, and many of them 
very useful for understanding his author; but there are also 
marks of a falsely delicate and fastidious taste, tiot uncom- 
moa among Freiich critics. The best editions of his No-^ 
race are those of Paris, 1728, 2 vols. 4to, and 1756, I 
vols. 12mo. ' 

SANCHES (Antonio Nunes Ribeiro), a learned phy- 
sician, was born March 7, 1766, at Penna-Macor, in Por- 
tugal. His father, who was an opulent merchant, and in- 
tended him for the bar, gave him a liberal education; 
but, being displeased at finding him, at the age of eighteen, 
obstinately bent on the profession of physic, withdrew his 
protection, and he was indebted to Dr. Nun^s Ribeiro, 
. his mother's brother, who was a physician of considerable 
repute at Lisbon, for the means of prosecuting his medical 
studies, which he did, first at Coimbra, and afterwards at 
Salamanca, where he took the degree of M. D. in 1724 ; 
and the year following procured tbe appointment of phy- 
sician to the town of Benevente in Portugal; for which, 
as is the custom of that country, he had a smaU pension. 
His sUy at this place, however, was but short. He was 
desirous of seeing more of the world, and of improving 
"himself in bis profession. With this view he came and 
passed two years in London, and had even an intention 
of fixing there ; but a bad state of health, which be attrl* 
buted to the climate, induced him to return to' tbe conti- 
nent. Soon after, we find hiia prosecuting bis medical 
studies at Leyden, under tbe celebrated Boerhaave ; and 
it will be a sufficient proof of his diligence and merit tu 
observe, that in'1731, when the Empress of Russia (Anne) 
requested Boerhaave to recommend to her three physi- 
cians, the professor immediately fixed upon Dr. Sanch^s 
to be one of the number. Just as he was setting out for 
Russia, he was informed that his father was lately dead; 
and that his mother, in an unsuccessful law- suit with the 

• Harles (who hat a high oplDbn of Saoadon) I>e vitis phiMogonim, toU lY. 
— More'fi.-^Dict. Hut. 



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0» 6 A N C H E S. 

Portuguese admiralty, bad lost tbe greater part of har for- 
tune. He imiDediately assigned over his own little (slaims 
and expectations in Portugal for li<er' support^ ^ {^)i ^fuer 
bis arrival at 8t, Petersburg, Dr. 3idloo (son of the fa» 
auHin physician of that name), who w]bis ^% that time first 
physician to tbe eippress, gave him an appointment in tbe 
bospital at Moscow, where he remained till 172$4<, when be 
was employed as physician to the army, in which capacitjr 
lie was pre^^nt at tbe siege of Asoph, where be was ibtr 
tacked with a dangerous fever, and, when he began to re* 
cover, found himself in a tent, abandoned by his atten* 
dants, and plundered of his papers and effects, in 1740, 
he w^ appoiqted one of the physicians to the court, and 
consulted by tbe empreaa, who had for eight years been 
labouring under a dis^^ase, the cause of which had neve* 
been satisfaotprily ascertained. Dr. Sanch^s, in a conireri* 
aation with the pr'ittye minister, gave it as his opinion, that 
tbe complaint originated from a stone in one of the kid<^ 
Beys, and admitted only of palliation. At the end of six 
months tbe empr^ died, and the truth of his opinion was 
confirmed by dissection. Soon after tbe death of the em- 
press. Dr. Sanch^s was advanced by the regent to the ofr 
fice of first physician ; bt)t the revolution of ^42, which 
placed Elizabeth Petrowni^ on the throne, deprived him of 
all his appointments. Harclly a day passed that he did not 
bear of some of his friends perishing on the scaffold; anrf 
it was not without much difficulty that be obtained leave 
to retire from Russia. His library, which had cost him 
1200 pounds' sterling, he disposed of to the academy of St. 
Petersburg, of wbich he was an honorary noerabcfr ; and, 
in return, they agreed to give bioi a pension of forty 

Sounds per annum. During his residence in Russia, he 
ad availed himself of his situation at court, to establish a 
correspondence with the Jesuits in China, who, in return 
for books of astronomy and other presents, sent Iiim seeds 
or plants, together with other articles of natural history. It 
was from Dr. Sanch^s that the late Mr. Peter Collinson first 
received the seeds of the true rhubarb, but the plants were 
destroyed by some accident ; and it was not till several 
years afterwards that rhubarb was cultivated with success 
in this country, from seeds sent over by the late Dv* 
Mounsey. In 1747, he went to reside at Paris, where he 
remained till his death. He enjoyed the friendship of the 
lf)ost celebrated physicians and pbilosophers of diat capital, 



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8 A N C H E 8. m 

gnd, at tbe institutioo of a Royal Medical Society, be was 
chosen a foreign aMociate. He was likewise a member of 
ihe royal aqademy of Lisbon, to the establishmfHU of which 
his advice had probably contributed, as he drew up, at 
the desire of the court of Portugal, sereral meaaoriais on 
the pbtDs necessary to be adopted for the encouragemeiit 
of science. Some of these papers, relative to the cAta- 
blishinent of an university, were printed during bis lifi&. 
ttsae in Portuguese, aud the rest have been found among 
his manuscripts, (lis services in Russia ^remained for six^ 
teen years unnoticed; but, when the late empress Cathe- 
rine ascended the throne. Dr. Sanoh^s was not forgotten* 
jHe had attended her iii a dangerous illness when- she was 
veiy young; and she now rewarded him with a. pension of 
a thousand roubles, which was punctually paid till his death. 
He likewise received a pension from the court of Portugal, 
and anotber.7rom prince Gallitaiu. A great pan of this 
income h^ eipployed in acts of benevolence. Of the ltbe>- 
rality with with be administeied to the wants of his rela- 
tions and ftiends, several striking instances, wbiph our 
limits will not permit us to insert, have been related by 
Mr. de Magellan, He was naturally of an infirm, habit of 
body, and, during the last thirty years of bis life, fre* 
quently voided stnall stones with bis urine. The dtsposi* 
tion CO this disease increased as be advanced in years, and 
for a considerable time belbre bis death, be was confined 
to his apartments. . The 'last visijt he oiade was, in 1782, to 
the grand duke of Russia, who was then at Paris. In Sep- 
tember 1783, he perceifed that his end- was approaching, 
and he died on the 14th of October following. JElts library, 
which was considerable, be bequeathed to his brother. Dr. 
Marcello l^andi^, who was likewise a pupil of Boerbaave, 
acid who rerided at Naples. HtsoiaQuacripts (among which, 
Wtsides a considerable number, of papers' on medical sub- 
jects, are letters written by him to Boerbaave, Van Swie- 
ten, Gaubibs, Haller, Weribof, Pringle, Fothergill, and 
other learned men) are in the possession of Dr. Andry, 
His printed works, on the origin of the wereal' disease 
and other subjects, are well known to medical readers ; 
bat his knowledge, it seems, was notcoofined to his own 
profession ; he possessed a fund of general learning, and 
Is said fco have been profoundly versed in poliu«s*' 

I Soplemcst to the td'iU «f ihi» Diet. 1784, pfQm ib« l^oaiof Medical Joi»n*aU 

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$9 SANCHEZ. 

SANCHEZ (Francis), or SANCTIUS BROCENSIS^ 
an eminent classical tcbolar of the sixteenth century, was 
bom at Las Brocas, in the province of Estremaduras in 
Spain, in 1523. His principal residence appears to have 
been at Salamanca, where he was professor of rhetoric, and 
taugl^t Greek and Latin with the highest reputation, de- 
rived from the originality of his criticisms and remarks on 
the classics. Justus Lipsius, Scioppius, and others, seem 
at a loss for language to express their admiration of his U- 
lents and learning. Lipsius bestows the epithets ^^ divine*' 
and ^* admirable ;'* and Scioppius says he ought to be con- 
sidered as ^ communis ilteratorum omnium pater et doc- 
tor.'* Sanchez died in 1600, in the seventy-seventh year 
of bis age. He published a great many works on subjecu 
of classical criticism, and was the editor of Persius, Pom- 
ponius Mela, Politian*s *^ Sylvae,** Alciat*s emblems, Vir- 
gil's Bucolics, and Horace's Art of Poetry. He published 
also two Greek grammars, and some other pieces on gram* 
mar and rhetoric ; but the work which has perpetuated bii 
reputation is his ** Minerva, de causis lingua Latins," Sa- 
lamanca, 1587, 8vo, whidi waa often reprinted. In more 
modern times, on edition was published at Amsterdam, in 
1754, or 1761, 8ro, with a supplement by Scioppius, and 
notes by Perizouius. This was reprinted with farther im- 
provements by Scbeidius, at Utrecht, in 1795, 8vo ; and 
again by Bauer, at Leipsic,*in 1804, 2 vols. 8vo.^ 

SANCHEZ (Caspar), a learned Jesuit, was bom at 
Cifuentes, in New Castile, about 1553. According to the 
practice of the society, with such young men as have distin- 
guished themselves in their studies, he was appointed to 
teach the learned languages and the belles lettres in the 
Jesuits' Colleges at Oropesa, Madrid, and other places, and 
was at last chosen professor of divinity at Alcala. Here he 
spent thirteen years in commenting on the Scriptures, the 
result of which he published in various volumes in folio, at 
different times. It is perhaps no inconsiderable proof of 
their merit that Poole has made frequent references to them 
in bis ** Synopsis Criticorum." He died in 1628.* 

SANCHEZ (Peter Anthony), a learned Spanish ec- 
clesiastic, was born at Vigo in Gallicia in 1740. After 
tlie preparatory studies of Svinicy, &c. be entered into the 
church, and obtained a canonry in the cathedral of St. 

I Ant BibL Hii|i.-^iii OaoiiMtt * Antonio Bibl Hitp.^Dlcl. Hiit^ 



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SANCHEZ. 91 

Juaes* and was likewise i^>poiDted professor of divinity in 
that city. His fame procured btm admission into many 
learned societies^ and be became one of the most cele- 
brated preachers of the last century, nor was he less ad- 
mired for bis benevolence. He obtained the honourable 
title of the father of the unfortunate, among whom he spent 
the whole profits of his canonry, and at his death in \ 806, 
left no more than was barely sufficient to defray the ex. 
pences of his funeral. The leisure he could spare from^his 
professional duties was employed in the study of the eccle- 
siastical history of his country, which produced several 
works that are highly esteemed in Spain. Some of them 
weie written in Latin, and some probably in Spanish, but 
our authority dpes not specify which. Among them are, 

1. ^* Summa theologisB sacne,^' Madrid, 1789, 4 vols. 4to. 

2. ^Annates sacri," ibid. 1784, 2 vols. 8vo. 3. << History 
of the church of' Africa," ibid. 1784, 8vo, a work abound- 
ing in learned research. 4. ^^ A tieatise on Toleration in 
matters of Religion," ibid. 1783, 3 vols. 4to, rather a sin- 
gular subject for a Spanish divine. 5. ** An essay on the 
doqueneeof the pulpit in Spain," ibid. 1778, 8va This 
is a history of sacred oratory in that country in various ages, 
with the names of those who were the best models of it. * 
The restoration of a true taste in this species of eloquence 
he attributes to his countrymen becoming acquainted with 
the works of those eminent French preachers Bossuet, Mas- 
silloo, Bourdaloue, &c. 6. '* A collection of his Sermons," 
ibid. 3 vols. 4to. These were much admired in Spain, and 
were the same year tra:bslated into Italian, and printed at 
Venice in 4 vols. 4to. 7. ^* A paper read in the Patriotic 
Society of Madrid in 1782, on the means of encouraging 
industry in Gallicia," ibid. 1782, 8vo. This being his na- 
tive country. Dr. Sanchez had long laboured to introduce 
habits of industry, and had influence enough to procure a 
repeal of some oppressive laws which retarded an object of 
so much importance.' 

SANCHEZ, SANCTIUS, or SANCIO (Roderigo), a 
Spanish prelate, admired for his writings in the fifteenth 
century, was born at Santa Maria de Nieva, in the diocese 
of Segovia, in 1404. After being instructed in classical 
leanuBg, and having studied the cation law for ten years at 
Salamanca, he was honoured with the degree of doctor in 

« Diet. Hist. Supplement., 



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M SANCftE2{. 

that fkdtilty ; but afterwiu-dft embraced the eeclesiiistieat 
profession, received priest* s orders, and was nlade saccea* 
stvely archdeacon of Trerino in the dioc^e of Burgos, dearf 
of Leon afid dean of Seville. The first preferment be hehl 
twenty years, the t^ond seten, and the third two years/ 

* About 1440| John II< king of Castrlie, appointed bim en- 
voy to the ensperor Frederick III. and lie was also aitei^* 
wards employed in similftr commissions or embassies to 
other crowned heads^ When Cali^ttus III. became pope^. 
Henry IV. king of Castille, sent him to congmnlate his 
holiness, which occasioned him to take up his residence at 
Kon^e. Id all his embassies, be made harangues' to tfa« 
different princes to whom be was sent^ which are stiU pre-^ 
served in MS. in the Vatican library. On the accessiom of 
pope Paul IL he made Sanchez governor of the castle of 
St. Aogelo, and keeper of the jewels and treasures of tbd 
Roman church, and afterwards promoted him to the 
bishoprics of Zamora, Calahorra, and Palencia. These Isst 
appointments^ however, were little more than sinecimes, ar 
be never quitted Rome, and employed what time be emild 
spare from bis official duties in that city in composing a 
great many works, of which a list of twenty-nine may be 
seen in our authorities. He died at Rome OcL 4^ 1470,' 
and was interred in the church of St. Jamea of Bpain. Af-^ 
though so volominoaa a writer, by hr the greater part of 
big works remain in MS. in the Vatican and other libraries > 
we know of three only whicb were published, 1. his history 
of Spain, ^ Historiss HispanisB partes qnatuor.'* This Mar- 
cband seems to think was published separately, but it was 
added to the << Hiqpania Illtistrata'* of Bel and Schott, pub-^ 
lished at Francfort in 1579, and again in 1603. 2. «< Spe<*; 
Gttlam vitSD bumanee, in quo de omnibus omnium vitse or- 
dioum acconditiottum commodis ac incommodis traotatur,*' 

«Rorae, 1468, folio, which, with three subsequent editions, 
is accurately described in the ^^ Bibliotheca Spencerikna.*' 
This work conuiiis so many severe refleetioos on the clergy 
of the author's time, that some protestant writers have been 
disposed to consider him as a brother in disguise. It is^ 
certainly singular that he could hazard so mudi pointed' 
censure in suchr an age. 3. << Epistola de expugnatbner 
Nigropontis," foKo, without date, bat probably before the 
atuboi^s death. A copy of this likewise occun in tfaia' 
y Bibl. Spenceriana.** Those who are desirous of farther 
information respecting Sanchez or his works may be amply 



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SANCHEZ. di 

sratified in .Marcband, who has a prolix article on the sub- 
ject.* 

SANCHEZ (Thomas Anthony), a learned Spaniard, 
and librarian to the kiiTg, was born in 1730, and distin-* 
guiBhed himself by his researches' into the literary history 
of bis' country, and by some editions of its ablest authors, 
which he illustrated with very valuable notes. Our ambo* 
rity, however, conveys very little information respeeting 
bis personal history or his works, and does not even men- 
tion the concern he had in the new and mach improved 
edition of Antouio^s '^Bibl. Hispana." He died at Ma-« 
dnd hi 1798. His most celebrated work is his ** Collection 
of Castillian poetry anterior to the fifteenth cento ry, to 
which are prefixed memoirs of the first marquis of SantiU 
]an6, and a letter addressed to the constable of Portugal, 
on the origin of Spanish poetry," Madrid, 1779 — 1782y 
5 vols. 8vo. This history is now preferred to that of father 
Sarmiento, which formerly ' enjoyed such reputation. 
Sanchez also wrote ^* An Apology for Cervantes," in ans* 
wer to a letter published in the Madrid Courier; and '^ A 
Letter to Don Joseph Berni, on his defeivce of Peter the 
Cruel," ibid. 1778, 8vo..^ 

SANCHO (Ignatius), an extraordinary Negro, was 
born in 1729, on board a ship in the slave-trade, a few 
days after it had quitted the coast of Guinea for the Spa* 
nish West Indies; and at Carthagena, received baptism 
from the band of the bishop, and the name of Ignatius. He- 
lost his parents in his infancy, a disease of the n^w climate 
having put an early period to bis mother's existence ; while 
hia fiatber defeated the miseries of slavery by an act of 
suicide. At little more than two years old, his master 
brought him to England, and gave him to three maiden 
sisters, resident at Greenwich ; who thought, agreeable to 
prejudices not uncommon at that time, that ignorance was 
the only security for his obedience, and that to enlarge his 
mind would go near to emancipate his person. By them 
he was sumamed Sancho, from a fancied resemblance to 
the 'Squire of Don Quixote. While in this situation, the 
duke of Montagu, who lived on Blackheathi accidentally 
saw, and admired in him a native frankness of manneir, as 
yet unbroken in servitiide, and unrefined by education ; 
brought him frequently home to the duchess; indulged hb- 

» Mnrchand't Dict.*Hi»t.— Aotottio BiW. Hi»p. Vao», ii«ittfdiu ^ , 

* Diet. Uiftt. Suppleatent, 



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96 S A N C H O. 

torn for reading with presents of books, and stroiigl; re-» 
commended to his mistresses the duty of cultivating a ge- 
^Diusofsucb apparent fertility. .His mistresses, however, 
were inflexible, and even threatened on angry occasions 
to return Sancho to his African slavery. The love of free- 
dom bad increased with years, and began to beat high in 
bis bosom. Indignation, and the dread of constant re- 
proach arising from the detection of an amour, finally de- 
termined him to abandon the family, and as his noble pa- 
tron was recently dead, he flew to the duchess for protec- 
tion, who dismissed him with reproof. She at length, how- 
ever, consented to admit him into her household, where he 
remained as butler till her death, when he found himself, 
by her grace's bequest and his own ceconomy, possessed of 
^venty pounds in money, and an annuity of thiny. Free- 
dom, riches, and leisure, naturally led a disposition of 
African texture into indulgences; and that which dissi- 
pated the mind of Ignatius completely drained the purse. 
Cards had formerly seduced him ; but an unsuccessful con- 
test at cribbage with a Jew, who won bis clothes, bad de- 
termined him to abjure the propensity which appears to be 
innate among his countrymen. Ignatius loved the theatre, 
and had been even induced to consider it as a resource in 
the hour of adversity, and bis complexion suggested an 
offer to the manager of attempting Othello and Oroonoko ; 
but a defective and incorrigible articulation rendered thia 
abortive. He turned his mind once more to service, and 
was retained a few months by the chaplain at Monugu- 
house. That roof had been ever auspicious to bim ; and 
the last duke soon placed him about his person, where ha- 
bitual regularity of life led him to think of a matrimonial 
connexion, and he formed one accordingly with a very de- 
serving young woman of West India origin. Towards the 
close of 1773, repeated attacks of the gout and a constitu- 
tional corpulence rendered him incapable of farther attend- 
ance in the duke*s family. At this crisis, the munificence 
which had protected him through various vicissitudes did 
not fail to exert iuelf ; with the result of his own frugality, 
it enabled him and his wife to settle themselves in a shop 
of grocery, where mutual and rigid industry decently 
maintained a numerous family of children, and where a life 
of domestic virtue engaged private patronage, and merited 
public imitation. He died Dec. 15, 1780, of a series of 
complicated disorders. 



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8 A N C H b. ^91 

Mr. Jd^n reroaits ibat^ of a nM^gro, t botfer, antf I 
grocer, there are bat Aendet anecdotes to animate the Ptigb 
0f the biogrraphery yet it biis been hetd nec^ssaf^ to gi^e 
some sketch of the yeiy singular man, whose tetters, witU 
wM their imperfections on their head, baTO given such ge<^ 
iieral satisfaction to tbe pnbKc*. The display which thos^ 
writings exhibit of epistolary talen^ rapid 'and jnst con* 
ception, of mild patriotisitt^ and of universal philantihropy: 
attracted the protection of the great, and the friendship <^ 
the learned. A commeite with the Muses was supported 
amid the trivial and momentai^ interruptions of a shop ; 
the poets were studied, and 6ven imitated with sonle strc- 
cess ; two pieces were constructed for tbe stage ; the tbeorjf* 
of music was discussed, published, and dedicated to tbe 
Princess royal; and painting was so much within the circM 
of Ignatius Sancho's judgment and criticism, tbat several 
artists paid great deference to his opinion. 

Such was the man whose species philosophers and ana« 
tomistt hare endeavoured to d^ade as a deterioration of 
the human ; and such was tbe man whom Fuller^ with i 
benevolence and quaintness of phrase peculiarly bis own, 
accounted^' God^s image, tbougb cut in ebony.'* To the 
harsh definition of the naturalist, oppressions political and 
legislative were once added, but tbe abolition of the slave 
trade has now swept away every lingine of that tyranny. 
Sancho left a widow, who is, we believe, since d^ad ; and 
a son, who carried on tbe business of a bookseller for some 
years, and died very lately." 

SANCHONIATHON, is the name of a reputed PhoB- 
nician author, as old as the Trojan war, about 1274 B. C. 

^ Tbe Ant aditioo frat pAtroDised otigmtAlj written with a TJew to publi- 

by a fabccripUon not known since the catioo. She declared, thei^efore, ■* that 

days of tbe Spectator. The work wail no tnoh idea was ever expntsted by 

pnbltsbed for the henaOt of the author^ Mr. Sancho $ and that not a siii^e leu 

hmilff by Miia Cieve, an pmlable ter was nrinted. from any duplicate 

younf lady, to whom many of the let- presenrcd by himself, hot ail were cot- 

tcrs are addressed, and who is since lected from the Tacious friends to wb6m 

married to John PhHIipa, esq. sorgeon tbey were addressed.'* Her reasons 

of the booaebold to the Prince of W ales, for pnblisbinf them were " tbe desire 

From tbe profits of the first edition, and of shewing that an nntuUMred African 

a mm paid by tbe booksdlera for li- may possess abilities eqoal to an En^ 

bfity to print a second edition, Mrs. ropean ; and tbe stiU superior motift 

Sandw, we are well assured, receired of wisfains to setve hi» worthy family. 

more than 500/. The editor did not And sbe was happy," she decUred, 

TeaCof* to fire them to Uie public till .« in pobUdy acknowledging the had 

ebe bad obviated an ol^ion which not fonnd Uie world inattenUTe to tbe 

bad been suggested, tbat tbey were Toice of obscure merit.»» 

I totters, ITSa, « volt. 8to, with a life by Joseph Jekyll, esq. 

Vol. XXVII. H 



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$8 SAN C H p fl I A T H O N. 

Aui of gr«a^ i^puUiion for diligence apd faithfalneiii^ He 
M said to^ave collected out of the most authentic recordc 
he could procure^ the ^' AptiquUiet of Pbceniciay'V with the 
b^lp of soijoe memoirs which came from UierQi^baal, [Hie- 
robaaly or Gideon,] a priest of the God Jeuo or Jao. He 
wrote several things also relating to t|)e Jews. These 
f* Aptiquities of the Phcenicians,'' Pbilo-Byblius, in the 
same Phmnicia, in the days p^- Adrian, translated into 
Oreek ; and Atbeneus soon afterward reckoned him among 
the PbceDician writers. A large apd noble fragment of 
this work, Euse)>ius has given us, verbatim^ in his first 
lM)ok of ^^ Evangelical Preparation/' cap. ix. x. and has 
prodnced the strong attestation of Porphyry, the most 
learned heathen of that age, to its authenticity. Upon 
these authorities, many learned men have concluded that 
the genuine writings of Sanchoniathon were translated by 
JPhilo-Byblius, and that Sanchoniathon derived a great 
partoflus information from the books of Moses, nay, some 
hate supposed that Thoth, called by the Greeks, Hermes, 
and by the Romans, Mercury, was only another name for 
Sloses ; but the inconsistencies, chiefly chronological, which 
the learned have detected in these accounts, and especially 
the silence of the ancients concerning this historian, who, 
ii he had deserved the character given him by Porphyry, 
could npi have been entirely over-looked, create a just 
gi-qupd of suspicion, either against Porphyry or Philor 
Byblius; It seems most probable, that Philo-Byblius fa- 
bricated the work from the ancient cosmogonies, pretend- 
ing to have translated it from the Ph«enician, in qrder to 
provide the Gentiles with an account of the origin of the 
world, which might be set in opposition to that of Moses. 
Eusebius and Theodoret, indeed, who, like the rest of the 
fathers, vfete too credulous in matters of this kind, and 
after them some eminent modern writers^ have ima- 
gined, that they have discovered a resemblance between 
Sanchoniathon^ account of the formation of the world and 
that of Moses. But an accurate examination of the doc-^ 
trine of Sanchoniathon, as it appears in the fragment pre- 
served by Eusebius, will convince the unprejudiced reader^ 
that the Phcenician philosophy, if indeed it be Phtfinician, 
is directly oppoisite to the Mosaic. Sanchoniathon teaches^ 
that, from the necessary energy of an eternal principle, 
active but without intelligence, upon an eternal passive 
iBhaotic mass, or Motf arose the visible, world ; a doictrtne. 



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SANCHONIATHON. 9§ 

ibf which there are some appearanceg in the ancient cos« 
mogoniesi and which was not without its patrons among 
the Greeks. It is therefore not unreasonable to conjec- 
ture, that the work was forged in opposition to the Jewish 
cosmogony, and that this was the circumstance which ren- 
dered it so acceptable to Porphyry. Such is the opinion 
of Brucker on this history ; and Dodwell and Dupin, the 
former in ^n express treatise, have also endeavoured to 
invalidate its authenticity.* 

SANCROFT (Dr. Wiluam), an eminent English pre- 
late, was born at Fresingfield, in Suffolk, Jan. 30, 1616, 
and educated in gram mar- learning at St. Edmund^s Bury, 
where he was equally remarkable for diligent application 
to his studies, arid a pious disposition *. . In July 1634, he 
was sent to Emanuel college in Cambridge, where he bQ« 
came very accomplished in all branches of literature, took 
his degree of B. A. in 1637, and that of M. A. in 1641, and 
was in 1642 chosen fellow of bis college. His favourite 
studies were theology, criticism, Jiistory, and poetry f, but 
in all his acquirements he was bumble and unostentatious. 
In 1648 he took the degree of B. D. It is supposed he never 
subscribed the covenant^ and that this was connived at, be- 
cause he continued unmolested in his fellowship till 1649 ; 
at which time, refusing the engagement, he was ejected. 
Upon this he went abroad, and became acquainted with the 
most considerable of the loyal English exiles ; and, it is ' 

# Among bishop Tanner't MSS. in but chiefty rellgloat, etftctly and ele* 
tlie Bodleian librarf » the fblloiriBg gantly innrcnbed with hit own hand, 
Iwtler • from him to his father, dated while a fellow of EinanaeL Some of 
Sept. 10, 1641. ** Y hare lately of- tbete are irom the fint edition of Mil. 
fered op to God the ftrtt fruits of that toii*t letset poems, which Mr. Warton 
calling which I intend, haTiof com- obserret is perhaps the only instance 
mon-placed twice in the chapel ; and on record of their having received for 
if through yonr prayers and Qod^s almost seventy years, any slifht mark 
blessing upon ny endeavonrs, I may of attention or notice. Sancrolt, adds 
be c o me an instrument in any measnfe Mr. Warton^ even to his matorer years, 
fitted to bear his name before his peo- tetained his strong early prvdilection 
pie, it shall he tny joy, and the crown to polite literature, which he sUll con* 
of my rejoicinf in the Locd. I am tinoed to cultivate j and from tbeso 
persuaded that for this end I was sent and other remains of his studies in thai 
into the world, aki4 thcrefbre, if God pursuit, now preserved in the Bodleian 
lends me life and abilities, I shall be library, it appeirs that be was a dili.. 
willing to spend mystflf and to be spent ,gent reader of the poetry of his times, 
upon the work." both in English and Latin.— Wartoo's 

t Among his papers at Oidbrd it a edition of Milton's Poems, 17S5, pre* 
fery considerable collection of poetry, foce, p. v. 

» Vosaiot de Hist GrsBC.^Moreri.»Bracker.— Dodwell's " Discourse co^. 
ceraing the Phoenician History of Sanchoniathoo," added to the second edition 
<k his ••Two Letters of Advic«,»' 1631.— Oebelin's «• Allegories OnenUles,« 
Ms, 1773, 4to.->-CiiBiberland»t ** Sanchoniatkoa.'* 

Ha 



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100 S A N C R O F T. 

said, be was at Rome when Charles II, was restored. H^ 
immediately returned to England, and was made chaplain 
to Cosin, bishop of Durham, who collated him to the rec- 
tory of Houghton-le-Spring, and to the ninth prebend 
of Durham in March 1661. In the same year he assisted 
in reviewing the Liturgy, particularly in rectifying the 
Kalendar and Rubric. In 1662 he was created, by man- 
damus, D. D. at Cambridge, and elected masitr of Ema- 
nuel college, which he governed with great prudence. In 
1664 he was promoted to the deanery of York, which al- 
though he held but a few months, he expended on the 
buildings about 200/. more than he had received. Upon 
the death of Dr. John Barwick he was removed to the 
deanery of St. Paulas ; soon after which, he resigned the 
mastership of Emanuel college, and the rectory of Hough- 
ton. On his coming to St. Paul's he set himself roost di-. 
ligently to repair that cathedral, which had suffered greatly 
from the savage zeal of the republican fanatics in the civil 
wars, till the dreadful fire in 1666 suggested the more noble 
undertaking of rebuilding it. Towards this he gave 1400/. 
besides what "he procured by his interest and solicitations 
among his private friends, and in parliament, where he 
obtained the act for laying a duty on coals for the rebuild- 
ing of the cathedral. He also rebuilt the deanery, and 
improved the revenues of it. In Oct. 1668, he was ad- 
mitted archdeacon of Canterbury, on the king's presenta- 
tion, which he resigned in 1670. He was also prolocutor 
of the lower house of conTOcation ; and was in that station 
when Charles Tl. in 1677, advanced him, contrary to his 
knowledge or inclination, to the archiepiscopal see of Can- 
terbury. In 1678 he published some useful directions con- 
cerning letters testimonial to candidates for holy orders. 
He was himself very conscientious in the admission to or- 
ders or the disposal of livings, always preferring men of 
approved abilities, great learning, and exemplary life. He 
attended king Charles upon his death-bed, and made a very 
.weighty exhortation to him, in which he is said to have 
used a good deal of freedom. In 1686 he was named the 
first in JaipesII.'s commission for ecclesiastical affairs; but 
he refused to act in it. About the same time be suspended 
Wood, bishop of Lichfield and Coventry, for residing out 
of and neglecting his diocese. As one of the governors of 
ihe Charter-house, he refused to admit as pensioner iu 
that hospital Andrew Fophami a papist, although be cao|« 



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S A N C R O F T, H)l 

witb anooaination from the court. In June 16B8| be joined 
with six of bis brethren the bishops in the famous petition 
to king James, in which they gave their reasons why they 
could not cause his declaration for liberty of conscience uy 
be read in churches. For this petition, which the courts 
called a libel, they were committed to the Tower ; and, 
being tried for a misdemeanor on the 29th, were acquitted, 
to die great joy of the nation. This year the archbishop^ 
projected the vain expedient of a comprehension with the 
protestaut dissenters. We have the .following account o£ 
this in the spe^hof Dr. W. Wake, bishop. of Lincoln, ia 
the bouse of lords, March 17, 1710, i^t the opening of the, 
second article of the impeachment against Dr. SacheiserelU 
<< The person,'* says be, ** who first concerted this desiga 
was the late most reverend Dr. Sancroft, then archbishop 
of Canterbury. The time was towards the end of that un^^^. 
happy reign of king James II. Then, when we were in. 
the height of pur labours, defending the Church of Eng-, 
land against the assaults of popery, and thought of nothing 
else, that wise prelate foreseeing some such revolution a^ 
soon^t^r was happily brought about, began to consider 
how utterly unprepared they had been at the restoration of. 
king Charles II. to settle many things to the advantage of 
the Church, and what happy opportunity had been lost for 
want of such a previous care, as he was therefore desirous 
should now be taken, for the better and uiore perfect esta* 
blishment of it. It was visible to all the nation, that the 
more moderate dissenters were generally so well satisfied 
with that stand which our. divines had made against popery,, 
and the many unanswerable treatises they had published in. 
confutation of it, as to express an unusual readiness to 
come in to us. And it was therefore thought worth the 
while, when they were deliberating about those other m'atn 
tersy to cbnsider at the same time what might be done to 
gain them without doing any pirejudice to cursives. The 
scheme was laid out, and the several pans of it were com* 
mitted, not only with tl^e approbation, but by ~the dfrec-: 
tion of that great prelate, to such of our divines, as were . 
thought the most proper to be intrusted with it. His grace 
look one part to himself; another was committed to a then 
jHous and reverend dean (Dr. Patrick), afterwards a bishop 
of our church. The reviewing of the daily service of our 
Liturgy, and the Communion Book, was referred to a select 
number of excellent persons, two of which (archbishop 



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IDS S A N C R O F T. 

Sharp, and Dr. Moore) are at this time upon our bench ; 
and I am sure will bear witness to the truth of my relation. 
The design was in short this: to improve, and, if possible, 
to inforce our discipline ; to review and enlarge our Li- 
turgy, by correcting of some things, by adding of others ; 
and if it should be thought advisable by authority, when 
this matter should come to be legally considered, first in 
convocation, then in parliament, by leaving some few cere- 
monies, confessed to be indifferent in their natures as in- 
different in their usage, so as not to be necessarily observed 
by those who made a scruple of them, till they should be 
able to overcome either their weaknesses or prejudices, 
and be willing to comply with them.'* In October, ac- 
compSinied with eight of his brethren the bishops, Sancroft 
waited upon the king, who had desired the assistance of 
their counsels ; and advised him, among other things, to 
annul the ecclesiastical commission, to desist from the ex- 
er(;ise of a dispensing power, and to call a free and regular 
parliament A few days after, though earnestly pressed 
by his majesty, he refused to sign a declaration of abhor- 
rence of the prince of Orange's invasion. In December, 
on king James's withdrawing himself, he is said to have 
signed, and concurred with the lords spiritual and temporal, 
in a declaration to the prince of Orange, for a free par- 
liament, security of our laws, liberties, properties, and of 
the church of England in particular, with a due indulgence 
to protestant dissenters. But in a declaration signed by 
him Nov. 3, 1688, he says that '^be never gave the prince 
any invitation by word, writing, or otherwise;** it must 
therefore have been in consequence of the abdication that 
he joined with the lords in the above declaration. Yet 
when the prince came to St Jameses, the archbishop neither 
went to wait on him, though he had once agreed to it, nor 
did he even send any message*. He absented himself 
likewise from the convention, for which he is severely cen- 
sured by Burnet, who calls him <' a poor-spirited and fear- 
ful man, that acted a very mean part in all this great ^rans- 

* Bishop Nicotton, in one of hit unaccoimtably dark and mfsterioua 

letters lately puhlithed, teems to hint instance ; especially, since I had ta* 

that Sancroft was more active in pro- citly consented tu kit seizing the Toxoer 

motiog the revolution than has been q^ ^ndba, and bis address to the prioc^ 

aupposed. After censurinf h'lm for not of Orange to accept the government.*' 

Saying his respects to the new \%n%, — NiooUun's Epistolary Correspond* 

ricolsoo says, ** I should rather choose ence, by Mr. Nichols, % rots, 8to, 1 809^' 

to follow him in the more frapk and vol. I. p. U. , ^ 

•pen passages of his life, than in this 



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S A N C R O F T/ 105 

actm. He resohrcd," says he, " neitber to act for, nor 
against, the king's interest; which, considering his hfgh^ 
post, WW thought very unbecoming. For, if he thought, 
as by his behaviour afterwards it seems he did, that ibte 
nation was running into treason, rebellion, and pei3ury, it 
was a strange thing to see otie who was at the head of the 
church to sit silent all the wbiie^hat this was in debatei 
and not onee so much as declare his opinion, by speaking, 
TOting, or prot^ting, not to mention the cither ecclesiasti-'' 
cal methods that certainljr became his character.*^ 

After William and Mary were settled on the throne, hef 
and seven xKher bishops refused to own the established go-* 
vernment, from a conscientious regard to the altegtahce 
they had sworn to king James. Refusing Kkewise to take 
the oaths appointed by act of parliament, he and they 
were suspended Aug. 1, 1689, and deprived the 1st of 
Feb. following. On the nomination of Dr. Tillotson to 
this see, April 23, 1691, our archbishop received an order 
from the then queeu Mary, May 20, to leave Lambetfa<» 
house within ten days. But he, resolving not to ftir till 
ejected by law, was cited to appear before the Karons, of 
the exchequer on the first day of Trinity-term, June 12^ 
1691, to answer a writ of intrusion ; when he appeared 1>y 
his attorney; but, avoiding to put in any plea, as the tms^ 
stood, judgment passed against him, in the form of Ikv^ 
June 23, and the same evening he took boat in Lambeth^ 
bridge, and went to a private house in Palsgrave-heiad* 
courts near the Temple. Thence, on Aug. 5, 1691,' h^ 
retired to Fresingfield (the place of his birth, and the estate 
[50/. a year] and residence of his ancestors above thre'^ 
hundred yean), where he lived in a very priviate iMnoer^ 
till, being seized with an intermitting fever, Aug. 26, 1693^ 
be died on Friday morning, Nov. 24, and was buried very 
privately, as he himself had ordered, in Fresingtieid church* 
yard. Soon after, ^ tomb was erected over his grave, witl^ 
an inscription /:omposed by himself; on the right side o( 
which there is an account of his age aod dying-day in LaL 
tin; on the left, the following English c «* Willi.anji San- 
croft, bom in this parish, afterwards by the psovidence of 
God archbishop of Canterbury, at last deprived of. all, 
which he could not keep with a good conscience, returned 
hither to end his life, and professeth here at the foot of big 
tomb, that, as naked he came forth, so naked he must rcr 
ma : the Lord gav^e, and the Lord batb.uken away (as Am 



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104 9ANCROFT. 

Lord plea«j9fS fP things come to pass), bleftad he Ihe Mma 
of the Xord/' The character Burnet has given of him is 
i^t an amiabte one, nor in some respecu a true one *, yet 
bie allowsy what none could deny, that archbishop Sancroit 
^Ras a good man. He bestowed great sums of money in 
ebarity and endowmenu, and was particularly bountiful to , 
^Oianuel college in Cambridge : and he certainly gave the 
strongest instance possible of sincerity, in sacrificing the 
highest dignity to what he thought truth and honesty; and 
alUiough bis opposition both to James II. and William IlL 
miy appear rather irreconcileable, we have the testimony 
cl those who knew him best, that he did every thing in the 
integrity of his heart f. 

. Though of considerable abilities and uncommon learn- 
ing, be publi^ed but veiy little. The first thing was a 
|[^in dialogue^ composed jointly by himself and some of 
lus friends, between a preacher and a thief condemned to 
ibe gajlows ; and is entitled, I. ** Fur Prsedestinatiis ; sive» 
dialogismus inter quendam Ordinis praedicantium Calvin<» 
islam etFqrem ad laqueum damnatum habitus,*' &c. 1651, 
l9mo. It was levelled at the then-prevuling doctrine of 
predestination. An edition was published in 1813; and 
^ translation in the following year, by the rev. Robert 
Bonchei Nickolls, dean of Middleham, with an appiicaiion 
fin the case of R. Kendall executed at Northampton Aug. 
)3, 1813^ 2. ^Modern Politics, taken from Machiavel, 
BcMTgia, and other modem authors, by an eye-witness,** 
1^5^ l9mo. . 3. <' Three Sermons,*' afterwards re-printed 
together in 1694, Sva 4. He published l>isbop Andrews's 
^* J>efenoe of the vulgar Translation of the Bible," with a 
prebce of his own. 5. He drew up some offices for Jan. 

* Bornet W9i out of hamoSr with bad, and ont of hb fonner cbaplatii«, 

tfie archbishop for not procuring bim Mr. Needbaaii* came lo' him, be gave 

•eeew 16 the Cotton oollectioo i/htn be bim bia Mesaioff wtrj a|fectioiiatal]b 

irat prepaciBf bis History of Ibe Re- and* afttr some oUier XmWl, said thus 

Jbrmamo; bot on tbii subject see a to ^im,'''You and 1 have gone ^N 

««ri<His aote on Dean Swift's *« Prefbce ferent ways in these late affain ; but 

to tie bishop of Samm*s laupduotaoo." I trost bea^e^-gates are ifide eiUHigh 

— Works, edit 1801, p. 384. to reoeiTC us both. What I have dont;, 

•f Some particulars of bis sickness I bare done in the integrUy of my 

AMrelAted lu a pamphlet printed at heart." Upon the gentleman's modest 

liondoo, 1694, in 4to. with this title i attempt ^ gire an account yf his owp 

** A Letter out of Sofiolk to a friend in conduct, be replied, *' f always took 

^^Midon ; gifiag some account of the you for an honest man. What I'said 

Jasft sickness ai^ deaM» of Dr. William ooncemiug myself was on\y tot lei yon 

SancTofi, late b>rd archbishop of Can- know, that what I have doqe, I bav^ 

terbnry.** We are informed by bbbop done in the integrity of my heart, ink 

thatatbaUyoposhisdaMh^ deediatbfgrestiit^^ofnybasiW* 



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BANCROFT, IM 

80, Md iA9j 2?. 6.. " Nineteen familiar LeUen of bis to. 
Mr. (afterwards sir Henry) North, of IVIildenball, bart. Uoth 
before, but principaily after, his deprivatipu, for refusing 
to take the oaths to king WiliiaqoLjill, and bis retireo^ept t^ 
the place of his nativity in Saffolk, found amoag tb^ paperp 
Qf the said sir lleory North, never before published,'' wer^ 
printed in 1757, 8vo. In this small collection of the arob- 
bishop's ** Familiar Letter^," none of which were probably 
ever designed to be made public, bis talepts for epistolary 
writipg appear to great advantage. He left behind hiin a 
multitude of papers and collections in MS. which upon his 
decease came into his nephew's hands ; after whose death 
they were purchased by bishop Tanner for eighty guineas, 
who gave them, v?itb the re.st of his manuscripts, to tb# 
Bodleian library. From these the Rev. John Gutch, of 
Oxford, published in 1781, 2 vols. 8vo, various ^^ Hiso^I* . 
laneous Tracts relating to the History and Antiquities o£ 
£Qgland and Ireland," &c. ' 

SANCTIUS. See SANCHEZ. 

SANCTORIUS, or Santorjus, an ingenious physician, 
was borp in 1561, at Capo d'Istria, a town on the borders, 
of the g^lf ofTriest^. He studied medicine and took his . 
degree at Padua, and then settled at Venice as a practi** 
tioner, where he had considerable success. In 1611 he 
was recalled to Padua, and appointed professor of the ' 
theory of medicine in that university ; an oj£ce which be 
held with great credit for the space of thirteen years, ui|<4 
(il his reputation occasioning his being frequently sent 
for to Venice by the people of distinction in that ciiy« 
be resigned his chair in order to dedicate all his time 
to medical practice. His resignation was accepted, hut 
the salary continued; and with this testimony of the 
public esteem, be removed and settled finally at Venice, 
where be died in 1636, aged seventy-five. He was. burieid 
)n the cloisters, and a statue of marble raised to his memory. 

$anctorii4s was the first who directed the attention of 
physicians to the importance of insensible perspiration in 
(he animal opconomy, concerning which be had gone 
through a long course of experiments upon himself- Vor 
ihese be constructed a kiqd of statical chair ; by m^ans of 
Vbicb, after weighing the alimenu be took in, and the 

i Biog. Brit.— Gfcn. Diet.— Bamei'f Own Times.— Bircb'f TiUotspo^— CoWt 
BIS Mhenw in Brit. Mai.-^-WHford't MciMriftls, p. 94«.— Wartoa'i Mihoa.^ 
FuiUUsr Ufttcn, 1767, S?orr<3i|t«b»t «« C^olkctwita Cwiosa," 



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W& SANCTOHIUS. 

sensible secretions and discharges, be was enabled to de« 
termine with wonderful exactness the weight or quantity 
of insensible perspiration, as well as what kind of food or 
drink increased and diminished it. On these experiments 
lie erected a curious system, which was long admired by 
the faculty., It was divulged first at Venice iu 161 4, under 
the title of ^^ Ars de Statica Medicina/' comprehended in 
seven sections of aphorisms ; and was often reprinted at dif- 
ferent places, with corrections and additions by the author. 
It was translated into French, and published at Paris 1722 ; 
and we had next an English version of it, with large ex* 
planations, by Dr. Quincy ; to the third edition of which 
ill 172S, and perhaps to the former, is added, ^ Dr. Jamesf 
KeiPs Medicina Statica Britannica, with comparative re- 
marks and explanations ; as also physico-medical essays on 
agues, fevers, on elastic fibre, the gout, the leprosy, king^s^^p 
evil, yenereal diseases, by Dr. Quincy." 

Sanctorius published other works ; as, ** Metfaodi vitan* 
dorum errorum omnium, qui in Arte Medica contingunt, 
libri quindechn,*' 1602 ; " Commentaria in primam sectio- 
nem Aphorismorum Hippocratis," 1609; ^Commentaria 
in Artem Medicinalem Galeni," 1612 ; ** Commenuria iiv 
primam partem primi libri Canonis Avicennte,*' 1625; 
** De Lithotomia, seu Calculi vesicae sectione, Consulta* 
tio,'' 1638. All these, which raised his character very 
greatly among his own profession, were in 1660 printed 
there together in 4 vols. 4to. 

Sanctorius unquestionably conferred a benefit on medical 
science, by directing the observation of medical men to 
the functions of the skin ; but unfortunately, the doctrines 
were extended much too far ; and, coinciding with the me^ 
cAaniitrA/ principles, which were coming into vogue after 
the discovery of the circulation, as well as with the chemU' 
col notions, which were not yet exploded, they contributed 
to complete the establishment of the humoral paihohgyi 
under the shackles of which the practice of medicine con- 
tinued almost to our own times. Sanctorius was also the 
author of several inventions. Besides his statical chair, he 
invented an instrument for measuring the force of the 
pulse ; and several new instruments of surgery. He was 
the first physician who attempted to measure the heat of 
the skin by a thermometer, in different diseases, and at 
different periods of the same disease s and it is to bis credit 



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S A N C T O R I U S. lOT 

that he was an avowed enemy to empirics and empirical 
nostrums, as well as to all occult remedies. ^ 
• SANDBY (Paul), an ingenious artist, descended from 
a branch of the family of Saunby, of Babworth in Notting- 
hamshire, was born at Nottingham in 17S2. In 1746 he 
came to London, and having an early predilection for the 
arts, procured admission to the drawing room in the Tower, 
where be first studied. In 1748, Wtliiam duke of Cum- 
berland, wishing to have a survey of the Highlands of Scot- 
land, which was the scene of his memorable campaign in 
1745-6^ Mr. Sandby was appointed draughtsman, under 
the inspection of general David Watson, with whom he 
travelled through the North and Western parts of that 
most romantic country, and made many sketches. During 
bis stay at Edinburgh he made a number of small etchings 
from these designs ; which on his return to London were 
published in a folio volume. But drawifig of plans abound- 
ing in straight lines being neither congenial to his taste nor 
worthy of bis talents, he in 1752 quitted the service of the 
survey, and resided with bis brother, Mr. Thomas Sandby, 
at Windsor, and during his continuance there took more 
than seventy views of Windsor and Eton. The accuracy, 
taste, and spirit with which they were in an eminent degree 
marked, so forcibly struck sir Joseph Banks, that >e pur- 
chased them all, and at a very liberal price. Mr. Sandby 
had soon afterwards the honour of being one of this gen- 
tleman^s party in a tour through North and South Wales^ 
and made a great number of sketches from remarkable 
scenes, castles, seats, &c. Under the patronage of the late 
sir Watkin Williams Wynne, he aftervi^ards took many more 
views from scenes in the same country, which with those 
before mentioned be transferred to copper-plates, and made 
several sets of prints in imitation of drawings, in bister ot 
Indian ink. The first hint of the process by which « this 
effect is given to an engraving, Mr. Sandby is said To have 
received from the hon. Charles Greville, a gentleman of 
acknowledged taste and judgment in every branch of polity 
art Profiting by thii hint, Mr. Sandby so far improved * 
upon it as to bring the captivating art ofAquatinta to a 
degree of perfection never before known in this country. 

About 1753 Mr. Sandby, and several members of an 
academy who met at what had previously been RoubHUac*t 

» «toy, Dick. Biffc de BMiiciw.-B^'* Cychw^ 



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106 9 A N p B Y. . 

worksbgpt u) St Martio*s*laiie, wishing to e^ctend their 
plan, and esublish a society on a broader basis, held seve^ 
ral meetings for the purpose of making new regulations, 
&c. Concerning these regulations it may naturally be 
supposed there were variety of opinions, but Hogarth, who 
was one of the members, and who deservedly held a very 
high rank in the arts, disapproved of the whole scheme, and 
wished the society to remain as it then was. He thought 
that enlarging ihe oamber of students would induce a crowd 
of young men to quit more profitable pursuits, neglect 
what might be more suitable to their talenu, and introducf 
to the practice of the arts more professors than the arta 
would support This naturally involved him in many dis- 
putes with his brother artists, and as these disputes were 
not always conducted with philosophic calmness, the sa« 
tirist sometimes said things that his opponents deemed ra- 
ther too severe for the occasion. On the publication of 
bis ^' Analysis of Beauty*' they recriminated, with interest. 
Among the prints which were then published to ridicule 
his system, line of beauty, &c. are six or eight, that 
from the manner in which they are conceived, and tb^ un- 
common spirit with which they are etched, carry more 
than probable marks of the burin of Mr, Sandby, who was 
then a very young man, but afterwards declared, that if he 
h$id been more intimately acquainted with Mr. Hogarth's 
merit, be would on no account have drawn a line which 
might tend to his dispraise. 

On the institution of the Royal Academyi Mr. Sandby 
waf elected a royal academician. By the recommendation 
of the duke of Grafton, the marquis of Granby in 1768 
appoiuted him chief drawing-master of the Royal Academy 
at Woolwich, which office he held with great honour to 
tlimself and advantage to the institution ; and saw many 
^le aud distinguished draughtsmen ^tmong the officers, of 
IMtillery, i^nd corps of Engineers, formed under his instruct 
tion«* ^ 

Mr. Sandby died at his house at Paddington Nov. 7, 
1 809, in the seventy ^seventh year of his age. He contri-r 
baled much tq the repuUtion of the English school of 
landfcape painting, «^pd in many of bis exqubite deline^ 
^tiof)9, uniting fidelity with taste, the beautiful scenery 
for wt^h t^is island is so eminently distinguished, is di&r 
played as in a mirror. For force, clearness, and transpa- 
reocy, it amy very truly be said that bis paintings in water 



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S AN D B Y. JOI 

•qsldon faave not jct been equalled -, tbe vie«rt of ctstlel^ 
niioty bridges^ &;c. which are frequently introduced, will 
femain monuments to tbe honour of the arts, the artists, 
«od tb^ country, when the originals from which they ai« 
designed are mouMered into dust' f 

SANDEMAN (Robert), from whom a religious sect is 
ffeneraily named, was bom at Perth in Scotland in 1723. 
Being intended for one of the learned pr^essioos, he 
studied for two years at the university of EdiCburgbv b«t 
at the expiration of that time married, and hia fortune 
being small, entered into the linen trade at Perth, wbcoce 
fae removed to Dundee, and afterwards to Edinburgh. The 
kuJy be married was the daughter of tbe rev. John Glass 
{See Glass), who founded the sect, at that time called 
fit>m him Gldsntes ; and Mr. Sandeman, who was now an 
eider in one of Glasses churches, or congregations, and 
had imbibed all his opinions, published a series of lettere 
addressed to Mr. Hervey, occasioned by that author's 
^ Theron and Aspasio,*' in which be endeavours to shew, 
that bis notion of fiiith is contradictory to tbe scripture ac* 
count of it, and could only serve to lead men, professedly 
holding the doctrines commonly .called Calvinistic, to 
establish their own righteousness upon their frames, in- 
ward ftelings, and various acts of faith. In these letters 
Mr. Sandeman attempU to prove, that faith is neither more 
nor less than a simple assent to the divine testimony con* 
cerning Jesus Christ, recorded in the New Testament; and 
he inainutnsy that tbe word faith, or belief, is constantly 
used by the apostles to signify what is denoted by it in 
common discourse, viz. a persuasion of the truth of any 
proposition, and that there is no difference between be« 
lieving any common te^mony, and believing the apostolic 
testimony, -except that which results from the nature of 
the testimony itself. This led the way to a controversy, 
atnong Calvinists in Scotland, concerning the nature of 
justifying faith ; and those who adopted Mr. Sandeman's 
notion of it, and who took the denomination oi SandenwnU 
mis^ formed themselves into church order, in strict fellow- 
ship with the church of Scotland, but holding no kind of 
communion with other churbbes. The chief opinions and 
practices in which this sect differs from others, are^ their 
weekly administration of the Lord^s Supper; their love- 

» £amp. Bfag. fcr 1796.— Gent Mag. f*A' LXXIX^ 



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no S AN D S M A N. 

feasts, of wUch every member is not only allowed but re* 
qnired to partake, and which consist of their dining toge« 
^r at each other's houses in the interval between the 
morning and afternoon service i their kiss of charity used on 
this occasion, at the admission of a new member, and at 
other times, when they deem it to be necessary or proper ; 
iheir weekly collection before the Lord's Supper for the 
support of the poor, and defraying other expences ; mu« 
tual exhortation ; abstinence from blood and things Strang-^ 
led; washing each other's feet, the precept concerning 
which, as well as other precepts, they understand literally ; 
community of goods so far as that every one is to consider 
all that he has in his possession and power as liable to the 
calls of the poor and church, and the unlawfulness of lay*- 
log up treasures on earth, by setting them apart for any 
distant, future, and uncertain use. They allow of public 
and private diversions so far as they are not connected with 
circumstances really sinful ; but apprehending a lot to be 
sacred, disapprove of playing at cards,' dice, &c. They 
maintain a plurality of elders, pastors, or bishops, in each 
church, and the necessity of the presence of two elders in 
'every act of discipline, and at the administration of the 
Lord's Supper. In the choice of these elders, want of 
learning, and engagements in trade, &c. are no sufficient 
objection ; but second marriages disqualify for the office ; 
and they are ordained by prayer and fasting, imposition of 
bands, and giving the right hand of fellowship. In their 
discipline they are strict and severe, and think themselves 
obliged to separate from the communion and worship of 
all such religious societies as appear to them not to profess 
the simple truth for their only ground of hope, and who 
do not walk in obedience to it. We shall only add, that 
in every church transaction, they esteem unanimity to be 
absolutely necessary. 

In 1768 Mr. Sandeman commenced a correspondence 
with Mr. Samuel Pike of London, an independent minis^ 
ter; and in 1760 ^ame himself to London, and preached 
in various places, attracting the crowds that usually follow 
novelties. While here he received an invitation to go to 
America, with which he complied in 17^4, and continued 
there propagating his doctrines and discipline in various 
places, particularly in New-England, until the political 
disputes arose between Great Britain and the colonies, 
when be became very obnoxious by taking the part of the 



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S A N D E M A N. Ill 

{bffner. He did not live, howerer, to witness the uhhappj 
icoDsequences of that contest but died at Danbury, April 
2, ITTly aged fifty-three. His sect, although not nnme* 
rous, still exists, bat under various modifications, in Scot- 
)aad ; and there are a few branches of it in England, and 
one in PauPs Alley, Barbican, London. Mr. Sandeman, 
besides bis ^^ LeUers on Theron and Aspasio,'' published 
bis correspondence with Mr. Pike ; ^^ Thoughts on Chris- 
tianity ;" " The sign of the prophet Jonah ;'' ** The honour 
of marriage, opposed to all Impurities;^' and '^ On Solo- 
mon's Song."* 

SANDEKS (Nicholas), a Roman catholic writer of con- 
siderable fame, and one of the principal champions of 
popery in the sixteenth century, was born about 1527, at 
Charlewood in Surrey, and educated at Winchester school, 
whence he removed to New college, Oxford. Here he 
studied chiefly canon law, and was made fellow of jiis col- 
lege in 1548, and in 1550, or 1551, took the degree of 
bachelor of laws. When queen Mary ctime to the throne, 
he bad the offer of being Latin secretary to her majesty, 
which he declined for the sake of a studious, academical 
life, and remained at Oxford during the whole of her reign. 
In 1557 he was one of the professors of canon law, and 
read what were called the ** shaggling lectures,'' i. e. lec- 
tures not endowed, until the accession of queen Elizabeth, 
when his principles induced him to quit England. He ar- 
rived at Rome about the latter end of 1560, and studying 
divinity, became doctor in that faculty, and was ordained 
priest by Dr. Thomas Goldwell, bishop of St Asaph, who 
at that time resided in the English hospital at Rome. Soon 
after, cardinal Hosius, president of the council of Trent, 
bearing of his abilities, took him into his family, and made 
use of him, as his ' theologal, in the council. When the 
council broke up. Dr. Sanders accompanied the cardinal 
to Poland,' Prussia, and Lithuania, where he was instru- 
mental in setting the discipline of the Romish church ; but 
his zeal disposing him to think most of bis' native country, 
he returned to flanders, and was kindly entertained by sir 
Francis Englefield, formerly privy^eounsellor to queen 
Mary, . and then in great favour with the court of Spain ; 

* Wilson's HUt. of DitMotiog Chor«het.— Encyclop. Briunnict^The teoeU 
4f IUb sect were flrel published hf tbemfelvc* in a tract called An •cojunt of 
4km Chmtifii twwticea ohttrm^bj the Church in St. M^rtib s-Haarand,*' 1766, 
irhtra tbof tboa atiemblc^. 



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lis S A K D £ A 8. 

ilirotigb wbose baid« a grest pttt of those cbaritaUe cot« 
lectfond passed, which his eatbcdic majesty ordered for the 
subsistenee of the English popish exiles. Sanders was ap- 
pointed bis assistant, and being settled at Louvaine, toge*- 
tber wrtfa bis mother and sister, he lived there twelve yeavsy 
and performed many charitable offices to his itidigent conn* 
trymen. Much of this time he employed in writing in 
defence of popery against Jewelf, Nowell, and other emi* 
Dent protestant divines. 

Some years after, having received an invitation from the 
pope, he took a journey to Rome, whence he was sent as 
nuncio to the popish bishops and clergy in Ireland, and 
landed there in 1579. At this time Gerald Fitzgerald, earl 
of Desmond, was in* arms, as he pretended, in defence of 
the liberties and religion of his country; but in 1583 his 
party was touted , and himself killed. The part Sanders 
took in this rebellion is variously represented. Camden 
says that he was sent over purposely to encourage Des- 
mond, and that several companies of Spanish soldiers went 
over with him, and that when' their army was routed, he 
vfled to the woods, and died of hunger. All that the ca- 
tholics deny in this account,, is, that Sanders was sent 
purposely ; but this they deny very feebly. With regard 
to the manner of Sanders's death, Dodd seems inclined to 
prefer Wood's account, who says that he died of a dysen- 
tery, and Dodd likewise adopts the report of Rushton and 
Pits, who say that he died at the latter end of 1580, or the 
beginning of 1581, because this was long before Desm\>nd*s 
defeat,, and consequently dissolves in some measure the 
supposed connection between him and Sanders. Dodd, 
however, who is generally impartial, allows that several 
catholics, his contemporaries, were of opinion that he was 
engaged in the Spanish interest against queen Elizabeth \ 
and his writings prove that he maintained a deposing power 
both in the church and people, wHere religion was in dan* 
ger. He was, according to all accounts, a man of abiliti^ 
and was considered as the most acute adversary for th^ 
re-establishment of popery in England, which his par^ 
could boast of. He bad, however, to contend with men of 
equal abiliqr, who exposed his want of veracity as well as 
of argument, and few of his works have survived the times 
in which they were written. Among them are, 1. **The 
Supper of our Lord, &c.** a defence of the real presence^ 
being what be calls << A confutation of Jewel's Apology, aa 



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SANDfeRS. 113 

liio of AUxander Nowel's challenge,'* Louvaio, in 1566, 
1567, 4to. 2. •< Treatise of the Image* of Christ and his 
SaiiKs J being a confutation of Mr. JeweVs teply upon that 
subject," ibid. 1 567, 8vo. 3. «* The Rock of the Church,*' 
concerning the primacy of St Peter, ibid. 1566, 1567, St 
Omer's, 1624, 8vo. 4. « A brief trieatise on Usury,** ibid, 
1566. 5. <« Do Visibili monarchia Ecclesiae,** ibid. 1571, 
folio, Antwerp, 1561, Wiceburg, 1592. 6. « De origine 
ct progressQ Scht^tnatis Anglicani,** Colon. 1585, 8vo, re- 
printed at other places in 1586, 1588, and 1590, and trant^ 
bued into French in 1673, with some tracts on the tenets 
tof his church, #hich seem not of the controversial kind. 
Most of the former wete answered by English divines of 
eoAioence, particularly his large volume " De visibili mo- 
narchia ecclesire,** by Dering, Clerk, and others, of whose 
Bnswers an account may be seen in Strype*s Life of Parker. 
That on the English schism is refuted, as to his more im- 
portant assertions^ in the appendix to Bumet*s History of 
the Reformation^ vol. 11.^ 

SANDERS (Robert), an English writer, whose history 
toay not be unuseful, was a native of Scotland, and born in, 
or near, Breadalbane, about 1727. He was by business a 
comb-maker ; but not being successful in trade, and hav- 
ing some talents^ some education, and a good memory, he 
tommenced a hackney writer, and in that capacity pro- 
duced some works which have been relished by the lower 
class of readers. When he came to London is uncertain ; 
but, having travelled over most of the northern parts of 
these kingdoms, he Compiled, from his own suryey and the 
information of books, an itinerary, entitled '^ The Com-^ 
plete English Traveller,^* folio. It was published in num- 
bers, with the fictitious name of Spencer, professedly on 
the plan of Fuller's Worthies^ with biographical notices of 
ibe most eminent men of each county. As the dealers in 
this kind of publicatbns thought it too good a thing to bo 
lost, it has been republished, depriving Mr. Spencer of his 
rights, and giving them to three fictitious gentlemen, Mr. 
BurtingUm for England> Mr. Murray for Scotland, and 
Mr. Llewellyn for Wales. He also compiled, about 1764, 
a work in 5 or 6 vols. 8vo, with cuts, entitled " The New- 
gate Calendar, or Memoirs of those unfortunate culpriu 

■ Ath. Oi. Tol. L— Dodd't Ch. Hift— Stryp«*t Fafker, p. Sl7 md 3Sl.— 
BornH't BelbnM|»oo.^ColUeet Boc kiH i itio l Hiitoi|r* 

Vou XXVIL I 



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lit . S A N D E R & 

who fall a sacrifice to the Injored laws of their country, and 
thereby make their elcit at Tyb^ni/* He was some time 
engaged with lord Lyttelton, in assisting his lordship to 
compile his ** History of Henry IL ;" and Dn Johnson, in 
his life of that poetical nobleman, introduces this circum*' 
stance in no very honourable manner. '^When time/' says 
he, ** brought the history to a third edition, Reid (the for« 
mer corrector) wa^ either dead or discharged ; and th^ su- 
perintendence of typography and punctuation was com- 
mitted to a man originally a comb-maker, but then known 
by the style of Doctor Sanders. Something uncommon was 
probably expected, ^nd something uncommon was at last 
done^ for to the doctor's edition is appended, what the 
world had hardly seen before, a list of errors of nineteen 
pages/' His most considerable work was his ^^ Gaffer 
Greybeard," an illiberal piece, in 4 vols. 12mo, in which 
the characters of the most eminent dissenting divines, his 
contemporaries, are very freely handled. He had, perhaps 
suffered either by the contempt or the reproof of some of- 
that persuasion, and therefore endeavoured to revenge 
bipiself on the whole, ridiculing, in particular. Dr. Gill 
under the name of Dr. Half-pint^ and Dr. Gibbons under 
that of Dr. Hymn-maker, He was also the author of the 
notes to a fiible published weekly under the name of the 
rev. Henry Southwell : for this he received about twenty- 
five or twenty -six shillings per week, while Dr. Southwell, 
the pseudo-commentator, received one -hundred guineas 
for the use of his name, he having no other recommenda* 
tion to the public, by which he might merit a posthumous 
memory, than his livings*. Dr. Sanders also compiled 
** Letter- writers," '* Histories of England," and other works 
of the paste and scissors kind; but his " Roman History," 
written in a series of letters from a nobleman to his son, in 
.2 vols. l2mo, has some merit. Towards the latter end of 
his days he projected a general chronology of all nations, 
and had already printed some sheets of the work, under 
the patronage of lord Hawke, when a disorder upon his 
lungs put a period to his existence, March 19, 1783. He 
was much indebted to the munificence of Mr. Granville 

* Dr. Henry Southwell, who died in rectory of Asterby in Liacolnshire, but 

i779» waf of a good family in Cam- no one that katw him erer luf peeled 

briilgeshire, was educated at Magda- bimof writing a book. 
t«» college, Cambridge, and had the 



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SANDERS. IIS 

iBbarp^ Moie particulars of this man's history and of tb« 
secrets of Bibk^making may be seen in our aathoqty.' 

SANDERS. See SAUNDERS. 

SANDERSON (Dr. Robert), ah eminent English 
kisbop, was descended from an ancient family, and was 
the youngest son of Robert Sanderson, of Gihbwaite«baU, 
Yorkshire, by Elizabeth, one of the daughters of Richard 
Carr, of Butterthwaite-hall, in the parish of Ecclesfield* 
He was born at Rotherbam, in Yorkshire, Sept. 19, 1587, 
and educated in the grammar-school there, where be made 
ao uncommon a progress in the languages, that, at thirteen, 
be was Sent to Lincoln college in Oxford. Soon after 
taking his d^^ree of B. A. his tutor told Dr. Kilbie, the 
tector, that bis ^ pupil Sanderson bad a metaphysical 
brain, and a matchless memory^ and that he thought be 
had improved or made the last so by an art of his own in* 
ventioil.*^ While at college, be generally spent eleven 
hours a day in study, chiefly of philosophy and the elas- 
tics. In 1606 he was cboseu fellow, and in July 1608, 
completed his degree of M. A. In November of the same 
year, be was elected logic reader, and re-elected in Nov. 
1609. His lectures on this subject were published in 16] 5, 
and ran through several editions. In 1613, 1614, and 
1616, be served the office of sub-rector, and in the latter 
ef those years, that of proctor. In 1611, be was ordained 
deacon and priest by Dr. King, bishop of London, and took, 
ihe degree of bachelor of divinity in 1617. In 1618, he 
wets presented by bis cousin sir Nicolas Sanderson, lord 
Tiscount Castleton, to the rectory of Wybberton, near 
Boston, in Lincolnshire, but resigned it the year following 
on account of the unhealthiness of its situation ; and about 
the same time was collated to the rectory of Bootbby-Fan- 
Bell, or Paynel, in the same county^ which be enjoyed 
above forty years. Having now quitted bis fellowship, he 
married Anne, the daughter of Henry Nelson, B, D. rec- 
tor of Haugham iu the county of Lincoln; and soon after 
was made a prebendary of Southwell, as he was also of 
Lincoln in 1629. He continued to attend to bis parochial 
duties in a very exemplary manner, and particularly la- 
boured much to reconcile diflferences, and prevent law-suits 
both in bis parish, and in the neighbourhood. He also 
often visited sick and disconsolate families, giving advice 

1 Gent. Mas. vol. LIII. p. 400, 482. 
1 2 



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116 SANDERSON. 

itnd often pecuniary Assistance, or obtaining the latter hf 
applications to persons of opulende. He was often called 
upon to preach at assizes and visitations ; but his practice 
of reading his sermons, as !t was then not very commoni 
raised some prejudice against him. Walten observes, that 
notwithstanding he bad an extraordinary memory, he had 
such an innate bashfulness and sense of fear, as to render 
it of little use in the deltvety of his sermons. It was re** 
marked, when his sermons were printed in 1630, that ** the 
best sermons that were ever read, were never preached,'* 
At the beginning of the reign of Charles I. he was chotenp 
one of the clerks in convocation for the diocese of Lincoln ; 
and Laud, then bishop of London, having recommended 
him to that king as a man excellently skilled in citsuistical 
learning, he was appointed chaplain to his majesty m 1631; 
When he became known to the king, his majesty put many 
oases of conscience to him^ and received from hitn solutions 
which gave him so great satisfiu^tion, that at the end of hit 
month's attendance, which was in November, the king told 
him, that " he should long for next Novetnber ; for he re- 
solved to have more inward acquaintance with bim> whect 
the month and he returned."' The king indeed was never 
absent from his sermons, and used to say, that ** he carried 
bis ears to hear other preachers, but his conscience to hear 
Mr. Sanderson.** In 1633 he obtained, through the earl 
of Rutland's interest, the rectory of Muston, in Leicester-* 
shire, which he held eight years. In Aug. 1696, Whentbcf 
court was entertained at Oxford, he was, among others^ 
created D. D. In 1642, he was proposed by both HousefT 
of parliament to king Charles, who was then at Oxford, to 
be one of their trustees for the settling of church afiairs^- 
and approved by the king : but that treaty came to nd*- 
thing. The same year, his majesty appointed hini regiu» 
professor of divinity at Oxford, with the canoory of Christ- 
church annexed : but the national calamities hindered him 
from entering on it till 1646, and then he did not bold it^ 
undisturbed much more than a year. In 1643, he was no* 
minated by the parliament one of the assembly of divines,' 
but never sat among them : neither did he take the covenant 
OF engagement, so that his living was sequestered ; but, so 
great was his reputation for piety and learning, tfastt be was 
not deprived of it. He had the chief hand in drawirtg up 
** The Reasons of the university of Oxford against the so- 
lemn League and Covenant, the Negative Oath, and the 



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SANDERSON. IIT 

Ordinances conceroing Discipline and Worship ;** and, 
wiuen the parliament bad sent proposals to the king for a 
peace in cburch and state, his majesty desired, that Dr. 
Sanderson, with the doctors Hammond, Sheldon, and Mor- 
ley, should attend him, and advise him how far he might 
with a good conscience comply with those proposals. This 
request was rejected by the presbyterian party ; but, it be- 
ing complied with afterwards by the independents, when 
his majesty was at Hampton-court, and in the isle of Wight, 
in 1647 and 1648, those divines attended him there. Dr. 
Sanderson often preached before him, and had many public 
and private conferences with him, to his majesty's great 
aadsfaction. The king also desired him, at Hampton -court, 
since the parliament had proposed the abolishing of epis- 
copal government as inconsistent with monarchy, that be 
would consider of it, and declare hb judgment; and what 
he wrote upon that subject was afterwards printed in 1661, 
8vo, under this title, ^* Episcopacy, as established by law 
lo England, not prejudicial to Regal power." At Sander- 
.son's taking leave of his majesty in this his last attendance 
on him, the king requested him to apply hinaself to the 
writing of ^^ Cases of Conscience ;" to which his answer 
w|is, that ^< he was now grown old, and unfit to write cases 
of conscience.'* But the king told him plainly, <' it waa 
the simplest thing he ever heard from him ; for, no young 
.man was fit to be a judge, or write cas^s of conscience." — 
Upon thb occasion, Walton relates the following anecdote : 
.that in one of these conferences the king told Sanderson, 
or one of them that then waited with him, that ^* the re- 
membrance of two errors did much afflict him, which were, 
his assent to the earl of Straffi)rd's death, and the abolish- 
ing of episcopacy in Scotland ; and that, if God ever re- 
stored him to the peaceable possession of his crown, he 
would demonstrate his repentance by a public confession 
and a voluntary penance, by walking bare.foot from the 
Tower of London, or Wbitehall, to St. Paul's church, and 
would desire the people to intercede with God for his par- 
don.** In 1648, Dr. Sanderson was ejected from his pro- 
feisonhip and canonry in, Oxford by the parliamenury vi- 
sitors, and retired to his living of Boothby-Pannel. Soon 
after, he was taken prisoner, and carried to Lincoln, to be 
exchanged for one Clarke, a puritan divine, and minister 
of Alington, who had been made prisoner by the king's 
par^. H« wai» however, soon released upon articles, one 



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418 SANDERS OV. 

of which was, that the sequestration of his living should i>^ 
recalled ; by which means be enjoyed a moderate subsist- 
ence for himself, wife, and children, till the restoration. 
But, though the articles imported also, that he should live 
undisturbed, yet he was far from being either quiet or safe, 
being 'once wounded, and several times plundered ; and 
the outrage of the soldiers was such, that they not only 
came into his church, and disturbed him when reading 
prayers, but even forced the common prayer book from 
him, and tore it to pieces. During this retirement, he re- 
ceived a visit from Dr. Hammond, who wanted to discourse 
with him upon some points disputed between the Calvinists 
and Arminians ; and he was often applied to for resolution' 
in cases of conscience, several letters upon which subjects 
were afterwards printed^. In 1658, the hon. Robert Boyle 
sent him a present of 50h; his circumst^Jices, as of most of 
the royalists at that time, being very low. Boyle had read 
his lectures '^ De juramenti obligatione,*' published the 
preceding year, with great satisfaction ; and asked Barlow, 
afterwards bishop of Lincoln, if be thought SandersoA 
could be induced to write cases of conscience, provided he 
had an honorary pension allowed, to supply him with books 
and an amanuensis ? But Sanderson told Barlow, ^^ that, if 
any future tract of his could bring any benefit to mankind, 
he wQuld readily set about it without a pension/' Upon 
this, Boyle sent the above present by the hands of Barlow; 
and Sanderson presently revised, finished, and published, 
bis book *^ De obligatione conscientis,'' which, as well as 

^ WhiU Dr. Hammood was at San- turn Dr. Sanderson said with muck 

dersoQ*8 house, be laboured to per* eamestaess, ** Good doctor, give me 

snade him to trn&t to his excellent my sermon, and know, thnt neith^ 

aaemory, and not to read his sermons, you, nor any man living, shall ever 

Dr. Sanderson promised to try the ex- persuade me to preach again without 

ptriment, and having on the Sunday book." Hammond replied, " Good 

following, exchanged pulpits with a doctor, be not angry ; for if I ev^fr 

peighbouring clergyman, he gave Dr, persuade you to preach again without 

Hammond his sermon, which was a book, I will give you leave to burn all 

very short one. intending to preach it those that 1 am master off." l!>r. 

as it was written, but kefbra he bad Sanderson on some occasions expressed 

gone through a third part, he became hi« sense of the great timidity and 

disordered, incoherent, and almost bashfulness of his temper, and though't 

incapable of finishing. Ou their re- it bad been injurious to him« 



f Aubrey says, « When I was a fresh- be hesitated so much, a«d repeated t6 

roan and beard him read his first ice- often, that at the time :of reading, he 

iure, be was out in the Lord's prayer." was often forced to produce, not whi^t 

Letters written by Eminent Persons, was best, but what bappcned to be 

1813, 3 vols. 8vo. Even when •* Dr. at band." lUmbler, No. 19. 
Sondenon was preparing his lectures, 



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SANDERSON. , 119 

that <* De jtiramenti obligatione,'' were the substance of 
part of his divinity lectures. 

In Aug. 1660, upon the restoration, he was restored to 
his professorship and canonry ; and soon after, at the re- 
commendation of Sheldon, taised to the bishopric of Lin« 
coin, and consecrated Oct. 28. He enjoyed his new dig- 
nity but about two years and a quarter : during which time 
he did all the good in his power, by repairing the palace at 
Bugden, augmenting poor vicafages, &c. notwithstanding 
he was old, and had a family ; and when his friends sug- 
gested a little more attention to them, he replied, that be 
left them to God, yet hoped he should be able at his death 
to give them a competency. He died Jan. 29, 1662-3, in 
his seventy-sixth year ; and was buried in the chancel at 
Bugden, in the plainest and least expensive manner, ac- 
cording to his own directions. Dr. Sanderson was in his 
person moderately tall, of a healthy constitution, of a 
mild, cheerful, and even temper, and very abstemious. In 
bis behavioiir, he was aflPable, civil, and obliging, but not 
ceremonious. He was a man of great piety, modesty, learn- 
ing and abilities, but not of such universal reading as might 
be supposed. Being asked by a friend, what books he stu- 
died most, when he laid the foundation of his great learn- 
ing, he answered, that *^ he declined to read many books, 
but what he did read were well chosen, and read often ; 
and added, that they were chiefly three, Aristotle's * Rhe- 
toric,* Aquinas*s * Secunda Secund«,* and Tully, but espe- 
cially his ^ Offices,* which he had not read over less than 
twenty times, and could even in his old age recite without 
book.** < He told him also, the learned civilian Dr. Zouch 
had written *^ Elementa Jurisprudentiss,** which he thought 
he could also say without book, and that no wise man could 
read it too often. Besides bis great knowledge in the fa- 
thers, schoolmen, and casuistical and controversial divi- 
nity, he was exactly versed in ancient and modern history, 
was a good antiquary, and indefatigable searcher into re- 
cords, and well acquainted with heraldry and genealogies; 
of which last subject he left 20 vols, in MS. now in the 
library of sir Joseph Banks. The worthiest and most 
learned of his contemporaries speak of him in the most re- 
spectful terms: " That staid and well-weighed man Dr. 
' Sanderson," says Hammond, " conceives all things deli- 
berately, dwells upon them discretely, discerns things that 
differ exactly, passeth his judgnnent rationally, and ex- 
presses it aptly, clearly, and honestly.'* 



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126 S A N D E R S O N, 

The moral character of this great and good man, Mr, 
Granger observes, has lately been rashly and feebly at* 
tacked by the author of the ^^ Confessional,'' and as ably 
. defended by the author of '^A pialogue between Isaao 
Walton and Homologistes/' 1768. Every enemy to church 
government has been, for the same reason, an enemy to 
bishop Sanderson and every other prelate ; but the upright- 
ness and integrity of his heart, as a casuist, was never be- 
fore called in question by any man who was not an entire 
stranger to his character. He saw and deplored, and did 
his utmost, honestly and rationally, to remedy the com- 
plicated ills of anarchy in church and state ; when *' every 
man projected and reformed, and did what was right in hi3 
own eyes. No image can better express such a condition, 
than that of a dead animal in a state of putrefaction, when, 
instead of one noble creature, as it was, when life held it 
together, ther^ are ten thousand little nauseous reptiles 
growing out of it, every one crawling in a path of its own."* 
We shall now give some account of his writings, which, 
for good sense, clear reasoning, and manly style, have 
always been much esteemed. In 1615, he published, 1. 
*^ Logicas Artis Compendium,'' as we have already men- 
tioned. In 1671 appeared, as a posthumous work, his 
** PhysicsB scientise compendium," printed at Oxford. d« 
** Sermons," preached and printed at different times, 
amounting to the number of thirty-six, 1681, folio; with 
the author's life by Walton prefixed. 3. <^ Nine Cases of 
Conscience resolved;" published at different times, but 
first collected in 1678, 8vo. *The last of these nine cases 
is " Of the use of the Liturgy," the very same tract which 
was published by Walton in his Life of Sanderson, 1678, 
under the title of "Bishop Sanderson's judgment concern- 
ing submission to Usurpers." In this tra^t is given a full 
account of the manner in which Dr. Sanderson conducted 
himself, in performing the service of the church, in the 
times of th^ usurpation. 4. " De Juramenti Obligatione," 
1647, 8vo; reprinted several times since, with, 5. " De 
Obligatione Conscientiss." This last was first printed, as 
we have said, at the request of Mr. Boyle, and dedicated 
to him ; the former, viz. " De Juramenti Obligatione," 
was translated into English by Charles I., during his con- 
finement in the Isle of Wight, and printed at London in 

* Madge's Sermont, Sermon on the eviU of Anarchy, p. 86. 



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SANDERSON. 121 

1655, Bto; and of both there is aa English transUttkm 
entitled ^ Prelections on the Nature and Obligation of pro- 
missory oaths and of conscience,'' London, 1722, 3 vols. 
8vo. 6. '< Censure of Mr. Antony Ascbam bis book of the 
Confusions and Revolutions of Government,^' 1649, 8vo. 
This Ascbam was the rump parliament's agent at Madrid, . 
Itnd was murdered there by spme flnglisb royalists. 7. 
'^ Episcopacy, as established by Law in England, not pre« 
judicial to the Regal Power,'' 1661, mentioned before. 8. 
<' Pax Ecclesiae ; ^bout Predestination, or the Five Points;'* 
printed at the end of bis Life by Walton, 8vo. Our bishop 
geems at first to bave been a strict Calvinist ip those poinU: 
for in 1632, wben twelve of bis sermons were printed to* 
getber, tbe reader may observe in the margin some acca« 
sations of Arminius for false doctrine ; but in consequence 
of his conferences with Dr. Hammond, he relaxed from the 
rigid sense; as appears by some letters that passed between 
them, and wbicb are printed in tiammond's works. 9. 
*^ Discourse concerning tbe Churcb in these particulars : 
first, concerning the visibility of the true Churcb; second- 
ly, icoocerning tbe Church of Rome," &c. I6S8 ; published 
by Dr. William Asheton, from a MS copy, which he had 
fironi Mr. PuUen, the bishop's domestic chaplain. 10. A 
^rge preface to a book of Usher's, written at the special 
command of Charles I. and entitled, << The Power commu- 
nicated by God to tbe Prince, and the^bedieoce required 
of the Subject," &c. 1661, 4to, and 16Sa, 8va. 11. A 
prefatory Discourse, in defence of Usher and his writings^ 
prefixed to a collection of learned treatises, entitled, '< Clavi 
Trabales; or, nails fastened by some great masters dfaU 
•emblies, confirming the king's supremacy, tbe subjects^ 
duty, and church government by bishops," 1661, 4to. 12. 
^f Prophecies coocernipg the return of Popery," inserted 
in a book entitled " Fair Warning, the second part," Lon* 
dooy 1663. This volume contains also several extracta 
ft-om tbe writings of Whitgift and Hooker, and was publish** 
ed with a view to oppose the sectaries, who were said to be 
opening a door at which popery would certainly enter. , 1S« 
** The preface to tbe Book of Common Prayer," begiuBing 
with these words, " It hath been the wisdom of the church.^ 
14. " Eir»popf, sen Explanatio Juramenti,'* &c. inserted in 
the ** Excerpta e corpore statutorum Univ. Oxon." p. 194. 
It was written to explain tbe oath of obligation to observe 
the penal statutes. 15. " Articles of Vbitatiou and In^ 



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J23 SANDERSON. 

qotry concerning batters ecclesiastical," &c. Lond. 1662, 
^to. Dr. Sanderson and Dr. Hammond were jointly con- 
-cerned in a work entitled ** A pacific discourse of God*« 
iprace and decrees/* and published by the latter in 1660. 
In the preface to the Polyglott, Dr. Bryan Walton ha$ 

^ i^lassed Dr. Sanderson among those of his much honoured 
friends who assisted him in that noble work. Peck, in the 
•econd volume of his ** Desiderata Curiosa,'* has published 
the *' History and Antiquities of the Cathedral Church of 
the Blessed Virgin St. Mary at Lincoln : conuining an ex- 
act copy of all the ancient monumental inscriptions there, 
in number 163, as they stood in 1641, most of which were 
soon after torn up, or otherways defaced. Collected by 
Bobert Sanderson, S. T. P. afterwards lord bishop of that 
church, and compared with and corrected by sir William 
Dugdale's MS survey.*'* 

SANDERSON (Robert), an antiquary of considerable 
note, was a younger son of Christopher Sanderson, a jus- 
tice of the peace for the county palatine of Durham, who 
bad suffered for his attachment to the Stuart family during 
the civil war. He was born July 27, 1660, at Eggleston- 
ball, in that county, and entered a student of St. John's 
college, Cambridge, under the tuition of Dr. Baker, Aprit 

. 7, 1683. He remained in the university several years, and 
was contemporary with the celebrated Matthew Prior: Re- 
moving to London, he afterwards turned his attention to 
the law, and was appointed clerk of the rolls, in the Rolls 
chapel. He contributed largely to the compilation of Ry« 
mer's Fcedera, and was exclusively concerned in arranging 
the three concluding volumes, from 18 to 20, which he 
toccessively dedicated to kings George I. and II- (See 
Rymer.) 

In 1704 he published a translation of Original Letters 
from William III. whilst Prince of Orange, to Charles II., 
Lord Arlington, and others, with an Account of the Prince's 
Reception at Middleburgh, and' his Speech on that occa- 
sion;^' dedicating the book to lord Woodstock. He -Iso 
wrote *^ A History of Henry V." in the way of annals, in 
nine volumes, of which the first four have been lost, and 
the others still remain in manuscript amongst bis papers. 

,lc 1714 he became a candidate for the place of bi$torio- 

' Life by Walton, with tracts, 1678, 8vo.— Walton'f Lives by Zoocb.— Bio;. 
Brit.— Ath. Ox. vol. 11. — Bi»bop, Barlow's Remains, p. 333 and 634.— Words- 
. worth*! £ool. Bioiraphy.-.^cnt. Mag. tol. LXXL 



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S A N D E R is OU 123 

igrapher to queen Anne, and received a very handsome ofht 
of assistance from Matthew Prior, at that time ambassador 
to the court of France. His success, however, was pre- 
vented by the change of ministry which succeeded on the 
queen's death. On the 28th of November, 1726, he was 
appointed usher of the high court of chancery, *by sir Jo- 
seph Jekyll, the master of the rolls. He succeeded, in 
1727, by the death of an elder brother, to a considerable 
landed property in Cumberland, the north riding of York^ 
shire, ^ and Durham. After this, though he continued 
<:hiefly to reside in London, he occasionally visited his 
country seat at Armathwaite castle, a mansion pleasantly 
situated on the banks of the Eden, about ten miles from 
Carlisle. He was married four times ; for the last time to 
Elizabeth Hickes of London, when he had completed his 
70th year. He died Dec. 25, 1741, at his house in Chan-r 
eery -lane, in the 79 th year of his age, and was buried in 
Red- Lion- Fields. He was a devout man, well read in di« 
vinity, attached t5 the forms of the church of England, and 
very regular in his attention to public and private worship. 
He was slightly acquainted with the Hebrew language, and 
conversant in the Greek, Latin, Spanish, Italian, and 
French. He made a choice collection of books in various 
languages, and left behind him several volumes of MSS. 
relating chiefly to history, and the court of chancery, and 
including a transcript of Thurloe^s State Papers. He kept 
a diary, in which he noted down, with minute attention, 
the slightest occurrences of his life. As he left no issue, 
his estates descended, on the death of his last wife, in 
175 J, to the family of Margaret, his eldest sister, married 
to Henry Milbourne, of' Newcastle-upon-Tyne; whose 
great grandson, >Villiam Henry Milbourne, was high she* 
riff of Cumberland in 1794.' 

SANDERSON. See SAUNDERSON. 

SANDERUS (Anthony), an eminent topographer and 
antiquary, was born at Antwerp, in Sept. 1586. He was 
first taught Latin at Oudenarde, and pursued his classical 
studies at the Jesuits^ college in Ghent. He then studied 
philosophy at Douay, and in 1609 obtained the degree of 
master of arts. After some stay in his native country, he 
entered on a bourse of theology at Louvain, which he 
completed at Douay, and in 1619, or 1621, took the 

> WchoM't Bowyer.-i-Rect's Cyclopiedia. 

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124 SANDER US* 

degree of doctor io that faculty. Being ordained priest, he 
officiated for several years in rarious cborches io the diocese 
of Ghent, was remarkably zealous in the confersion of he- 
reti'eSf i. e. protesunts, and particularly contended oiucb 
Avith the anabaptists, who were numerous in that quarter. 
Having, kowever, rendered himself obnoxious to the Hoi-' 
landers, by some services in which be was employed by the 
king of Spain, their resentment made him glad to enter into 
the service of cardinal Alphonso de la Cueva, who was then 
in the Netherlands, and made liim his almoner and secre- 
tary. Some time after, by the cardinal's interest, he was 
made canon of Ipres (not of Tournay, as father Labbe as* 
aerts) and finally theologal of Terouanue. He died in 1664, 
in the seventy-eighth year of his age, at Afflingham, an 
abbey of Brabant in the diocese of Mechlin, and was inter- 
red there, with a pious inscription over his grave, written 
by himself. 

The long list of his works shews that his life was not 
spent in indolence. Some of these of the religious kind 
we shall omit. The principal, which respected literature, 
or the biography and history of the Netherlands, were, 1. 
** Dissertatio parsnetica pro instituto bibliothecse publics^ 
Gandavensis,'' Ghent, 1619, 4to. 2. << Poematum libri 
ires," ibid. 1621, 8vo. 3. <^ Panegyricos in laudem B. 
Thorns de Villanova," ibid. 1623, 4to. 4. ^^ Encomium 
S. Isidori," Antwerp, 1623, 8vo. 5. " De Scriptoribua 
FlandrisB, libri tres," ibid. 1624, 4to. 6. " De Ganda- 
yensibus eruditionis fama claris,'' ibid. 1624, 4to« 7. ^< De 
Brugensibus eruditionis fama claris,'' ibid. 1624, 4to. 8« 
*< Hagiologium Flfuidriae," &c. ibid. 1625, 4to, and with 
additions, at Lisle, 1639. 9. << Eiogia Cardinalium.sanc- 
titate, doctrina, et armis illustrium,'* Louvain, 1625, 4to. 
10. *< Gandavium, sive rerum Grandavensium libri sex,** 
Brussels, 1627, 4to. 11. ^^Declaris sanctitate et erudi- 
tione Antoniis,** Louvain, 1627, 4to. 12. << Bibliotbeca 
Belgica manuscripu,'* 2 parts or volumes, Lisle, 1641 and 

1643, 4to. 13. ^< Flandria Illustrata/' Cologne, 1641 and 

1644, 2 vols. fol. a most superb book, well known to the 
collectors of foreign history and topography. There is an 
edition published at the Hague in 1730, 3 vols. fol. but the 
eriginal is preferred on account of the superior beauty of 
(be engravings. 1 4# ^' Chorographia sacra Brabantia,. sive 
celebrium aliquot in ea provincia ecclesiarum et ccenobio- 
mm description* Brussels and Antwerp, 1659, 2 vols. foU 



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SANDERUSL 13S 

1669. This is a sdU more splendid work than Ae fomeri, 
and of much more rare occurrence in a oomj^ete statie, very 
few cq>ies of the seoond ifolnme being in existence. The 
reason assigned is, tbat the entire impressbn of tbe second' 
Tolnme was suppressed as soon as completed, and reoiMned 
in tbe warehouse of a bookseller at Brussels vntil 1695, in 
which year tbat city was bombarded by tbe French, and all 
the copies, except a few in tbe possession of the autfaor*s 
friends, perished by fire. This likewise was reprinted at 
the Hague in 3 vols. foL 1726— -27, but with different plates, 
and of coarse this edition is not so highly esteemed. San- 
ders wrote other topographical works, which appear to re* 
luain in MS.' 

SANDFORD (Francis), a herald and beraldio writer, 
descended from a very ancient and respectable family, still 
seated at Sandford, in the county of Salop, was the third 
son of Francis Sandford, of that place, - esq. by Eliaabetk, 
daughter of Calcot Chambre, of WilUarascot in Oxford* 
■hire, and of Carnow in Wicklow in Ireland. He was bom 
in 1630, in the castle of Carnow in the province of Wick-- 
low, part of the half btirony of Shelelak, purchased of 
James I., by his maternal grandfather, Chaloot Chambre. 
He partook in an eminent degree the miseries of the period 
which marked his youth. At eleven years of age he sought 
an asylum in Sandford, being driven by the rebellion from 
Ireland. No sooner had his pitying relatives determined to 
educate him to some profession, than they were proscribed 
for adhering to the cause of their sovereign ; be received, 
therefore, only that learning which a grammar school could 
give. As some recoropeoce for the hardships be and his 
&mily had experienced, be was admitted, at the restora* 
tion, as pursuivant in tbe college of arms ; but conscien^ 
tiously attached to James II., he obtained leave to resign 
bts tabard to Mr. King, rougedragon, who paid him 220L 
for his office. He retired to Bloomsbuiy, or its vicinity, 
where he died, January 16, 169S, and was buried in St 
Bride^s upper church yard. Tbe last days of this valuable 
man corresponded too unhappily with the first, for he died 
** advanced in years, neglected, and poor." He married 
Margaret, daughter Of William Jokes, of BoUington, in 
the county of Montgomery, relict of William Kerry, by 
whom be had issue. His Kterary works are, l. ** A genea- 



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120 S A N D F a R'I>; 

lagioal History of the Kiogs of Portugal/' &c. London^ 
1664, fol. partly a traatlatiofi, publitbod in complimeDt to. 
Catfaerine of Bragan^, consort to Cbarles II. It is becom€i 
scarce. 2. ** The Order and CereaK>nies used at the Fu- 
neral of his Grace, George Duke of Albemarle," Savoy, 
1670. This is a thin folio, tbe whole represented in en-* 
graving. 9, *^ A genealogical History of tbe Kings of 
England, and Monarchs of Great Britain, from the Norman 
Conquest, Anno 1066, to the year 1677, in seven Parts 
or Books, containing a Discourse of their several Lives, Mar-* 
riages, and Issues, Times of Birth, Death, Places of Bu« 
rial^ and monumental Inscripiions, with their Effigies, Seals, 
Tombs, Cenotaphs, Devices, Arms,*' &c. Savoy, 1677^ 
fol. dedicated to Charles IL, by whose command the work 
was undertaken. ' It is his best and most estimable perform-* 
adce. The plan is excellent, the fineness of the numerous 
e;igraving8 greatly enrich and adorn it : many are by Hol- 
lar, others by the best artists of that period, inferior to 
himi but not contemptible, even when seen at this age of 
improvement in graphic art. The original notes are not 
tbe least valuable part of the work, conveying great in- 
formation, relative to the heraldic history of our monarchs, 
princes, and nobility. Mr. Stebbing, Somerset herald, 
reprinted it in 1707, continuing it until that year, giving 
some additional information to the original works ; but the 
plates being worn out, or ill touched, this edition is far in- 
ferior to the first. ^* The Coronation of K. James II. and 
Q. Mary,'! &c. illustrated with sculptures, Savoy, .1687, a 
most superb work. When James declared he would have 
the account of his coronation printed, Mr. Sandford and 
Mr. King, then rouge-dragon, obtained the earl marshal's 
consent to execute it ; the latter says, the greatest part 
passed through his hands, as well as the whole management 
and economy of it, though he declined haviitg his name 
appear in the title-page, contenting himself with one third 
part of the property, leaving the honour, and two remain- 
ing shares of it, to Mr. Sandford ; well foreseeing, he says, 
that they would be maligned for it by others of their office ; 
and he was not mistaken, for Sandford, with all the honour, 
luul all the malice, for having opposed the earl marshal's 
appointing Mr. Burghill to be receiver of fees of honour 
for the heralds, and endeavouring to vest it in the king; so 
that the afiair was taken and argued at the council table. 
The earl marshal, at the insinuation of some of the be- 



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S A N D F O R D. I2T 

raids, suspended biniy tinder pretence that be bad not 
finished the history of the coronation ; but he submitting^ 
the suspension was soon taken oiF. The book at last wias 
not successfuiy for the publication being delayed until 
1687, and the revolution following, which Uirewadamp 
on such an undertaking, Messrs. Sandford and King gained 
no more tlian their expences, amounting to 6001.^ 

SANDINl (Anthony), an Italian ecclesiastioal historian, 
was born June 31, 1692, and became, by the interest of 
bis bishop, cardinal Rezzonico, who was afterwards pope 
Clement XIII. librarian and professor of ecclesiastical his* 
tory at Padua, wlvere he died, Feb. 23, 1751, in the fifty-* 
ninth year of his age. He is known principally by bid 
^* VitsB Pontificum Romanorum," Ferrar^i, 1748, reprinted 
vnder the title of <' Basis Historise Ecclesiastics." He also 
wrote ** Historise Familise Sacrse;*' '^ HistoriaS. S. Apos-( 
tolorum;'' *^ Disputatioues XX ex Historia Ecclesiastica 
^d Vitas Pontificum Romanorom," and ^' Dissertations,'', 
in defence of the ** Historise Familise Sacrae," which father 
Serry had attacked.* , } 

SANDIUS (Christophek), or, Van Den Sand, a So* 
cinian writer, was born at Konigsburg in the year 1644; 
After becoming an ecclesiastic, he went to Amsterdam, 
where he died in 1680, aged only thirty-six. He published 
various works, among which are, 1. *^ Nucleus Histories 
Ecclesiastics^,** 1 661^, in 2 voU. 8vo, reprinted at Cologne, 
in 1676 : and in London in 1681. 2. ** Tractatus de Ori- 
gine.Anims, 1671." 3. ** NotsB et Observationes'in G. J. 
Vossium de Historicis Latinis," 1677, a work of consider- 
able learning. 4. ^^ Centuria Epigrammatun^ ;'* 5. ^< In- 
terpretationes paradoxal IV. Evangeliorum ;*' 6. <^ Confes- 
sio Fidei de Deo Patre, Filio, et Spiritu Sancto, secundum 
Scripturam;" '* Scriptura Sacra) Trinitatis Revelatrix.** 
But the only work now much known, which was published 
after his death, is his '^ Bibliotheca Anti-Trinitariorum/* 
Freistadt, 1684, 12mo, containing an account of the lives 
and writings of Socinian authors, and some tracts giving 
many particulars of the history of the Polish Sociuians.' 

SANDRART (Joachim), a German painter, was born 
at Francfort in 1606. He was sent by his father to a gram^ 
mar school; his inclination to engraving, and designing 

« Ath.Ox. Tol.ll.— Harrii'i edition of Ware.— Noble's College of Arms.— 
9fiTtitfsg. vol. LXUL 
« 0ict. HUt. » Moreri.— Diet. Hut. 



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12S SANDRAltf. 

being irresistible, be was su^ered to indulge it, and went 
on {o(A to Prague, where be pat himself under Giles Sade- 
ler, the famous engraver, who persuaded him to apply his 
genius to painting. He accordingly went to Utrecht, and 
was some time under Gerard Honthrost, who took him into 
England with hiiti; where he sUyed till 1627, the year iri 
which the duke of Buckingham, who wks the patron of 
painting and painters, was assassinated by Felton at Ports- 
mouth. He went afterwards to Venice, where he copied 
the finest pictures of Titian and Paul Veronese ; and firocn 
Venice to Rome, where he became one of the most consi- 
derable painters of his time. The king of Spain sending 
to Rome for twelve pictures of the most skilful hands then 
in that city, twelve painters were set to work, one of whom 
was Sandrart. After a long stay in Rome, he went to Na- 
ples, thence to Sicily and Malta, and at length returned 
thtoogb Lombardy to Francfort, where he married. A 
great famine happening about that time, he removed to 
Amsterdam ; but returned to Francfort upon tbe cessa- 
tion of that grievance. Not long after, he took possession 
of the manor of Stokau, in the duchy of Neuburg, which 
-was fallen ^o him ; and, finding it much in decay, sold all 
his pictures, designs, and other curiosities, in order to 
raise money for repairs. He had but just completed these, 
when, the war breaking out between the Germans and thci 
French, it was burned by the latter to the ground. He 
then rebuilt it in >a better style ; but, fearing a second in- 
vasion, sold it, and settled at^^ugsburgh, where he exe- 
cuted many fine pictures. His wife dying, he left Augs- 
burgh, and went to Nuremberg, where he established an 
academy of painting. Here he published his " Academia 
arm pictorial,*' 1683, fol. being an abridgment of Vasari 
and Ridolfi for what concerns the Italian painters, and ot 
Charles Van Manderforthe Flemings, of the seventeenth 
century. He died at Nuremberg, in 1688. His work above 
mentioned, which some have called superficial, is but a 
part of a larger work, which he published before under tbe 
title of ** Academia Todesca della architettura, scultura, e 
pittura, oderTeutsche academic der edien banbild-mahle«> 
ren^kunste," Nuremberg, 1675 — 79, 2 vols. fol. He pub- 
lished also, ** Iconologia Deorum, qui ab antiquis coleban- 
tur (Germanice), ibid. 1680, fol. «* Admiranda SculptuniS 
reteris, sive delineatip vera perfectissima statuarum,'* ibid, 
1680, fol. *« Rome aniiquBB et nov« theatrum/' 1684, foh 



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8 A N » R A R T. 149 

** Rc^BtiiDonim Fofnanalia,'' ibid. 1695^ foL A Gemma 
edition of all hia works was published by Yolkmaniip at 
Nurembergi in 1669 — 75, 8 vols* foL' 

SANDYS (Edwin), a very emiaent English prelate, the 
third son of William Sandys, esq. and Margaret his wife, 
descended from the ancient barons of Kendal, was bora 
near Hawksbead, in Furness Fells, Lancashire, in 1519. 
The same neighbourhood, and almost the same year, gave 
birth to two other luminaries of the reformation, Edmund 
Grindal and Bernard Gilpin. Mr. Sandys's late biographer 
conjectures, that be was educated at the school of Furness 
Abbey, whence he was removed to St. John^s^college, 
Cambridge, in 1532 or 1533, where he bad for his con* 
teoiporaries Redmayn and Lever, both great lights of the 
reformation, beside others of inferior name, who continued 
in the hour of trial so true to their principles, that, accord- 
ing to Mr. Baker, the learned historian of that house» 
*' probably more fellows were, in queen Mary^s reign^ 
ejected from St John's than from any other society in either 
university." Several years now elapsed of Sandys's life, 
during which in matters of religion men knew not how to 
act or what to believe ; but, though the nation was at this 
time under severe restraints with respect to externsil con* 
duct, inquiry was still at work |in secret : the corruptions 
of the old religion became better understood, the Scrip- 
tures were universally studied^ and every impediment being 
removed with the capricious tyranny of Henry VIIL, pro- 
testantism, with little variation from its present establish-, 
ment in England, became the religion of the state. 

During this interval Sandys, who, from the independence 
of his fortune, or some other cituse, had never been scho- 
lar or fellow of his college, though he bad served the 
office of proctor for the university, was in 1547 elected 
master of Catherine-hall. He was probably at this time 
vicar of Haversham, in Bucks, his first considerable pre- 
ferment, to which, in 1 548, was added a prebend of Peter- 
borough, and in 1552, the second stall at Carlisle. With- 
out tbe last of these preferments he was enabled to marry, 
and chose a lady of bis own name^ the daughter of a branch 
unnoticed by the genealogisu, a beautiful and pious wo- 
man. The next year, which was that of bis vice-chan- 
eellorship, rendered him unhappily conspicuous by his 

1 Pilkiostoa.— Stmtt. 

VguXXVn. K 



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130 8 A N D TT «. 

yielding to the command or request of Dudley, duke oF 
Northumberland, and preaching a sennoa in support of 
lady Jane Gray^s pretensions to the crown, after the death 
of Edward VI. The designs of Dudley'ff party having been 
almost immediately defeated, Sandys was marked out for 
vengeance; and the popish party in the university, as the 
first step towards regaining an ascendant, resolved to de* 
pose the vice-chancellor, which was perifbrmed in a man- 
ner ver}' characteristic of the tumultuous spirit of the 
times. From this time, in JuTy 1553, he ceased to reside 
in college, or to take any part in the administration of its 
concerns. 

He then left the university, amidst the insults of his 
enemies, and the tears of his friends, who reasonably an- 
ticipated a worse fate than that which befel him. On hht 
arrival in London, he was ordered to be confined in the 
Tower, where the yeomen of the guard took from him 
every thing which he had been permitted to bring from 
Cambridge ; but his faithful servant, Quintin Swainton, 
brought after him a Bible, some shirts and other necessa- 
ries. The Bible being no prize for plunderers, was sent 
in, but every thing else was stolen by the warders. Here, 
after remaining three weeks, solitary and ill accommo- 
dated in a vile lodging, he was removed to a better apart- 
ment, called the Nun's Bower (a name now forgotten in 
that gloomy mansion), where he had the comfort of Mr. 
John Bradford's company. In this apartment they re- 
mained twenty-nine weeks, during which time the mildness 
yet earnestness of their persuasions wrought on their keeper, 
a bigoted catholic, till he became a sincere protestant, 
** a son begotten in bonds," so that when mass was cele- 
brated in the chapel of the Tower, instead of compelling 
his prisoners to attend, the converted gaoler frequently 
brought up a service-book of Edward VI. with bread and' 
wine, and Sandys administered the sacranoent in both kinds 
to himself a'nd tbe other two. 

Here they continued until their apartments being wanted 
for the persons concerned in Wyat's conspiracy, they were 
removed to the Marshalsea. On their way there they found 
the people's minds greatly changed. Popery, unmasked 
and triumphant, had already shewn its nature again^ and 
general disgust had followed the short burst of joy which 
bad attended the queen's accession. Sandys walked along 
tbe streets attended by his keeper : and a« he was generally 



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8 A K D ¥ 8. 13i 

known, the peo[^ prayed that God wonU comfort hioit 
and strengthen him in the truth. Struck wkth these ap- 
pearances of popularity, the keeper of the Marahalsea said^ 
'^ These vain people would set you forward to the fire : 
but you are as vain as they, if you, being a young mao^ 
will prefer your own conceit before tbejudgmentof so many 
worthy prelates, and so many graye and learned men as are 
in this realm. If you persist, you shall find me as strict a 
keeper, as one that utterly misliketh your religion.'* Dr. 
Sandys nobly replied, <^ My years, indeed, are few, and 
my learning is small ; but it is enough to know Christ 
« crucified; and who seeth not the blasphemies of popery 
hath learned nothing. I have read in Scripture of godly 
Bi)d courteous keepers, God make you like one of them ; 
if not, I trust h6 will give me strength and patience to bear 
your hard dealing with me." The keeper then asked, 
" Are you resolved to stand to your religion ?'* ** Yes,** 
aaid Dr. Sandys, ** by God's grace.'* *^ I love you the 
better, therefore,^* said the keeper, *^ I did but tempt you : 
every favour which I can dhow, you shall be sure of : nay^ 
if you die at a stake, I shall be happy to die with you.** 
And from. that day such was the confidence which this good 
man reposed in Sandys, that many times be permitted him 
to walk sJone in the fields'; nor would he ever suffer him 
to be fettered, like the other prisoner^. He lodged him 
aUo in the best chamber of the house, and often permitted 
his wife to visit him. Great resort was here made to Dr. 
Sandys for his edifying discourses, and much money was 
offered him» but he would accept of none. Here too the 
communion was celebrated three or four times by himself 
and his companions, of whom Saunders, afterwards the mar- 
tyr, was one, to many communicants. 

After nine weeks confinement in die Marsbalsea, be was 
set at liberty, by the intercession of sir Thomas Holcroft, 
knight-marshal. This, however, was not accoropibbed 
without much difficulty, and so intent was Gardiner, bishop 
of Winchester, on bringing Sandys to the stake, that it 
required some management on the part of sir Thomas 
before he could succeed ; and no sooner was Sandys libe- 
rated than Gardiner, being, told that he had set at liberty 
ode of the greatest heretics in the kingdom, procured or- 
ders to be issued to all the constables of London to search 
for, and apprehend him. In Sandys's final escape, as re- 
lated by bis laie biographer, the band pf Providence was 

K 2 



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132 SANDYS. 

strikingly viiible. While he was in the Towrer, niinting r 
pair of new ho«e, a tailor was sent for, who, not being 
permitted to measure him, had made them too long, and 
while he was now concealed at the house of one Hurieston, 
a skinner in Cornhill, he sent them, as Hurleston's own, 
to a tailor to be shortened. This happened to be honest 
Benjamin the maker, a good protestant, who immediately ' 
recognized his own handy work, and required to be shown 
to the house where Dr. Sandys was, that he might speak 
with him for bis good. At midnight he was admitted, and 
informed Dr. Sandys, that all the constables of the city^ 
of whom he himself was one, were employed to apprehend 
him, that it was well known that his servant had provided 
two geldings, and that he meant to ride out at Aldgate to- 
morrow. "But," said he, «* follow my advice, and, by 
God's gra^e, you shall escape. Let your man walk all the 
day to-morrow in the street where your horses are stabled, 
booted and prepared for a journey. The servant of the 
man of the house shall take the horses to ' Betbnal« 
green. The man himself shall follow, and be booted as if 
b^ meant to ride. About eight in the morning I will be 
with you, and here we will break our fast. It is both term 
and parliament time, and the street by that hour will be 
full of people; we will then go forth — look wildly, and, 
if you meet your own brother in the street, do not shun, 
but outface him, and assure him that you know him not.^* 
Dr. Sandys accordingly complied, and came out at the ap- 
pointed hour, clothed in all respects as a layman and a 
gentleman. Benjamin carried him through bye-lanes to 
Moorgate, where the horses were ready, and Hurleston as 
his man. That night he rode to his father-in-law's house, 
but had not been there two hours, when intelligence 
was brought, that two of the guard had been dispatched 
to apprehend him, and would be there that night. He was 
then immediately conducted to the house of a farmer near 
the sea-side, where he remained two days and two nights 
in a solitary chamber. Afterwards he removed to the house 
of one James Mower, a ship-master, near Milton-shore, 
wher6 was a fleet of merchant-men awaiting a wind for 
Flandeii^. While he was there» Mower gathered a con- 
gregation of forty or 6fty seamen, to whom he gave an ex- 
hortatibn, with which they were so much delighted, that 
they promised to defend him at the expence of their lives. 
Xhk SuDday May 6, he embarked in the same vessel with 



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SANDYS. I3« 

Or. Coxei afterwards bishop of Ely, antt the ship was yet 
u) sight, when two of the guard arrived on the shore to ap- 
prehend Dr. Sandys. 

His danger was not even yet entirely over, for on his 
arrival at Antwerp, he received intelligence that king 
Pbiiip of Spain had sent to apprehend him, <^ which be 
escaped to the territory of Cleve, from thence to Augs- 
burgh, where he remained fourteen days, and then re- 
moved to Strasburgh. Here he took up his abode for the 
present, and bere unquestionably spent the most gloomy 
portion of his life. His own health was at this time deeply 
injured ; he fell sick of a flux (the usual concomitant of 
hardships and afflictions), which continued without abate* 
ment for nine months; bis only child died of the plague; 
and his beloved wife, who had found means to follow him 
about a year after his flight from England, expired of a 
oonsumption, in his arms. In addition to his sorrows, the 
disputes concerning church discipline broke out among the 
English exiles, on which several of his friends left the 
place* After bis wife's death, he went to Zurich, where 
be wits entertained by Peter Martyr, but, bis biographer 
thinks^ the time did not permit him to receive any deep 
tincture either as to doctrine or discipline from Gene^-a or 
its neighbours. Within five weeks the news of queen 
Mary's death arrived ; and after being joyfully feasted by 
Bollinger, and the other minbters of the Swiss churches, 
be returned to Strasburgh, where he preached; after 
which Grindal and he set out for their native country to- 
gether^ and arrived in London on the day of queen Eliza* 
betJi's coronation. 

Dt. Sandys .was now somewhat less than forty years old, 
in the vigour of bis mental faculties and with recruited 
bodily strength. The first public scene on which he ap* 
pesred was the great disputation between the leading di- 
vines of the protesunt and popish side, in which, if his 
talent for debate bore any proportion to bis faculty of 
preaching, he must have borne a very conspicuous part; 
On the 21st of Detember, 1559, he was consecrated by 
archbishop Parker to the see of Worcester. Browne Willis 
bas most unjustly accused our prelate of having enriched 
his family out of the lands of this see ; on the contrary, he 
transmitted it to his successor, exactly as he found it, that 
is, saddled with the conditions of an exchange which the 
crown bad by statute a right to make. Be accepted u oa 



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11% SANDYS. 

these conditions, and what he was never seized of, it was 
impossible for him to alienate. After all, this was scarcely 
a matter sufficient to excite Browne Willis's superstitioas 
reverence, for the rental of the manors taken away was no 
more than 19^1. \2s. Sid. per ann. and that of the spiritu* 
alities given in exchange 194/. 

At Worcester began the inquietudes and vexations which 
pursued bishop Sandys through his latter days. The papists 
in his diocese hated him, and he was at no pains to conciliate 
them. At Hartlebury, in particular, it was his misfortune 
to have for his neighbour sir John Browne, a bigoted pa- 
pist, who took every opportunity to insult the bishop, and 
to deride his wife (for he had by this time married CecHy, 
sister of sir Thomas Wilford), by calling her " My Lady," 
a style which in the novelty of their situation, some of the 
bishop's wives really pretended to; so that in conclusion a 
great afiray took place between the bishop's servants and 
those of the knight, in which several were wounded on 
both sides. At Worcester Dr. Sandys remained till 1570, 
when on the translation of Ws friend Griudal to York, he 
succeeded him in the see of London, a station for which 
he was eminently qualified by his talents as a preacher, and 
as a governor. During this period, he had interest to pro- 
cure for his kinsman Gilpin, a nomination to the bishopric 
of Carlisle, but Gilpin refused it At London, Dr. Sandys 
sat six years, when he was translated to York, on the re- 
moval of Grindal to Canterbury. 

Years were now coming upon him, and a nutnerous fa- 
mily demanded a provision ; but as it was a new and un- 
popular thing to see the prelates of the church abandon- 
ing their cathedrals and palaces, and retiring to obscure 
manor-houses on their estates, in order to accumulate for- 
tunes for their children, an abundant portion of obloquy 
fell upon Sandys, who seldom lived at York, and not very 
magnificently at Southwell. Yet he visited his diocese 
regularly, and preached occasionally in his cathedral with 
great energy and effect In 1577, during a metropolitical 
visitation, he came in his progress to Durham, the bishopric 
of which was then vacant, but was refused admittance by 
Whittingham, the puritan dean. The archbishop, however, 
with his wonted firmness proceeded to excommunication. 
The iuue of this contest will come to be noticed in our 
account of Whittingham. In the month of May 1583, 
being once more in a progress through bis diocese, a dia- 



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S A N D Y & 135 

b^ical attempt was made to blast jiis character. He hap« 
pened to lie at an inn in Doncaster; where, through the 
coptrivaiice of sir Robert Stapleton,* and other enemies, 
the inn-keeper*s wife was put to bed to him at midnight 
when he was asleep* On this, according to agreement, 
the inn-keeper rushed into the room, waked the archbishop 

. with his noise, and offered a drawn dagger to his breast, 
pretending to avenge the injury. Immediately sir Robert 
Stapleton came in, as if called from his Chamber by the 
ina-k^eper ; and putting on the appearance of a friend, as 
indeed he bad formerly been, and as the archbishop then 
thought him, advised his grace to make the matter up, 
laying before him many perils and dangers to his name 
and the credit of religion .that might ensue, if, being onq 

^against so many, he should offer to stir in such a cause ; 
and persuading him, that, notwithstanding his innocency, 
which the. archbishop earnestly protested, and Stapleton 
then acknowledged, it were better to stop the mouths of 
needy persons than to bring his name into doubtful ques* 
tion. With thb advice, Sandys unwarily complied; but, 
afterwards discovering sir Robert's malice and treacherous 
dissimulation, he ventured, in confidence of his own inno- 
cency, to be the means himself of bringing the whole 
cause to examination before the council in the star-cham- 
ber. The result of this was, that he was declared entirely 
innocent of the wicked slanders and imputations raised 
against him ; and that sir Robert Stapleton and his accom- 
plices were first imprisoned, and then fined in a most se- 
vere manner. This affair is related at large by sir John 
Harrington, a contemporary writer ; and by Le Neve, who 
gives a AiUer account of it, from an exemplification of the 
decree, made in the star-chamber, 8 May, 25 Eliz. pre- 
served in the Harleian library. 

The last act of the arcbbishop^s life seems to have been 
the resistance he made against the earl of Leicester, who 
wanted to wrest from the see a valuable estate* It is to be 
regretted that after having made this noble stand, our pre- 
late should have granted a long lease of the manor of 
Scroby to his owp family. 

Of the decline of archbishop Sandys's age, and of the 
IMtrticular disorder which brought ^im to bis grave, no 
circumstances are recorded. He died at Southwell, July 
10, 1588, in the sixty-ninth year of his age, and was bu- 
ried in the collegiate church of that place. He was the 



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136 S AN D Y S. 

first English bishop who, by his prudence or parsimony, 
laid the foundation of a fortune in his family, which has 
justified the^c subsequent advancement to a peerage. With 
his father's savings, the manor of Ombersley, in Worcester- 
shire, was purchased by sir Samuel Sandys, the eldest son, 
whose descendants, since ennobled by the family name, still 
remain in possession of that fair and ample domain. There 
also the archbishop's portrait, together with that of Cicely 
his second wife, is still preserved. She survived to 1610, 
and has a monument at Woodham Ferrers, in Essex, where 
she died. 

Dr. Whitaker, whose late life of archbishop Sandys we 
have in general followed, as the result of much research 
and reflection, observes that after all the deductions which 
truth and impartiality require, it will still remain incon- 
testable, that Sandys was a man of a clear and vigorous 
understanding, of a taste, in comparison, above that of the 
former age or the next, and, what is more, of bis own : 
that he was a sincere Christian, a patient sufferer, an in- 
defatigable preacher, an intrepid and active ecclesiastical 
magistrate. What was his deportment in private life, we 
are no where told. On the other hand, it cannot be de- 
nied, that the man who after his advancement to the epis- 
copal order, in three successive stations, either kindled 
the flames of discord, or never extinguished them, who 
quarrelled alike with protestants and papists, with his suc- 
cessor in one see (Aylmer) and with his dean in another, 
who in his first two dioceses treated the clergy with a 
harshness which called for the interposition of the metro- 
politan, and who drew upon himself from two gentlemen 
of the country, the extremity of violence and outrage, must 
have been lamentably defective in Christian meekness and 
forbearance *. In every instance, indeed, he had met with 
great provocation, and in the last the treatment he received 
was atrocious ; but such wounds are never gratuitously in- 
flicted, and rarely till af^er a series of irritations on both 
aides. In doctrinal points his biographer attempts, by 
various extracts from his sermons, to prove archbishop 
Sandys less inclined to Calvinism than some of his contem- 

* Weknownotif Mr. LodMhAsbc. esty •legance of m coartier with as 

■towed the Mine atteotion oi^he con- much|piety, meekness, and beneroleocei 

4n<ft of archbishop Sandys, but bis in- as ever ornamented the clerical cba- 

Terence is somewhat difierent. « This racter.** Lodge's lUuttratioDS, fol. 11, 

frflalf'9 coaduct happily ii]iits4 ^ f* ^^- 



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SANDYS. 1$7 

poraries^ On the other hand Dr, Whitaker asserts the 
clear, systematic, and purely evangelical thread of doc- 
trine which runs through the whole of his sertnons, namely, 
salvation through Christ alone, justification by faith in him, 
aancttfication through his holy Spirit, and lastly, the fruits 
of faith, produced through the agency of the same Spirit, 
and exemplified in every braneh of duty to God, our neigh- 
bour and ourselves. These ** Sermons'* were first prnited 
almost immediately after the archbishop's decease, and 
again in 1613, in a quarto volume, containing twenty- two, 
but have lately become so scarce that Dr. Whitaker un* 
dertook a new edition, with a life prefixed, which was pub- 
lished in 1812, 8vo. The archbishop was also concerned 
in the translation of the Bible begun in 1565, and the por- 
tion which fell to his lot was the books of Kings and Chro- 
nicles. Several of his letters and other papers are in* 
serted in Strype's Annals and Lives of Parker and Whit- 
^ift, and in Burnet's History of the Reformation, Fox's 
Acts, &c.* 

SANDYS (Sir Edwin), second son of the preceding, 
was born in Worcestershire about 1561, and admitted of 
Corpus-Christi-coUege, Oxford, . at sixteen, under the ce- 
lebrated Hooker. After taking his degree of B. A. he was 
made probationer-fellow in 1579, and was collated in 15M1 
to a prebend in die church of York. He then completed* 
bis degree of M. A. and travelled into foreign countries, 
and at his return was esteemed for learning, virtue, and 
prudence. He appears afterwards to have studied the law; 
While be was at Paris, he drew up a tract, under the title 
of <' Europe Speculum," which be finished in 1599; an 
imperfect copy of which was published without the au- 
thor's name or consent, in 1605, and was soon followed by 
another impression. But the author, after he bad used 
all means to suppress these erroneous copies, and to 
punish the printers of them, at length caused a true copy 
to be published, a little before his death, in 1629, 4to, 
under this title : " Europss Specdlum ; or a view or survey 
of the state of religion in the western parts of the world. 
Wherein the Romane religion, and the pregnant policies 
of the church of Rome to support the same, are notably 

> Life by Dr. Whitakcf.— Biog. Brit— Strype'* Crsniiier. p. 3|*» ^Ol--- 
fl|fype»i Parker, p. 6:*, 78, 103. 208. 296, 333, 357, 438.-Stiype»8 Grind.l, 
a. 2. 199, 228, 245.— Strype'i Whitgift. p. 283.— Herriogtoo»i Brief View.^ 
U M^t Af^bbittiopf, toU 11.— Fin*t Acts and MonkuneaU, 



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13i SANDYS* 

displayed; with sovie other memorable discoveries and 
memorationt. Never before till now published accordiog 
to the author's origioal copie. Multum diuque desidera^ 
turn.'' Hags Comitis, 1629. To this edition was a pre*, 
face, which has been omitted in the latter editions ; though 
some passages of it were printed in that of 1637, 4to. It 
was also reprinted in 1673, and translated both into Italian 
and French. 

In May 1603, he resigned his prebend, and in May 
1603, received the honour of knighthood from James I.; 
who afterviards employed him in several a60airs of great 
trust and importance. Fuller telU us, that he was dex- 
trous in the management of such things, consunt in par- 
liament as the speaker himself, and esteemed by all as an 
excellent patriot, ** faithful to his country,'' says Wood, 
*^ without any falseness to his prince." It appears, how- 
ever, that for some opposition to the court in the parlia<* 
ment of 1621, he was committed with Selden to the custody 
of the sheriff of London in June that year, and detained 
above a month ; which was highly resented by the House 
of Commons, as a breach of their privileges; but, sir 
George Calvert, secretary of state, declaring, that neither 
Sandys nor Selden had been imprisoned for any parlia- 
mentary matter, a stop was put to the dispute. Sir Edwin 
was treasurer to the undertakers of the western plantation^. 
He died in October 1629, and was interred at Nortbborne in 
Kent ; where he had a seat and estate, granted him by 
James I. for some services done at thatking's accession to 
the throne, A monument, now in a mutilated state, was 
erected to bis memory, but without any inscription. He 
bequeathed 1500/. to the university of Oxford, for the en-^ 
dowment of a metaphysical lecture. He left five sons, all 
of whom, except one, adhered to the parliament during 
the civil wars, Henry, the eldest, died without issue, 
Edwin, the second, was the well known parliamentary 
colonel, of whose outrages much may be read in the pub- 
lications of the times, and who, receiving a mortal wound 
at the battle of Worcester, in 1642, retired to Northborne 
to die, leaving the estate to his son sir Richard, who was 
killed by the accidental explosion of his fowling-piece iu 
1663. His son, sir Richard, was created a baronet in 1684, 
and dying in 1726, without male issue, was the last of the 
family who lived at Northborne, where the mansion re- 
mained many years deserted, and at length was pulled 
down. 



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SANDYS. IS9 

• Tbere wis one sir Edwia Sandys w^bo puUisfaed, ai 
Wood iafarms us, *^ Sacred HyainSi consisting of fifty 8e« 
lect Psalms of David/' set to be sung in five paru by Bo* 
bertTaylor, atid printed at Loodon, 1615, in 4to; bat 
whether this version 'was done by crnr autbor» or by aQotber^ 
of both bis oamesy of Latiners in fiuokingbainsbire, is on*, 
certain. ^ 

SANDYS (George), brotlier of the preceding, was the 
aeventh^And youngest son of the archbisfoop of York, and 
was bom at the archiepiscopal palace of Bishoptfaorp in 
1577. Id 1588 he was sent to Oxford, and matriculated 
of St. Mary Hall. Wood is of opinion, that he afterwards 
ir^AOved to Corpas-Christi-coilege, How long he resided 
in the university, or whether he took a degree, does not 
aj^pear. In August 1610, remarkable for the murder o£ 
king Henry IV. of France, Mr. Sandys set out on bis tra- 
vels, and, in the course of two yean^ made an extensive 
tour, having visited several parts of Europe, and many 
ekies and countries of the East, as Constantinople, Greece. 
Egypt, and the Holy Land ; after which, taking a view of 
the remote parts of Italy, he went to Rome and Venice, 
aad, on his return, after properly digesting the observations 
be bad made, published, in 1615, his well-known folio, the 
title of tbe 7th edition of which, in 1673, is, ^' Sandys* 
Travels, containing an history of the original and present 
state of the Turkish empire ; their laws, government, policy, 
military foree, courts of justice, and commerce. Tbe Ma- 
bometan religion and ceremonies. A description of Con- 
stantinople, the grand, signior-s seraglio^ and his mantrer of 
HviDg : also -of Greece, with the religion and. customs of the 
Grecians. Of Egypt; the antiquity, hieroglyphics, rites, 
customs, discipline, and religion, of the Egyptians* A 
voyage on the river Nihis. Of Armenia, Grand Cairo^ 
Rhodes, the Pyramides, Colossus : the former flourishing 
and present sute of Alexandria. A description of the 
Holy Land, of the Jews, and several secu of Christians 
living there ; of Jerusalem, Sepulchre of Christ, Temple 
of Solonoon, and what else, either of antiquity or worth ob- 
servation. Lastly, Italy described, and the islands ad- 
joining; as Cyprus, Crete, Malta, Sicilia, tbe Eolian ulands; 
of Rome, Venice, Naples, Syracusa, Meseua, iEtna, Scylla, 
and Charybdis; and other places of note. lUustrated with 

» Alb. Ox, Tol L-G. o. Dict.-FiiUer'* Wonbiei.-Cens. Uu 



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140 S A N D Y a 

fifty maps and figaret.'* Most of the plates^ especially 
thoae relating to Jerotalem and the Holy Land, are copied 
fifom the '* DeyotiMimo Viaggio di Zaallando, Roma,** 
1587^ 4ta Of Uiese travels there have been eight or ten 
editions pablished^ and it still bears its reputation^ his ac- 
eonnts having been verified by subsequent travellers. Mr. 
Bfarkland has a copy of this work» edit. 16S7, with a MS 
copy of verses by the author^ which may be seen in the 
^^ Censura Literaria," but was first published at the end of 
Us " Psalms,** 1640, 8vo. 

Sandys distinguished himself also" as a pOet; and bis 
productions in that way were greatly adhiired in the times 
they were written. In 1632 he published << Ovid's Meta- 
morphoses Englished, mythologized, and represented in 
figures,*' Oxford, in folio. Francis Cleyn was the inven- 
tor of the figures, and Solomon Savary the engraver. He 
, bad before published part of this translation ; and, in the 
preface to this second edition, be tells us, that be has at- 
tempted to collect out of sundry authors the philosophical 
sense of the fables of Ovid. To this work, which is dedi-» 
cated to Charles I. is subjoined << An Essay to the transla- 
tion of the £neis." It was reprinted in 1640. In 1636, 
be published, in 8vo, *^ A Paraphrase on the Psalms of 
David, and upon the Hymns dispersed throughout the Old 
and New Testament," 1636, 8vo, reprinted in 1638, folio; 
with a title somewhat varied. This was a book which. 
Wood tells us, Charles I. delighted to read, when a pri- 
soner in Carisbrooke castle. There was an edition of 1640, 
with the Psalms set to music, by Lawes. In this last year 
be published, in 12mo, a sacred drama, written originally 
by Grotius, under the title of *< Christus Patiens," and 
which Mr. Sandys, in his translation, has called *^ Christ's 
Passion," on which, and ^^Adamus Exul," and Masenius, 
is founded Lauder's impudent charge of plagiarism against 
Milton. This translation was reprinted, with cuts, in 1688, 
8vo. The subject of it was treated before in Greek by 
Apollinarius bishop of Hierapolis, and after him by Gre- 
gory Nazianzen ; but, according to Sandys, Grotius ex- 
celled all others. Langbaine tells us, with regard to San- 
dys' translation, that ^' he will be allowed an excellent 
artist in it by learned judges ; and he has followed Horace's 
advice of avoiding a servile translation,— ^^ nee verbum 
verbo curabis reddere fidus interpres' — so he comes so 
near the sense of his author^ that nothing is lost ; no spiriu 



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SANDYS. 141 

evaporate id the decanting of it into English ; and, if there 
be any sediment, it is left behind.^' He published also a 
metrical paraphrase of " The Song of Solomon," London, 
1641, 4to, dedicated to the King, and reprinted in 1648 
with his ^^ Psalms.^' There are but few incidents known 
concerning our author. All who mention him agree in be- 
stowing on him the character, not only of a man of genius, 
but of singular worth and piety. For the most part of hb 
latter days he lived with sir Francis Wenman, of Caswell, 
near Witney in Oxfordshire, to whom his sister was mar* 
ried ; probably ehusing that situation in some measure on 
account of its proximity to Burford, the retirement of his 
intimate acquaintance and valuable friend Lucius lord vis* 
count Falkland, who addressed some elegant poems to him, 
preserved in Nichols's ^^ Select Collection," with several 
by Mr. Sandys, who died at the house of his nephew, sir 
Francis Wyat, at Boxley in Kent, in 1643 ; and was in- 
terred in the chancel of that parish-church, without any 
inscription; but in the parish register is this entry: 
'^ Georgius Sandys poetarum Anglorum sui sssculi facile 
princeps, sepultus fuit Martii 7, Stilo Anglite, ann. Dom« 
1 6^%.*^ His memory has also been handed down by various 
writers, with the respect thought due to his great worth 
and abilities. Mr. Dryden pronounced him the best verr 
sifier of the age, but objects to his ** Ovid,'' as too close 
and literal ; and Mr. Pope declared, in his notes to the 
Iliad, that English poetry owed much of its present beauty 
to bis translations. Dr. Warton thinks that Sandys did 
more to polish and tune the English versification than Den- 
ham or. Waller, who are usually applauded on this subject ; 
yet -his poems are not now much read. The late bio- 
grapher of his father observes, that ^< the expressive energy 
of his prase will entitle him to a place among English clas-- 
sics, when his verses, some of which are beautiful, shall be 
forgotten. Of the excellence of his style^ the dedication 
of his travels to prince Henry, will afford a short and very 
conspicuous example." ' 

SANNAZARIUS (James), vernacularly Giacomo Sak» 
HAZARD, a celebrated Italian and Latin poet, was born at 
Naples, July 26, 1458. His family is said to have been 
originally of Spanish exuaction, but settled at an early 

I Alb. 0«. vol. II.— Cibber'i LiTeg.— FuUer'i Worthies — Censura Lfl. volt. 
IV. aiHl v.— Ellu»i Specimens yoI. III. p. 24.— Bowles»t ediliou of Pupc— 
HichoU's FoMOi.--WiiUak»r't U£« of Al>p. Suidyi, p. xlvti. 



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'l42 S A N N A 2 A R I U si 

period iit SftntoNazaro, aflouirishing town situated between 
tbe Tessino and the Po, where it was long conspicuous for 
nobility and opulence* Reduced at length by the calami- 
ties of war, the more immediate progenitors of our poet 
removed to Naples. His father dying while this son was 
very young, his mother, unable from her poverty, to keep 
up her former ranic, retired with her family to Nocera di 
Pagani, in Umbria, where Sannazarius pas^ a consider- 
able portion of bis youths He had previously to his re* 
moval from Naples acquired the elements of the Greek and 
Latin languages, under the tuition of Junianus Maius, who 
conceiving a high opinion of his talents, prevailed on his 
-mother to return again to Naples, where he might continue 
his education. Here he was admitted a member of the 
Academia Pontana, and took the name of Actios Syncenis. 
He had formed an early attachment of the most tender 
kind to Carmosina Bonifacia, a young Neapolitan lady, 
but not being a favoured lover, uttered his disappointment 
in many of those querufeus sonnets and canzoui which are 
still extant. In compositions of this kind Sannazarius is 
considered as having surpassed every other poet from the 
days of Petrarch. To dissipate his uneasiness, be tried the 
effect of travelling; but on his return, his grief was 
beigbiened by the report of the death of his mistress. She 
is understood to be the lamented Phyilis of bis Italian and 
Latin poems. 

The increasing celebrity of Sannazarius, as a scholar 
and poet, having attracted the notice of Ferdinand king of 
Naples, that monarch's younger son, Frederick, who was 
greatly attached to poetry, invited him to court, and be- 
came his patron ; he also grew into favour with Alpbonsus, 
duke of Calabria, the next heir to the crown, and under 
him embraced a military life, and served in the Etruscan 
war. During his campaigns, Sannazarius continued to 
cultivate his poetical talent, and when in consequence of 
the series of misfortunes and deaths in the royal family, his 
patron Frederick came to the crown, he conceived the hope 
of very high honours, bqt obtained only a moderate annual 
pension, and a suburban villa, called Mergillina, to which, 
although at first he was chagrined, he became reconciled, 
and this villa was afterwards tbe delight of bis rouse. In 
about four years, Frederick was dethroned by the combined 
powers of France and Spain, and now experienced the dis-* 
interested fidelity of our poet, whosc^ bia possessions to 



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S A N N A Z A R 1 O S. 143 

assist the fkllen monarch, attendees faim to France^ and 
continued firmly attached to him as long as he lived. 

In 1503y he again returned to Naples, ^^as replaced in 
bis favourite villa, once more frequented the court, and 
obtained the favour of the reigning queen. Her^ he found 
another mistress in Cassandra Marchesia, one of the ladies 
of honour, whom he describes as very beautiful and very 
learned, bi^t as be was now too far advanced in years for a 
passion such as he formerly felt, Cassandra is to be con- 
sidered merely as bis poetical mistress, and the chaste ob* 
ject of his Platonic attachment The attachment, it is 
said, was mutual, and a confidential intercourse continued 
to subsist between them till the poet^s decease, nor does it 
appear that Cassandra ever JFormed any matrimonial con- 
nection. Sannazarius, however, has been numbered by 
'some among the votaries of pleasure, and they tell us he 
affected the levity and gallantry of youth when in his old 
zge. In his friendships he is said to have been uniformly 
ardent and sincere. In gratitude to the memory of Pon- 
tanas, ivbo bad given a powerful impulse to his youthful 
studies, he became the editor of bis works. He is also 
commended for his probity, his love of justice, and abhor- 
rence of litigation. 

The indisposition which terminated his life was brought 
on by grief and chagrin, on account of the demolition of 
part of his delightful villa of Mergillina, in decorating 
which he had taken peculiar delight. Philibert de Nassau, 
prince of Orange, and general of the emperor's forces, was 
the author of this outrage on taste and the muses. He ex- 
pired soon afterwards at Naples, and, it is said, in the house 
of Cassandra, in 1530, in the seventy-second year of his 
age. The tomb of Sannazarius, in a church near his villa, 
which he built, is still to be seen, and has the same mix- 
ture of heathen and Christian ornaments which are so fre- 
quently to be found in bis poems. 

His principal Latin poem, ** De Partu Virginis,*' took up 
bis attention, in composition, revisals, and corrections, 
about twenty years ; obtained him the highest compliments 
from the learned of his age, and two honorary briefs from 
two popes ; and certainly contains many brilliant and highly 
finished passages, but it brought his religion into some 
suspicion. In a poem on the miraculous co^jception, that 
great mystery of the Christian church, we find ihe agency 
of the Drya4s and Nereids employed j the books of the 



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144 8AKNA2ARIUS. 

Sybils^ substituted for those of the prophetti and e^iy 
agent, name, or term, banished, that is not strictly clas- 
sical, as if he meant to throw an air of romance on the sub- 
ject ; nor is the sincerity of his respect for the holy see less 
suspicious than his religion, for in such editions of his works 
as have not been mutilated, are several caustic epigrams 
on the vices and follies of the popes. Sannazarius*s ele- 
gies are, in point of tenderness and delicacy, thought eqnaL 
to those of Tibullus ; but his ** Piscatory eclogues** once 
contributed most to his poetical reputation. He is said to 
have been the inventor of this species of eclogue, but mo- 
dern critics seem to doubt whether such an invention be an 
improvement The changing the scene of pastoral, from 
the woods to the sea, and from the life of shepherds to 
that of fishermen, has been thought very unhappy, and 
Dr. Johnson (Rambler, No. 36) has pointed out the defects 
of the plan with great acuteness. He thinks that Sannaza- 
rius was hindered from perceiving his error, by writing in 
a learned language to readers generally acquainted with 
the works of nature ; anti that if he had made his attempt 
in any vulnr tongue, he would soon have discovered how 
vainly he had endeavoured to make that loved which was 
not understood* These eclogues, however, are written 
with great classical elegance and purity. Nor was Sanna- 
sarius less celebrated for his Italian compositions ; particu- 
larly his ** Arcadia,** which was long read with admiration. 
This, however, has now subsided, and modem critics com- 
plain of a portion of languor in the perusal of it, arising 
from its length, the mixture of prose and verse, and a wane 
of interest in the plan and subject. All his works have 
gone through many editions, of which we may mention, 
" De Partu Virginis," with the eclogues, &c. Naples, 1 526, 
small folio ; the same, with other poems and the poems of 
other authors, Venice, 1528, 8vo ; and with " Petri Bembi 
Benacus,*' ibid. 1527, 8vo; «« Opera omnia Latiua,** Ve- 
nice, 1535, 8vo, more complete than any of the preceding, 
another edition by Broukhusius, Amst 1728, 8vo, and by 
Vulpius, with his life, Padua, 1719 or 1731, 4to; of the 
** Arcadia," sixty editions were printed before 1600. The 
best of the more recent ones are those of 1723, 4to, and 
n52, 8vo.* 

» OrtuwtU't Politiaa.— Roscoe*f L«p.— TIrtbofcW.— Niceroo, ▼•!. VIII. 



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8 A K S O N. 145. 

SANSON (Nicolas), a oelebrated Freocb geographer^ 
wan born at Abbeville in Picardy, Deo. 29^ 1600. Aftcf 
be bad finished bis juvenile studies at the Jeiuiu* coUeg# 
df Amiensy be betook bimself ti^ merchandise ; but, sua* 
taining considerable losses, quitted that catting, and ap^ 
plied himself to geography, a turn for whiob he had ac« 
quired under bis father, who bad published several maps. 
When, only eighteen or nineteen, he drew a map of An* 
cient Gaul on four sheets, but did not publish it till 1627, 
lest, as we are told, it should, on account of his youth, be 
tboug(ht bis father's ; or, which is rather more probable, lest 
it should not be sufficiently correct for publication. This, 
however, was so favourably received, as to encourage him 
to proceed with confidence and vigour, and in the course 
of bis life be executed nearly three hundred large maps» 
ancient and modern, and caused an hundred methodical 
tables to be engraven concerning the divisions of the do- 
minions of Christian princes. He also wrote several w(»ki 
to explain and illustrate bis maps : as, '^ Remarks upoa 
the Ancient Gauls ;'* <* Treatises of the four parts of the 
World ;" « Two Tables of the Cities and Places, which 
occur in the maps of the Rhine and Italy ;*' ^^ A Descrip* 
tion of the Roman Empire, of France, Spain, Italy, Ger« 
many, and. the British Isles, together with the ancient 
Itin'eraries :^ all which are very necessary illustrations of 
the maps, which they are intended to accompany. Het 
wrote also an account of the ** Antiquities of Abbeville,** 
which engaged him in a contest with several learned men ; 
with father Labbe, the Jesuit, in particular. He made 
abo a '' Sacred Geography," divided into two tables ; and 
a '< Geographical Index of the Holy Land." He was pre» 
paring odier works, and bad collected materiak for an atlas 
of bia own maps ; but his incessant labours brought on an 
illnesa, of which, after languishing for near two years, he 
died at Paris, July 7, 1667, in the sixty-eighth year of bis 
life,' leaving two sons, William and Adrian, who were Uke- 
wise geographers of considerable merit Their fetther had 
received particular marks of esteem and kindness from tb« 
cardinals Richelieu and Mazarin ; and was geographer uid 
engineer to the. king. His atlas was at last published u 
Paris^ in 1699, 2 vols, folio.^, 

ToL. XXVIL L 



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148 SANSOVINO. 

SANSOVINO (Francis)i an Italian poet and hutorkxif 
wak born in 1521 at Rome, and was the son of Jamet San-' 
sovinq, au eminent sculptor and celebrated architecr, whose 
eulogy. Vasari has left us. He studied the belles lettres at 
Venice^ and took his degrees in law at Padua; but that 
science not suiting his taste, he devoted himself wholly ta 
poetry, history, and polite literature, and died in 1586, at 
Venice, aged sisty-fire, leaving more than fifty works, all 
written in Italian. They consist of ^< Poems;'* notes on 
Boccaccio's ** Decameron, on Ariosto, Dante, &c." tranria- 
tions of ancient historians and some histories written by 
himself, as his ** Venezia descritta," of which the best edi* 
lion is that of 1663, 4to j '^ Istoria Universale deir origine, 
guerre, edimperio deTurchi," 1654, 2 vols* 4to, reckoned 
a capital work. His '< Satires'' are in a collection with 
those of Ariosto, and others, Venice, 1560, 8vo; his 
*.* Capitoli"^ with those of Aretino, and different writers, 
1540, and 1583, 8vo ; to which we may add his ^^ Cento 
uovelle Scehe," Venice, 1566, 4to.' 

SANTEUL, or SANTEUIL (John Baptist), in Latin 
Santolius, a celebrated modern Latin poet, was born, at 
Paris May 12, 1630, of a good family. He studied the 
belles lettres at the college of St Barbe, and in that of 
Louis le Grand, under the learned Pere Cossart, and en- 
tering soon after among the regular canons of St. Victor, 
devoted himself wholly to poetry, commencing bis career 
by celebrating some great men of that time. He also was 
employed to write many of those inscriptions which may 
be seen on the public fountains and monuments of Paris, 
and this he did in a style at once clear, easy, and digni- 
fied. When some new hymns were wanted for the Paris 
breviary, he was requested by his brother Claude, Pelisson, 
and Bossuet, to compose them, which he accomplished 
with the greatest success and applause, in an elevated, 
perspicuous, and majestic style, suited to the dignity of 
the subject. The reputation which he gained by these in-, 
duced the order of Clugny to request some for their bre- 
viary. With this he complied, and in return they granted 
him letters of filiation, and a pension. Santeul was much 
esteemed by the literati of bis time, and by many persons 
of rank, aqong whom were the two princes of Cond6, fa- 
ther and son, whose bounty he frequently experienced ; 

1 NictreB, v<rf, XXII^^TirtbofohU 



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S A N T E U L. 141 

>aud Louis XIV. who settled a pension upon him. He 
greatly offended the Jesuits, however, by his epitaph in 
praise of their enemy Arnauld. While SanteuVs Latin 
poems were always much admired by his countrymen, he 
seems to have enjoyed fully as much reputation, during his 
life-time, for his wit, and oddities of character. La Bru- 
yere, under the name of TheodeSf has described him as, in 
one moment, good-humoured, tractable, easy, and com- 
plaisant, in another, harsh, violent, choleric, and capri- 
cious ; as at once simple, ingenuous, credulous, sportive, 
and volatile ; in short, a child with grey hairs, and as 
speaking like a fool, and thinking like a sage. He utters, 
adds La Bruyere, truths in a ridiculous manner, and sen- 
sible things in a silly way ; and we are surprised to find so 
much intellect shining through the clouds of buffoonery, 
oontortions, and grimaces. He had great credit for his 
witticisms, many of which may be seen in the '^ SantoKana.'^ 
When the duke of Bourbon went to hold the states of Bur- 
gundy at Dijon, Santeul attended him, and died there, 
August 5, 1697, aged sixty-seven, as he was on the point 
of returning to Paris. His death was attributed to an in- 
considerate trick played upon him by some one whom his 
oddity of character had encouraged to take liberties, and 
who put some Spanish snuff into his wine-glass,' which 
brought on a complaint of the bowels tha( proved fatal in 
fourteen hours. Besides his Latin hymns, 12mo, he left 
a considerable number of Latin " Poems," 1739, 3 vols. 
12mo. * 

SANTEUL (Claude), brother of the preceding, born 
Feb. 3, 1628, also wrote some beautiful hymns in the Paris 
breviary, under the name of '^ Santolius Maglorianus," a 
name given on account of his having resided a long time in 
the seminary of St. Magloire at Paris, as a secular eccle- 
siastic. Though the brother of Santeul, and a poet like 
him, he was of a totally different temper and disposition; 
mild, calm, and moderate, he had none of that heat and 
impetiiosity, by which his brother was incessantly agitated. 
He was esteemed not only for, his poetical talents, but his 
deep learning and exemplary piety. He died September 
29, 1684, at Paris, aged fifty-seven. Besides his hymns 
on the particular festivals, which are very numerous and 
preserved by the family in MS. 3 vols.^to; some of his 
1 P«rniaHLet Himiinf • ni«itre..-.SaiitoUaii..-Moreri.-Dict. Hwt. 

I. 2 



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148 S A N T E U L. 

poetry hat been printed with his brother's works. Tbere^ 
was another Claude Santeul, related to the preceding, a 
merchant and sheriff of Paris, who died about 1729, leav- 
ing some "Hymns," printed at Paris in 1723, 8vo.* 

SANZIO. See RAPHAEL. 

SAPPHO, an eminent Greek poetess, was a native of 
Mitylene in the island of Lesbos. Who was her father i« 
uncertain, there being no less than eight persons who have 
contended for that honour ; but it is universally acknow- 
ledged that Cleis was her mother. She flourished, accord- 
ing to Suida^ in the 42d olympiad ; according to Euse- 
bins, in the 44th olympiad, about 600 years B. C. Her 
love-aflSurs form the chief materials of her biography. 
Barnes has endeavoured to prove, from the testimonies of 
Chameleon and Hermesianax, that Anacreon was one of 
her lovers; but from the chronology of both, this has been 
generally considered as a poetical fiction. She married 
one Cercolas, a man of great wealth and power in the is- 
land of Andros, by whom she had a daughter named Cleis. 
He leaving her a widow very young, she renounced all 
thoughts of marriage, but not of love * ; nor was she very 
scrupulous in her intrigues. Her chief favourite appears to 
have been the accomplished Phaon, a young man of Les- 
bos ; who is said to have .been a kind of ferry-man, and 
thence fabled to have carried Venus over the stream in his 
boat, and to have received from her, as a reward, the fa- 
vour of becoming the most beautiful man in the world. 
Sappho fell desperately in love with him, and went into 
Sicily in pursuit of him, he having withdrawn himself thi- 
ther on purpose to avoid her. It was in that island, and 
on this occasion, that she composed her hymn to Venus« 
This, however, was ineffectual. Phaon was still obdurate,, 
and Sappho was so transported with the violence of her 
passion, that she bad recourse to a promontory in Acar- 
nania called Leucate, on the top of which was a temple 
dedicated to Apollo. In this temple it was usual for de-» 

* " Sappbo formed tn academy of culpate her ? And might ihe not have 

fi»raales who excelled in music j and it written the celebrated verses " Blest 

was doubtless this academy which drew as the unmortal gods is he/' &c. for 

on her the hatred of the women of Mi- another } Many of oar poetical ladiet 

tylene, who accused her of being too whom we coufd name, have written 

fond of her own sex ; but will not her excellent impassioned songs of com- 

knre for I*hao«, and the fata) terminal plaint in a male eharacter." Dr. B«r« 

lion of her existence, tufficienlly ex- ney in Hist of Music. 

1 lflimn.«-4)ict. Qirt, 



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SAPPHO. 149 

spairing lovers to make their vows in secret, and after- 
wards to fling tbeniselves from the top of the precipice into 
the sea, it being an established opinion, that all those who 
were taken up alive, would immediately be cured of their 
former passion. Sappho perished in the experiment. The 
original of this unaccountable humour is not known. Her 
genius, however, made her be lamented. The Romans 
erected a tioble statue of porphyry to her memory ; and the 
Mitylenians, to express theit sense of her worth, paid her 
sovereign honours after her death, and coined money with 
her head for the impress. She was likewise honoured with 
the title of the tenth Muse. 

Yossius is of opinion that none of the Greek poets 
excelled Sappho in sweetne;ss of verse ; and that she made 
Archilochus the model of her style, but at the same time 
took, great care to soften and temper, the- severity of his 
expression. Hoffman, in his Lexicon, says, << Some au- 
thors are of opinion, that the elegy which Ovid made under 
the name of Sappho, and which is infinitely superior to his 
other elegies, was all, or at least the most beautiful part of 
it, stolen f^om the poems of the elegant Sappho." She 
was the inventress of that kind of verse which (from her 
name) is called the Sapphic. She wrote nine books of 
odes, besides elegies, epigrams, iambics, monodies, and 
other pieces ; of which we have nothing remaining entire 
but an hymn to Venus, an ode preserved by LonginXis 
(which, however, the learned acknowledge to be imper- 
fect), two epigrams, and some other little fragments, which 
have been generally published in the editions of Anacreon. 
Addison has given an elegant character of this poetess in 
the Spectator (No. 223 and 229), with a translation of two 
of her fragments, and is supposed to have assisted Philips 
in his translation.' 

8ARASIN (John Francis), a French miscellaneous au- 
thor, was born at Hermanville, in the neighbourhood of 
Caen, about 1604. It is said, in the ^< Segraisiana,'' but 
we know not on what foundation, that he was the natural 
ton of Mr. Fauconnier of Caen, a treasurer of France, by 
a woman of low rank, whom he afterwards married. Sara- 
iin began his studies at Caen, and afterwards went to 
Paris, where he became eminent for wit and polite litera- 
ture, though he was very defective in every thing that 

. 1 Qnu Dick— VQiiiii4« Poet Gww.— F^wkwl TfwaUtiw. 



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150 S A R A S I N. 

could be called learning. He then made the tour of Ger<» 
many ; and, upon his return to France, was appointed a 
kind of secretary (o the prince of Conti. He was a man 
of a' hvely imagination and ready wit ; and much caressed 
by those who thought themselves judges of that article. 
He wasy however, so frequently invited on this account 
that he began to envy matter-of*fact men, from whom no- 
thing of the kind is expected. He was also unijortunate in 
his marriage, his wife being a- woman of a violent ungo- 
vernable temper. It is said that he persuaded the prince 
of Conti to marry the niece of cardinal Mazariii, and for 
this good office received a great sum ; but this being dis- 
covered, the prince dismissed him from his service, with 
every mark of ignominy, as one who had sold himself to 
the cardinal. This treatment is supposed to have occa- 
sioned his death, which happened in 1654. Pelisson, pass- 
ing through the town where Sarasin died, went to the 
grave of his old acquaintance, shed some tears, had a mass 
said over him, and founded an anniversary, though he him* 
self was at that time a protestant. 

He published in his life-time, " Discours de la Trage- 
die;" ** L'Histoire du Siege de Dunkerque," in 1649; 
and ** La Pompe funebre de Voiture," in the " Miscel- 
lanea^' of Menage, to whom it is addressed, in 1652. At 
bis death, he ordered all his writings to be given into the 
hands of Menage, to be disposed of as that gentleman 
should think proper ; and Menage published a 4to volume 
of them at Paris in 1656, with a portrait of the author en- 
graven by Nanteuil, and a discourse of Pelisson upou his 
merits. They consist of poetry and prose ; and have much 
v^it and considerable ease, elegance, and invention. Be- 
sides this collection in 4to, two more volumes in 12mo 
were published at Paris in 1675, under the title of « Nou- 
velles Oeuvres de Mr. Sarasin ;" which appear to consist of 
the pieces rejected by Menage, mostly unfinished frag- 
ments, but Boileau encouraged the editor, M. de Monnoye, 
to publish them, as not unworthy of Sarasin.' 

. SARAVIA (Hadrian a), of Spanish extraction, but to 
be classed among Enghsh divines, was a native of Artois^ 
where he was born in 1531. Of his early years we have 
lio account. In 1582 he was invited to Leyden to be pro- 
fessor of divinity, and was preacher in the French churcji 

* Nicenm, volt. VI. tnd X.— Moreri.— Diet. Hist— Pemuk Lei Hommet 
lilwtret. 



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S A R A V I A. 151 

there. Having studied the controTersy respecting church 
government, he inclined to that of episcopacy, and in 1587 
came to England where he was well received by some of 
the prelates aqd divines of that day, particularly Whitgift, 
archbishop of Canterbury. He first settled at Jersey, 
where he taught a school, and preached to his countrymen, 
who were exiles there. He was appointed master of the 
free grammar-school at Southampton, where Nicholas 
Fuller, the most renowned critic of his age, receiyed his 
education principally under him, and he also educated sir 
Thomas Lake, secretary of state to James I. He was suc- 
cessively promoted to a prebend in the churches of Glou- 
cester, Canterbury, and Westminster. He displayed gceat 
learning iti defence of episcopacy against Beza, when that 
divine recommended the abolition of it in Scotland. He 
died in 1613, at the age of eighty-two, and vras interred 
in Canterbury cathedral, where there is a monument to 
bis oiemory. All his works were published in 16 (1> one 
Tol. folio. He must have acquired a very considerable 
knowledge of the English language, as w^ 6ud his name 
in the 6rst class of those whom king James I. employed in 
the new translation of the Bible^ He lived in great inti* 
macy with his fellow labourer in the cause of episcopacy^ 
the celebrated Hooker. ** These two persons," says WaU 
ton, ^* began ^ holy friendship, increasing daily to so high 
and mutual affectious, that their two wills seeihed to be but 
one and the same." ^ 

SARBIEWSKI, or SARBiEvms (Matthias Casimir)^ a 
Qiodern Latin poet, was bom of illustrious parents, in 1595^ 
in the duchy of Masovia, in Poland^ He entered among 
. the Jesuits in 1612, and was sent to continue his theologi- 
cal studies at Rome, where h^ delated biipself to the pur« 
suit of antiquities, and indulged bis taste* for poetry. Some 
Latin << Odes," wh^ch be presented to Urban VHL gained 
him that pontiff's esteem, and the honour of being chosen 
to correct the hymns, intended for a new breviary, then 
composing by Urban's orders. When Sarbiewski returned 
to Poland^ he taught ethics, philosophy, and divinity^ suc- 
cessively at Wilna. Such was the esteem in which Jie was 
held, that when admitted to a doctor's deam^'^^^f La- 
dislaus V. king of Poland, who was present^rew the ring 

» Ath. Ox. Tol. I.— Zoacfa*fl edition of Wilton'i 1^^«-T^5S*^ ff^ ^T^^t 
fph, pp. 4«2, Ul.— See tome reflections on Wi P^Uticnl ooadact nl i^ydm te 
SiprinAiin'f ** SjUofe Epittolnriiin." 



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15t 8 A R B I E W S K L 

from his finger, and pnt it on that of Sarbiewski ; and thti 
ling is still preserred in the uDiversity at Wilna, and made 
use of in the inauguration of doctors. Ladislaus also chose 
him for his preacher, an office in which he gained great 
applause ; and he was frequently his majesty's companion 
in his journeys, especially when he went to the baths of 
Baden. Sarbiewski was so enthusiastic in his admiration 
of the Latin poets, that he is said to have read Virgil over 
sixty times, and other poetical classics more than thirty 
times. He died April 2, 1640, aged forty-five. His Latin 
*poems contain great beauties, mingled with some defects. 
An enlarged and very elegant edition of them was publish-* 
ed at Paris, by Barbou, 1759, l2mo. Tbey consist of La- ' 
tin odes, in four books ; a book of epodes ; one of dithy<» 
rambic verses; another of miscellaneous poems; and a 
fourth of epigrams. His lyric verses are the most admired ; 
their style is elevated, but tbey are sometimes deficient in 
elegance and perspicuity.* 

SARJEANT, or SERJEANT (John), a secular priest, 
'who was sometimes called Smith, and sometimes Holland, 
was born at Barrow in Lincolnshire, about 1621, and ad- 
mitted of St. John's college in Cambridge April 12, 1699, 
by the masters and seniors of which he was recommended 
to be secretary to Dr. Thomas Morton, bishop of Durham. 
While in this employment he entered on a conrse of read- 
ing, which ended in his embracing the popish religion, 
He then went over to the English college of secular priests 
mt Lisbon i|i 1649 ; and, after studying there some time, he 
letumed to England in 1652, and was elected secretary of 
the secular clergy, and employed in propagating his reli«» 

S'on, and writing books in defence of it, particularly against 
r. Hammond, Dr. Bramhall, Dr. Thomas Pierce, Dr. Til- 
ktson, Casaubon, Taylor, Tenison, Stillingfleet, Whitby, 
fco. In the course of his controversies he wrote abou( 
forty volumes or pamphlets, the titles of which may be seen 
in Dodd. He had also a controversy with the superiors of 
bis own communion, of which Dodd gives a long, but now 
▼ery uninteresting account. He di^, as his biographer 
lays, with the pen in his hand, in 1707, in the eighty-sixth 
year of his ag^ 

* Baillet*— Not. A«t. Erodit. 1753, Sfo, p. 621-624.— Diet. Hbt-^XM 

OfiOISMt. 

* PoM't Ch. Biit^Birch> TiUot|QD.«-Atk Oi. toI; II. 



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S A R N E L L I. 15S 

SARNELLI (PoMPEY), a learned Italian prelate, was 
born at Polignano in 1649, and studied principally at Na- 
ples. He commenced his career as an author about 1668, 
and published some pieces connected with grammar and 
polite literature. In 1675^ after he had been admitted to 
priest^s orders, pope Clement X. made him honorary pro- 
thonotary; and in 1679, he was appointed grand vicar to 
cardinal Orsini, and obtained other preferment in the 
church. He died in 1724. He was the author of above 
thirty works, enumerated by Niceron and Moreri, of which 
we may mention, " Lettere ecclesiastiche," in 9 vols. 4to ; 
** II Clero secolare nel suo Splendore, overo della vita 
commune clericale;'' *^ Bestiarum Schola ad Hominei 
erudiendos ah ipsa.rerum natura provide instituta, &c. de- 
cem et centum Lectionibns explicata;'' ^^ Memorie Crono- 
logiche de* Vescovi et Arcivescovi di Benevento, con la 
serie de Duchi e Principi Longobardi nella stessa citta ;** 
and the lives o^ Baptista Porta, Boldoni, &c. He some- 
times wrote under assumed names, as Solomon Lipper, 
Esopus Primnellius, &c.* 

SARPI (Paul), usually called in England, Father Paul, 
in Italian, Fra Paolo, a very illustrious writer, was born at 
Venice Aug. 14, 1552, and was the son of Francis Sarpi, 
a merchant, whose ancestors came from Friuli, and of Isa- 
bella Morelli, a native of Venice. He was baptized by the 
name of Peter, which he afterwards, upon entering into 
his order, changed for Paul. His father followed merchan* 
dize, but with so little success, that at his death, he left 
his , family very ill provided for, but under the care of a 
mother whose wise conduct supplied the want of fortune 
by advantages of greater value. Happily for young Sarpi, 
she had a brother, Ambrosio Morelli, priest of the collegi- , 
ate church of St. Hermagoras, who took him under bit 
care. Ambrosio was well skilled in polite literature, which 
he taught to several children of the noble Venetians : and 
he took particular care of the education of his nephew^ 
whose abilities were extraordinary, though his constitution 
was very delicate. Paul had a great memory, and much 
strength of judgment ; so that he made uncommon adrancet 
in evjery branch of education. He studied philosophy and 
divinity under Capella, a father belonging to the monastery 
»f tjbe Scrvites in Venice ; and when only in his tender 

i ITietpoB, vol. JOLU.— M^feri. 



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154 S A R P I. 

years, made great progress in the matbematics, and the 
Greek and Hebrew tongues. Capella, though a celebrated 
master, confessed in a Utile time that he could give his 
pupil no farther instructions, and with this opinion of his 
talents, prevailed with him to assume the religious habit of 
the Servites, notwithstanding his mother and uncle repre- 
sented to him the hardships and austerities of that kind of 
life, and advised him with great zeal against it. But he 
was steady in his resolutions, and on Nov. 24, 1566, took 
the habit, and two years after made his tacit profession, 
which he solemnly renewed May 10, 1572. 

At this time he was in his twentieth year, and defended 
in a public assembly at Mantua, several difficult proposi- 
tions in natural philosophy and divinity, with such uncom- 
mon genius and learning, that the duke of Mantua, a great 
patron of letters, appointed him his chaplain, at the same 
thne that the bishop of that city made him reader of canon 
law and divinity in his cathedral. These employroenu 
animated him to improve himself in Hebrew; and be apt- 
plied also with much vigour to the study of history, in which 
he was afterwards to shine. Inuring bis stay at Mantua he 
became acquainted with many eminent persons ; and bis 
patron, the duke, obliged him to dispute with persons of 
all professions, and on all subjects. Paul had a profound 
knowledge in the mathematics, but the utmost coutempt 
for judicial astrology : ** We cannot/' he used to say, 
** either find out, or we cannot avoid, what will happen 
hereafter/* Fulgentio, his biographer, relates a ludicrous 
story, in which his patron appears to have been a chief 
actor. The duke, who loved to soften the cares of govern- 
ment with sallies of humour, having a mare ready to foal a 
mule, engaged Paul to take the horoscope of the animaPs 
nativity. This being done, and the scheme settled, the 
duke sent it to all the famous astrologers in Europe, inform- 
ing them, that under such an aspect a bastard was bom in 
the duke's palace. The astrologers returned very different 
judgments; some asserting that 'this bastard would be a 
cardinal, others a great warrior, others a bishop, and others 
a pope, and these wise conjectures tended not a little to 
abate the credulity of the times. 

Sarpi, however, finding a court life unsuitable to his in- 
clination, left Mantua in about two years, and returned to 
his convent at Venice. By tbb time he had made a sur- 
prising progress in the canon and civil law^ in all parts of 



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S A R P I. J5J 

physic, and in the Chaldee language ; and, as usually hap- 
pens, bis great reputation had exposed him to much envy« 
For, before he left Mantoa, one Claudio, who was jealous 
of bis superior talents, accused him to the inquisition of 
heresy, for having denied that the doctrine of the Trinity 
could be proved from the first chapter of Genesis: but 
Paul, appealing to Rome, was honourably acquitted, and 
the inquisitor reprimanded for presuming to determine upon 
things written in a language he did not understand. At 
twenty-^wo he was ordained priest ; and afterwards, when 
he had taken the degree of doctor in divinity, and was ad« 
mitted a member of the college of Padua, was chosen pro- 
vincial of his order for the province of Venice, though be 
was then but twenty^six : an instance which had never hap- 
pened before among the Servites. He acquitted hiniself ia 
this post, as he did in every other, with the strictest inte- 
grity, honour, and piety; insomuch that, in 1579, in a 
general chapter held at Parma, he was appointed, with two 
others, much his seniors, to draw up new regulations and 
statutes for bis order. This employment made it necessary 
for him to reside at Rome, where his exalted talents reconn 
, mended him to the notice of cardinal Alexander Famese, 
and other great personages. 

His employment as provincial being ended, he retired 
for three years, which he said was the only repose he had 
ever enjoyed ; and applied himself to the study of natural 
philosophy and anatomy. Among other experiments, he 
employed himself in the transmutation of metals ; but not 
with any view of discovering the philosopher's stone, which 
be always ridiculed as impossible. In the conrse of his ex- 
periments, he made some discoveries, the honour of which. 
It is said, has been appropriated by others. He likewise 
studied anatomy, especially that part of it which relates to 
the eye ; on which be made so many curious observations, 
that the celebrated Fabricius ab Aquapendente did not 
scruple to employ, in terms of the highest applause, the 
authority of Paul on tHat subject, both in his lectures and 
writings. Fulgentio expresses his surprise at Aquapen- 
dente, for not acknowledging, in bis "Treatise of the Eye,** 
the singular obligations be had to Paul, whom he declares 
to have merited all the honour of it. He asseru likewbe, 
that Paul discovered the valves which serve for the circu- 
lation of the blood, and this seems to be allowed ; but not 
that he discovered the circulatiott itself, as Walaeus, Mor- 



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15« 8 A ft p r. 

boffy and others have contended^ against the claim of our 
.countryman Harvey, to whom that discovery has been 
usually, and indeed justly, ascribed. 

Father Paul's great fame would not suffer him any longer 
to enjoy his retreat : for he was now appointed procurator- 
general of his order; and during three years at Rome, 
where he was on that account obliged to reside, he disco- 
vered such extraordinary talents, that he was called by the 
pope^s command to assist in congregations where matters of 
the highest importance were debated. He was very much 
esteemed by Sixtus V. by cardinal Bellarmine, and by car* 
dinal Castegna, afterwards Urban VIF. Upon his return 
to Venice, he resumed his studies, beginning them before 
sun-rise, and continuing them all the morning. The after- 
noons he spent in philosophical experiments, or in conver- 
sation with his learned friends. He was now obliged to 
, femit a little from his usual application : for, by too intense 
study, he had already contracted infirmities, with which he 
was troubled till old age. These made it necessary for him 
to drink a little wine, from which he had abstained till he 
was thirty years old ; and he used to say, that one of the 
things of which he most repented was, that he had . 
been persuaded to drink wine. He ate scarce any thing 
but bread and fruits, and used a very small quantity of food, 
because the least fulness rendered him liable to violent 
pains of the head. 

His tranquillity was now interrupted by other causes. 
Upon leaving Venice to go to Rome, he bad left his friends 
under the direction of Gabriel Collissoni, with whom he> 
bad formerly joined in redressing certain grievances. But 
this man did not answer Paul's expectation, being guilty of 
great exactions: and, when Paul intended to return to 
Venice, dissuaded him from it, well knowing that his return 
would put an end to his impositions. He therefore artfully 
represented, that,' by staying at Rome, he would be sure 
to make his fortune : to which Paul, with more honesty 
than policy, returned an answer in cypher, that "there 
was no advancing himself at the court of Rome, but by 
scandalous means ; and that, far from valuing the dignities 
there, he held them in the utmost abomination.'* After 
this he returned to Venice ; and, coming to an irrecon-* 
cileable rupture with Collissoni, on account of his corrupt 
practices, the latter shewed his letter in cypher to cardinal 
Simta Sererinay who wns ihen at the be«d of the inquisition 



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S AK PI I5y 

The cardinal did not think it cotiTenient to attack Paul 
himself, although he shewed his disaffection to him by per* 
secuting his friends ; but when Paul opposed CoUiBsoni's 
being elected general of the order, the latter accused hint 
to the inquisition at Rome of holding a correspondence with 
the Jews ; and, tp aggravate the charge, produced the lei* 
ter in cypher just mentioned. The inquisitors still did idol 
think proper to institute a prosecution, yet Paul was e?er 
after considered as an inveterate enemy to the court of 
Rome. He was charged also with shewing too great respect' 
to heretics, who, on account of his reputation, came to sea 
him from all parts ; and this prevented pope Clement VIIL 
from nominating him, when he was solicited, to the see of 
Noia. He was also accused of being an intimate friend of 
Mornay, of Drodati, and several eminent Protestants ; and^ 
that when a motion was made at Rome to bestow on him a 
cardinal's hat, whaCt appeared the chief obstacle to his ad<* 
vancement was, bis having more correspondence with .be« 
retics than with Catholics. << Diodati informed me," says 
Ancilion, in his " Melange de Literature," that, " observ- 
ing in his conversations with Paul, how in many opinions 
he agreed with the Protestants, he said, he was extremely 
. rejoiced to find him not far from the kingdom of heaven ; 
and therefore strongly exhorted him to profess the Protes- 
tant religion publicly. But the father answered, that it 
was better for him, like St. Paul, to be anathema for his 
brethren ; and that he did more service to the Protestant 
religion in wearing that habit, than he coqid do by laying 
it aside. — The elder DaiU6 tpld me, that in going to and 
coming from Rome with de Villamoud, grandson to Mor- 
nay, whose preceptor he was, he had passed by Venice, 
and visited Paul, to whom Mornay had recommended him 
by letters; that^ having delivered them to the father, he 
discovered the highest esteem for the illustrious Mr. Du 
Plessis Mornay; that he gave the kindest reception to Mr. 
<le Villarnoud his grandson, and even to Mr. Daill6 ; that 
Itfterwards Mr. Daill^ became very intimate with father 
Paul," &c. All this is confiVmed by father Paul's letters, 
which on every occasion express the highest regard for the 
'Protestants. 

About 1602, he was diverted from his private stadie% 
which he had now indulged, though amidst numerous vex- 
ations, for many years, by the state of pablic afiairs. A 
dispute aroae betwaea the republic of Venice and the oourt 



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1S8 s A a P 1. 

of Kome, relating to ecclesiastical immunities ; and, a« 
both divinity and law were concerned in it, father Paul was 
appointed divine and canonist for the republic of Venice, 
to act in concert with the law-consultors. The dispute had 
commenced, and been carried on, under Clement VIII. ; but 
when Paul V. came to the popedom, he required absolute 
obedience without disputes. At length, when he found 
his commands slighted, the pofie excommunicated the 
duke, the whole senate, and all their dominions, in April 
1606, and the Venetians in return recalled their ambassador 
at Rome, suspended the inquisition by order of state, and 
published by sound of trumpet a proclamation to this effect, 
"viz. " That whosoever hath received from Rome any copy 
of a papal edict, published there, as well^ against the law of 
God, as against the honour of this nation, shall immediately 
bring it to the council of ten upon pain of death.*' But as 
the minds, not only of the common burghers, but also of 
^ome noble personages belonging to the state, were alarmed 
at this papal interdict, Paul endeavoured to relieve their 
fears, by a piece entitled ^* Consolation of miud, to quiet 
the consciences of those wlio live well, against the terrors 
of the interdict by Paul V.'' As this was written for the 
sole use of the government under which he was born, it 
was deposited in' the archives of Venice; till at length, 
from a copy clandestinely taken, it. was first published a^ 
the Hague, both in the Italian and French languages, and^ 
the same year in English, under this title, *' The Rights of 
Sovereigns and Subjects, argued from the civil, canon, and 
common law, under the several heads of Excomm^unica- 
tions, Interdicts, Persecution, Councils, Appeals, Infalli- 
bility, describing the boundaries of that power which is 
claimed throughout Christendom by the Crown and the Mitre ; 
and of the privileges^ which appertain to the subjects, both 
clergy and laity, according to the laws of God and Man.'* 
Paul wrote, or assisted in writing and publishing, several 
other pieces in this controversy between the two states; 
and had the Inquisition, cardinal •Bellarroine, and other 
great personages, for his antagonists. Paul and his brother 
writers, whatever might be the abilities of their adversaries, 
were at l(^ast superior to them in the justice of their cause. 
The propositions maintained on the side of Rome were 
the^e ; that the pope is invested with all the authority of 
heaven and earth; that all princes are his vassals, and that 
be may annul their laws at pleasure; that kings may appeal 



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S A R P L 15J> 

%o him, as he is temporal monarch of the ^hole earth ; that 
he can discharge subjects from their oaths of allegiance, 
and make it their duty to take up arms against their sove- 
reign ; that he may depose kings without any fault commit- 
ted by them, if the good of the church requires it ; that the 
clergy are exempt from all tribute to kings, and are not 
accountable to them even in cases of high treason ; that the 
pope cannot err ; that bis decisions are to be received and 
obeyed on pain of sin, though all the world should judge 
them to be false ; that the pope is God upon earth, and 
that to call bis power in question, is to call in question the ' 
power of God;-— maxims equally shocking^ weak, perni- 
cious, and absurd, which did not requii'e the abilities or 
learning of father Paul, to demonstrate their falsehood, and 
destructive tendency. The court of Rome, however, was 
now so exasperated against him, as to cite him by a decree, 
Oct 30, 1606, under pain of absolute excommunication, 
to appear in person at Rome, to answer the charges of 
heresies against him. Instead of appearing, be published 
a manifesto, shewing the invalidity of the summons ; yet 
offered to dispute with any of the pope's advocates, in a 
place of safety, on the articles laid to his charge. 

In April 1607, the division between Rome and the re- 
public was healed by the interposition of France ; and Ful- 
gentio relates, that the affair was transacted at Rome by 
cardinal Perron, according to the order of the king his 
master. But some English writers are of opinion, that this 
accommodation between the Venetians and the pope was 
owing to the misconduct of king James I., who, if he had 
heartily supported the Venetians, would certainly have 
di^nited them from the see of Rome. Isaac Walton ob- 
serves, that during the dispute it was teported abroad, 
'^ that the Venetians were all turned Protestants, which was 
believed by many : for it was observed', that the English 
ambassador (Wotton) was often in conference with the se- 
nate ; and his chaplain, Mr. Bedel, more often with father 
Paul, whom the people did not take to be his friend ; and 
also, for that the republic of Venice was known to give 
commission to Gregory Justiniauo, then their ambassador 
hi England, to make all these proceedings known to the. 
king of England, and to erave a promise of his assistance, 
if need should require," &c. Burnet tells us, " That the 
iMPeach between the pope and the republic was brought very 
Bear a crisis, so that it was expected a total separation not 



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160 S A R P L 

anly from the courts bat the church of Rome^ was like to 
follow upon it. It was set od by father Paul and the seven 
divines with much zeal^ and was very prudently conducted 
by them. In order to the advancing of it^ king James or* 
dered bis ambassador to o6Fer all possible assistance to tbem^ 
and to aa^use the pope and the papacy as the chief authors 
of all the mischiefs of Christendom. Father Paul and the 
seven divines pressed Mr. Bedel to move the ambassador to 
present king Jameses premonition to all Christian princes 
and states, then put in Latin, to the senate; and they 
were confident it would produce a great effect. But the 
ambassador could not be prevailed on to do it at that time ; 
and pretetided, that since St James's day was not far off^ 
it would be aK>re proper to do it on that day. Before 8u 
James's day came, the difference was made up« and that happy 
opportunity was lost ; so that when he bad his audience on 
that day in which he presented the book, all the answer he 
got was, that they thanked the king of England for his good 
will, but they were now reconciled to the pope ; and that 
therefore they were resolved not to admit any change in 
their religion, according to their agreement with the court 
of Rome." Welwood relates the same story, and imputes 
the miscarriage of that important affair to *< the conceit of 
presenting king James's book on St. James's day." But; 
Dr. Hickes attempts to confute this acjcount, by observing, 
that the pope and the Venetians were reconciled in 1607, 
and that the king's premonition came not out till 1609, 
which indeed appears to be true y so that, if tbe premoni- 
tion was really presented, it must have been only in manu- 
script. 

Tbe defenders of the Venetian righu were, though com- 
prehended in the treaty of April 1607, excluded by the 
Ilomaus from tbe benefit of it ; some, upon different pre- 
tences, were imprisoned, some sent to tbe gallies, and all 
debarred from preferment. But then their malice was 
chiefly aimed against father Paul, who soon found the ef'^ 
fects of it; for, on Oct. 5, 1607, be was atucked, on his^ 
return to bis convent, by five assassins, who gave him fif- 
teen wounds^ and left him for dead. Three of these 
wounds only did execution : he received two iu the neck : 
the third was made by tbe stiletto's entering his right ear, 
and coming out between the noae and right cheek } and so 
violent was the stab, jhat the assassin was obliged to leave 
bis weapon in tbe wound. Being* coaae to himsdfy and 



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h&viflg bad bui woonda dreste^, be toU tboee ^JxMit bioow 
lb£Mt tbe first iwo he bad received «etined Uke %v9o %uh^ 
of fire, whkJb shot upon bifti at i\^ «ame ipstant^ »i»4 
ifaat at tbe third he thought bnuftelf loaded as. it were wi,t|^ 
a f rodigions weight, which stuooed and. quite coafouiMW 
Jhii senses. The assiasMns retired to the palace of the popf *f 
Auocio at V^uice, whence they 'escaped tbitf: evening ;eitht|r 
to R»(reaiia or Ferrara. These circuoastai^ces discpye^ed 
who were at the bottoaa of the a^aipt ; aod Paul bii^setf 
oiM:e, when his friend AquapendefM .was dres^ii^ hi# 
wounds, could not forbear saving pleasantly, that << thejr 
were made Stih Jt^marue Curut.^^ The person who drev 
the aiiletto out of bis head, was desirous of hairifig it j hut, 
,98 father's Paol's esci^ seemed somewhat miracaloutf, it 
jirns thought right to preserve the bloody instruaaeot aa 0^ 
}>ubiic monument : and tihereifore 4t mm •hui^ at the feet of 
« cracifix4n'the church of the Serviiies, wkh the i|iiicrip> 
ition, ''^Deo Filio Ltber^iori," ^ T^ Cod the Soo the De^ ^ 
Jiveror." The senate of Yeiiice, to ahew tbe high legard. 
tbey Jiad for Paul, and their detestatioo of this horrid at- ' 
tempt, broke up iflomediataly <mi tbe aews; caoke to the 
monastery of tfaeServites that Mght in .great numbers ; orV 
dered tbe pbysicians to hriiig constant «ccoufits' of him te 
the senate ; and afterwards kmgfated and richly rewarded 
Aquapeadente for his gr^t care of him. 

How apandalous soever ibis design againat his life waa, it 
^as attempted Again more than 4>Bce, enreo by moaka of 
his own order : but the senate took all ioiaginable precnu^ 
tions for bis aecurity, and he himself 4]etei?BiiQed t^ Uve . 
more privately. In his recess, be applied bimaelf to write 
his <' History of tbe<Councii of Trent," for wtidh he had 
begun to coUect materials long hefioce. Walton tells ni^ 
that the contests between tbe couittiof Rome and the senaae 
p{ Veatce " ware the occaston of father Paulas knowledge 
a«d interest with king Jaa^^ea, for whose sake {iriocipattjr 
he compiled that eminent history «f the remarkable jcmaa^n^ 
cil of Trent ; wkich history was, as '61st as it (was'Wffitten» 
sent in several sfaeete in letters by air Henry Wotton, Mc; 
fiedell, aifed otiicrs, unto king James, and the then bidiop 
of Canterbury, into England." Wotton relates, that 
Jamea himseif «< had a hand in it ; for the benefit," beadda^ 
'' of the OwFiiiaiau worJd." This history was &st (puUbhfd 
by sir Nath. Brent (See Brent), bx London, m iei9, im 
felio^ Boder tbe leigned name of jHfiCro Soa^e Polano^ 

V0L.XXYII. M 



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KM S A it P I. 

which is an anagram of Pado Sarpi V6netiana^ and dtfdif'- 
caked to Jtfmes I. by Antooy de Dominb, archbishop of 
Spalatro. It was afterwards- trganlated into Latin, English, 
French, and other languages ; and a new translation of it 
into Frcfneh by Dr. le Conrayer, with notes critical, his* 
torida), and theological, was published at London, ITSv, 
2 vols, folio. Burnetts accoank of this work may serve to 
shew the opinion which Protestants of all communities have 
ever entertained of it : " The style and way of writing,'* 
says be^ ** is so natural and masculine, the intrigues- were 
•o fully opened, with so many judicious reflections in all 
the parts of it, that as it was read with great pleaaure, so it 
was generally looked on as the rarest piece of history 
which the world ever saw. The author was soon guessed, 
and that raised the esteem of the work : for as he was ac* 
counted one of the wisest men in the world, so he had great 
opportunities to gather exact informations. He had free 
Access to all the archives of the republic of Venice, which 
has been now looked on for several ages as very exact, 
-both in getting good intelligence, and in a most careful way 
"of preserving it : so that among their records he must have 
found the dispatches of the ambassadors and prelates of 
that republic, who were at Trent ; which being so near 
them, and the council being of such high consequence, at 
is not to be doubted, but there were frequept and parti* 
cttlar informations, both of more'public and secreter trans- 
actions transmitted thithen He had also contracted a. close 
friendship with Camillus Oliva, that was secretary to one of 
the legates, from whom he had many discoveries of the 
practices of the legates, and of their correspondence with 
Rome : besides many other materials and notes of some 
prelates who were at Trent, which he had gathered toge* 
iher. His work came out within fifty yean of the conclu* 
aton of the council, when several, who had been present 
there, were still alive ; and the thing was so recent in men's 
memories, that few thought a man of so great prudence as 
he-was would have exposed his reputation, by writing in 
•Qch a nice manner things which he Could not justify. 
Never was there a man more hated by the court of Rome 
than he was ; and noW he was at their mercy, if he had 
abused the world by such falsehoods in matter of fact, aa 
have been since charged on his work ; but none appeared 
against him for fifty years." 

Early in the v^inter of 1622, bis health began to decline 



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S A R P 1. IM 

greatly ; tfnd he languished till January the 1 4th, when he 
Mcpired, in his seventy-^second year. He behaved with the 
greatest constancy and piety during his illness, and the Um 
words he uttered were " Esto perpetua,** which was under* 
stood to be a prayer for the republic. 

When the news of his death reached Rome, the conrtieni 
Tejoiced ; nor could the pope himself forbear saying, that 
the hand of God was visible in taking him out of the world, 
as if it had been a miracle surely that a man of seventy-two ' 
should die ! His funeral was distinguished by the public 
magnificence of it, and the vast concourse of nobility and 
persons of all ranks attending it : and the senate, out of 
gratitude to his memory, erected a monument to him, the 
inscription upon which was written by John Anthony Ve- 
nerio, a noble Venetian. He was of middle stature ; his 
bead very large in proportion to his body, which was ex- 
tremely lean. He had a wide forehead, in the middle of 
which was a very large vein. His eye-brows were well 
arched, his eyes large, black, and sprightly ; his nose long 
and large ; his beard but thin. His aspect, though grave, 
was extremely soft and inviting ; and he had a very fine 
band. Fulgentio relates, that though several kings and 
princes had desired him to sit for his picture, yet he never ' 
would suffer it to be drawn ; but sir Henry Wotton, in his 
letter to Dr. Collins, writes thus : ** And now, sir, having 
a fit messenger, and not long after the time when love- 
tokens use to pass between friends, let me be bold to send 
you for a new-year's gift a certain memorial, not altogether 
unworthy of some entertainment under your roof; namely, 
a true picture of father Paul the Servite, which was first 
taken by a painter whom I sent unto him, my house then 
neighbouring his monastery. I have newly added there- 
unto a title of my own conception, << Concilii Tridentini 
Eviscerator, &c. — You will find a scar in his face, that was 
from the Roman assassinate, that would have killed him as 
he was turned to a w^U near his convent." 

Fi^ther Fulgenuo, his friend and companion, who was a 
man of great abilities and integrity, and is allowed on all 
Kaods to have drawn up Paul's life with great judgment 
and impartiality, observes, that, notwithstanding tlie ani- 
mosity of the court of Rome against him, the most eminent 
prelates of it always expressed the highest regard for him; 
and Protestants of all conunuDities have justly supposed 
hini one of the wisest and best men that ever lived* •• Fa* 

M 9 



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104 8 A R P I. 

/ ther Pmil,*^ says sir Henry Wotton, ** wns c^e of ihe Imm- 
blest things that could be seen within the bounds of bi^ 
Bianity ; die rery. pattern of that precept, ftumto Joctwrf 
imUo suhnitsioTy and enough alone lo demonstrate^ that 
knowledge well digested turn in^t. Excellent in positive^ 
excellent in seholastical and polemical, divinity : a rare 
nlEtheinatieian, even in the most abstruse parts thereof, m 
in algebra and the tbeoriqoes ; and yet withal so expert in 
the iristory of plants, as if be bad never perused any book 
bnt nature. Lastly, a great canonist, which was the title 
bf his ordinary service with the state ; and certainly, in the 
time of the pope's interdict, they had their principal light 
frbm him. When he was either reading or writing alone, 
bid manner ^as to sit fenced with a castle of paper about 
hH cbair and over his head ; for he was of our lord St. 
Alba«i*s opinion, that all air ii predatory, and especially 
hurtful, when the spirits are most emplojred. — He was of a 
^uiet and settled temper, which made him prompt in his 
couAseis and answers ; and the same in consultation wbick 
Tbemistocle^ was in action, ovro-xifto^tiv liMfirarof, as will 
appear uiito you in a passage between him and the prince 
6f Condig. The said prince^ in a voluntary journey to 
Rom^ came by Venice, where, to give some vent to bit 
own humoin*s, he would often divest himself of his great** 
tiess ; and after 6ther Ic^ss laudable curiosities, uot long be- 
fore his departure, a desire took him to visit the famous 
Obscure Sertite. To i^bose cloyster coming twice, he was 
the first titae denied to be within ; and at the second it was 
intimated, thtft, by reasdn of bis daily admission to their 
detiberations in the palace, he c6dd not receive the visit 
#f so iihistrions a personage, without leave from the senate^ 
which be ivould seek to procure. This set a greater edge 
upon the prince, whfen he saw he should confer with one 
{participant of uiore than monkish speculations. So, after 
tesve gotten, be came the third time ; and then, besidea 
other voluntary discourse, desired to be told by him, who was 
die ti'Oe unmbsked author of the late Tri^ntine History^ 
-L^To whom father Paul said, that he understood he wa* 
^iAng to Rome, where be might learn at' ease, who waa 
the Author of tbbt book.'' 

Cardinal Perroti gave his opinion of father Paul in tbes%' 
tfemis : « 1 see nothing eminent in that man ; he is a roan' 
(A judgment and good sfense, but has no great learning : I 
tfbs^i'^e his qualificaMotis to be 'mere coAHnon -ones^ anil« 



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8 A R P I. ts$ 

lUtU superior to an ordinary mookV^ Bnt the learned 
MorhofF has justly remarked, tiiat ^ tM& judgiiieatx)f Per- 
ron is absurd and oiaiignaMt, and directly oonirary to tbe 
clearest evidence; «nce those wjio are Sf^quainted with 
the great things done by father Pady and witli the vast 
extent of his learning, will allow kirn to be superior, 
fliot only to monks, but cardinals, and etreo to Pernm 
himself.*' Courayer, his Fvencfa translator, says, that 
H in iinitatioii of Erasmus, Cass^uder, Thuanu% and other 
tgresLt men, Paul was a Catholic in general, and some- 
times a Protestant in particiilaa*s. He obsenr^d every thing 
Ml the Roman religion, which could he fMMctised ^vttlioat 
•uperstition ; and, in points which he sopupled, look greait 
care not to scandalize the weak. In short, be was •qusdiy 
averse to all extremes : if be disapproved the abases of ^he 
Catholics, he condemned also the too great heat of the 
reformed ; and used to say to those who ur^ed him to 4^ 
olare himself in favour of the latter, that God hi^l not 
given him the spirit of Luthec"-^Courayer likewise ob- 
serves, that Paul ivisbed for a reformation of tbe Papacy, 
and not tbe destruction of it ; and was an enemy to the 
abases and pretences of the popes, not their place.*' We 
see by several of Paul's letters, that be wished well to the 
progress of tbe reformation, though in a gentler manner 
than that which had been taken to procure it; and, if he 
htemelf had been silent on this head, we might have eoU 
lected his inclinations this way, from circumstances relet* 
ing to Fulgentio, the most intimate of his friends, and who 
was best acquainted with his sentiments. Burnet informs 
OS, that Fulgentio preaching upon Pilate*s questi<^, 
^ What is Truth ?" told die audience, that at last, after 
many searches, he had found it out : and holding forth a 
Mew Testament, said, it was sbere in his hand ; but, adds he, 
putting it again in his pocket, << the book is prohibited." 

Of mtber Paul's whole works, ^ Tutte le sue opere,- eon 
un supplemento," an edition was published at Verona; 
mder th^ name of Helmsted, 1761 — 6t, 8 vols. 4to; an4 
aootber at Naples in 1790, 24 vols. 8vo. In 17SS, a trea- 
tise was published at Loiidon in Italian, entitled *< Opi- 
nione di Fra Paolo S^rpi, toccente il governo della repuh- 
lica Veneziana," 8vo, we know not whether in any of tbe 
preeeding editions. Of his works, we have English trans- 
lations, printed at various times, of *' Tbe Bights of Sovi^- 
reigns and Subjects," " The History of the Council of 



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166 - S A R P L 

Trent;" his << Letters ;*' « Maxims of the Oovrnimeot of 
Venice, in an advice to the Republic ;** and a << Treatise 
of Ecclesiastioal Benefices and Revenues.*'^ 

SARRAU (CuLUDE), in Latin SARaAVius, a learned 
French lawyer, was born towards the close of the sixteenth 
century, of a noble family, and educated by his father, 
who was a man of letters, with the greatest care. To tb«> 
atudy of the law, he joined a taste for polite literature, 
philosophy, and criticism, wrote elegantly in Latin, and 
was an excellent Greek scholar. He had perused the 
classics with great attention ; and some I^tiii and French 
verses which he wrote, show that he had formed his taste 
on the best models. He practised at the bar at Rouen^ 
but was an enemy to litigious suits, and always endeavoured 
to prevent his clients from coming into court, while recon* 
ciliation was possible. He lived in intimacy and corre« 
spondeoce with the most learned men of his time, parti* 
cularly Sajmasius, Grotius, and our archbishop Usher.. It 
is not much praise to add after this, that he had Christina 
queen of Sweden for a correspondent. He was of the pro- 
lestant religion, and appears to have been displeased with 
some symptoms of what he thought lukewarmness in his 
friend Grotius, and wished him to be more decided. Sar« 
rau died MIy 30, 1651, advanced in years, and was la« 
mented in poems and eloges by many learned contempora^ 
ries. He published the collection of Grocius^s correspon-* 
dence entitled *^ Grotii epistolse ad Gallos," and his own 
Latin letters were published in 1654, 8vo, and reprinted at 
Utrecht with .the letters of Marquard Gudius, in 1697, 4tOy 
and again *at Leyden by Peter fiurman in 1711, who haa 
inserted some of them in his valuable << Sylloge.'' They 
contain many particulars of the literary history of the timeft. 
He appears to have been an exceeding admirer of Sai- 
masius. * 

* SARTI (Joseph), a sweet, tender, and graceful com* 
poser, was bdrn at Faenza in 1730. In 1756 he went to 
Copenhagen as maestro di cappella to the young king of 
Denmark, for whose theatre he composed an opera, which 
bad no great success. In his way back to Italy he came 

^ Life by Fulgentio.— Life of sir H^nry Wottoa, preBxed to his workt, edit* 
1685.— Burnclf Life of Bedel.— Welwood't Memoirt. — Uicket's Difcounef 
«poo Dr. Barmet and Dr. Tillottoo, 1695, ito, p. 30.— Morboffi Mybitfor.*-) 
Coaraycr>f editioo of the Council of IVeDU^Life by Dr. Johnton. 

« Mortri.— BumuD'i •• Syllofe«» 



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6 A E T I. X61 

throtff b Cttgland^ and publkbed t\x sonatas for the ha^p* 
aichord. In 1769 he w^jt to Venice, where be waa ap-* 
pointed master of the conservat^rio of La Pieta, and com* 
4>osed an opera, which w«s in aucb favour, that it was scaid 
to be celestial music of the other worjd, ^' musica d^r altro 
mondo.*' He next composed for JVlUan foor operas^ in 
which Marchesl sung, and which had all very iipcommon 
auacess. In 1782 he was appointed maestro di cappella to 
the tDuomo in that city. His opera of ^^-GiuUo Sabino** 
was sung at the same time by Marcbesi at Milau^ and by 
Paccbieretta at Venice. In 1784 it was brought ca the 
suge at Vienna, after it had been performed at aU ^t 
principal tbi^atries of Italy during two years. His barmony 
was sweet and simple, and his melody truly Tocal. 

At the end of 1784 he again steered northward, hayiof 
been^ngaged in the service of the empress of l^uasia fo€ 
thcee years. In 1785 h^ esublbhed a concert spiritpel at 
Petersburg, for which be compos^d^ in the choral style, a 
psalm in the Russian language, which was performed by 
66 voices and 100 instruments, among which, these wert 
wind instruments of every kind. In 1788 be composed a 
Te Deum for the victory over the Turks at Ockzakow. 
H^e was appoint^ director the same year of a consenra* 
torio, for the establishment of which the eotipress ex- 
pended 3S00 rubles, and allowed 1500 in annual salaries 
and other incidental expences: and in order to engage 
Sarti to remain in Russia, her imperial majestv gave him an 
estate, with woods and seats upon it of considerable valu<^ 
jvbich induced him to spend the chief part of his remaining 
days in cultivating his lands inore than music His ofibra 
of <<Armida," in 1786, had pleased the empress so mucb^ 
that she gave him a golden vase or bowl, .and a ri^g of 
great value. In 1790, at sixty years of age, be died in hia 
w«y back to his own country for the recovery of bis healthy 
which had been much impaired by the severity of the cli- 
mate. His works, which arecon>ppsed in so elegant, na- 
tural, and pleasing a style, as is QOt likely to be soon out 
of fashion, are for the cbvrdi, h A miserere, accompanied 
only by a tenor and violoncello in solo parts, and ripieno 
viofini in the choruses. 2. A motdt, canfitebor tibi, k 6, 
Soprano and contralto in the solo verses. 3. A gloria^ in 
nine parts, for the Russian or Greek church. For tb^ 
theatre, twenty-six operas. Chamber music printed. Sym- 
phonies in nine parts at Leipsig, 1758. Three sonatas for 



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Ui i AILt 0. 

tb^ Ila«p9idb6rd> #i€il a flnle aeo«ti|tentnieifl| A«iiUrdAiii. 
Three sonatas, in London, 1769. ** Giuli^ Sabino eba*- 
rtfcterisCica^*' Vienaa, 1787.* 

' 8ARTO (Al4DRfiA DEL), or Vakkucchi, a fiuno«i8 Italiaa 
j>aiater, waa tbe son of a tailor, whence be had the name 
of Sarlo, and was born at Florence in 1471. He was ap«. 
I^ri^ntrced to a goldsmith, with whom he liyed some time ; 
^nt was then placed with John Basile, an ordinary painter, 
who taught hr^ the rudiments of his art ; and afterwards 
With Pei^ Coshno, and while with him, studied the car-* 
tOons of Michael Angelo and Leonardo da Vinci ; and by ^ 
tlies^.mMns arrived at a mastery In his art. Being at last^ 
ditsatiified with his master^ be associated with Francis 
Bigio, and they painted Tarions pieces in conjunction, at 
Florence and about it, for the monasteries. At length 
ftobie of Sartors pieces falling under the notice of Francis I. 
that monatch was so pleased with them, that he invited 
fiafto into France, and treated him with great liberality. 

. He executed many pictures for the king and the nobility ; 
bm, while Employed upon a St. Jerodlie for the queeh* 
ftoothet*, he received letters from his wife, with whom he was 
infatuated, Which made him resolve to return thither. He 
pretended domestic aflPairs, yet promised the king not only 
t6 teturn, bnt also to bring with him a good collection of 
|)ictures and sculptut^s. In this, however, be wad over«- 
tuled by his wife, and, never returning, gave Francis, who 
had trusted him with a considerable sum of money, so bad 
an opirtion of Florentine painters, that he would not look 

. ftlVourably on them for some years after. Sarto afterward! 
gave himself up wholly to pleasure, and became at length 
very poor. He was naturally mild and diffident, and set 
hilt very little value upon his own performances : yet the 
Florentines had so great an esteem for his works, that^ 
during the fury of the popular factions among them, they 
preserved them from the flames. Sarto died of the plague 
in 1520, when only 42. Sarto*s works, in Mr. FuseK's 
6pinion seem to have obtained their full share of justice. 
As a Tuscan, the suavity of bis tone and facility of prac<i- 
tice contrast more sti^ingly with the general austerity and 
elaborate pedantry ot that school, and gain him greater 
praise than th^y would, had be been a Bolognese or Lorn* 
fiai^d. It cannot, however, be denied that his sweetness 
0diuetimes border^ on insipidity : the modesty dr rather 

^ From Dr. Barney in Reet's Cyclopedia. 

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S A K T O. V 169 

pusiUantanitj of 'bit character checked tbe full exertion of 
his powers ; his faalts are of the negative kind, and defects 
rather than bleoiisbes. He bad uo notions of nature be- 
yond the model, and concentrated all female beanty in hit 
wife, Lncretia ; and if it be tnae that he sacrificed hit for- 
tune and Francis I. to her charms, she must at least have 
equalled in form and feature his celebrated Madonna del 
Sacca : hence it was not unnatural that the proportions of 
Albert Durer should attract him more than those of Mi- 
chaelagnolo. His design and his conceptions, which sel- 
dom rose abore the sphere of conlmon or domestic life, 
kept pace with each other; here his observation was acute, 
and bis ear opeti to every whisper of social intercourse or emo- 
tion. The great peculiarity, perhaps the great prerogative, 
of Andrea appears to me that parallelism of composition, 
which distinguishes the best of his historic works, seem- 
ingly as natural, obvious and easy, as inimitable. In so- 
lemn effects, in alternate balance of action and repose, he 
exceb all the modems ; and if he was often unable to con- 
ceive the actors themselves, he gives them probability and 
importance by place and posture. Of costume he was 
ignorant, but none ever excelled and few approached him 
in breadth, form, and style of that drapery which ought to 
distinguish solemn, grave, or religious subjects.* 

SAUMAISE. See SALMASIUS. 

SAUNDERS (Sm Edmund), lord chief justice of the 
King*8 Bench towards the close of the seventeenth cen- 
tury, seems entitled to some notice on account of his 
" Reports,*' although his character in other respects may 
as well be consigned to oblivion. He was originally a 
strolling beggar about the stress, without known parents 
or relations. He catne often to beg scraps at Clement^s 
Inn, where his sprigbtliness and diligence made the society 
desirous to extricate him At>m his miserable situation. As 
he appeared desirous to learn to write, one of the attornies 
fixed a board up at a window on the top of a stair-case, 
wMch served him as a desk, and there he sat and wrote 
after obpies of court and other, bands, in which at length 
he acquired such expertness, as in some measure to set 
up for himself, and earn a pittance by hackney-writing. 
He also took all opportunities of improving himself by 
raidfiig such books as he borrowed of his friends, and in 

t AixcntrHle, tol. L— FJtkinjton by Fuicli, 

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170 SAUNDERS. 

ih€ conne of ft (em yean, became ao wblt attoroey and a 
▼ery emioent coonael, his practice in the King's-bencb 
being exceeded by none. All this would have redounded 
to bis honour, bad his progress in integrity kept pace with 
other accomplishments, but he appears to have brought into 
bis profession the low habits of bis early life, and became 
as much a disgrace as an ornament to the bar. His art and 
cunning were equal to his knowledge, and he carried many 
a cause by sinister means, and when detected, he never 
was out of countenance, but evaded the matter with a jest, 
which he had always at hand. He was much employed by 
the king against the city of London, in the business of the 
pt0 wsrraniOf and was a very 6t tool in the hands of the 
court, and prompted the attorney- general Sawyer, to over- 
throw the city charter. It was when this affair was to be 
brought to a decision, that Saunders was knighted and 
made lord chief justice Jan. 23, 1682-3. But just as s^n* 
tence was about to be given, he was seized with an apo- 
plexy and died. In our authority, a disgusting description 
is given of his person, which seems to have corresponded^ 
with his mind. 

His '< Reports" are considered as peculiarly valuable, 
on account of the correct state of the pleadings in the se« 
▼eral cases in the court of King*s-bench. They were 6r8t 
published in French, 1686, 2 vols. fol. and reprinted in 
English, with the addition of several thousand -references^ 
in 1722* A third edition, by Serjeant Williams, appeared 
in 1799, with notes and references, 2 vols; 8vo, usually 
bound in three. ' 

SAUNDERSON (Nicolas), an illustrious professor of 
the mathematics in the university of Cambridge, and feU 
low of the Royal Society, was born in 1682, at Thurlston 
in Yorkshire ; where his father, besides a small esUte, en- 
joyed a place in the Excise. When he was a year old, he 
was deprived, by the small-pox, not only of his sight, but 
of his eye-balls, which were dissolved by abscesses; so 
that he retained no more idea of light and colours than if 
he had been born blind. He was sent early to a free- 
school at Penniston, and there laid the foundation of that 
knowledge of the Creek and Roman languages, which he 
afterwards improved so far, by bis own application to the 
classic authors, as to hear the works of Euclid, Archimedes^ 

* North's Lif tf of tbf Cbaiictllon.-^Baraet'i Ovq Tifiitf.— QmofOT. 

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fi A 17 N D £ R 8 O N* 171 

ai^d Diophftiitiii, read Id tbair origioal Greek. When he 
had passed some time at this school, bis father, whose oc« 
capatioQ led him to be conversant in numbers, began to 
instruct btm in the common rules of arithmetic. Here it 
was that his genius finf, appeared : ifor he very soon be- 
came able to work the common questions, to m^e long 
calculations by the ttreng;th of his memory, and to form 
new rules to himself for the more ready solving of such 
problems as are often proposed to learners^ as trials of 
skill. At eighteen, he was introduced to the acquaintance 
of Richard West of Underbank,esq. a^gentleman of fortune 
and a lover of the mathematics, who, observing bis uncom* 
non capacity, took the pains to instruct him in tbe princi- 
ples of algebra and geometry, and gave him every encou- 
ragement in tbe prosecution of these studies. Soon after, 
he became acquainted with Dr. Nettleton, who took the 
same pains with him ; and it was to these gentlemen that 
be owed his first institution in tbe mathematical sciences. 
They furnished him with books, and often read and ex- 
pounded them to him ; but be soon surpassed Im-masterSy 
and became fitter to teacb than learn any thing froa[i them. 
His passion for learning growing up with him, his father 
sent him to a private academy at Auercliff near Sheffield. 
But logic and meuphysics being the principal learning of 
this school, were neither of them agreeable to the genius 
of our author ; and therefore he made but a short stay. 
He remained some time after in tbe country, prosecuting 
bis studies in his own way^ without any other asristant 
than a good author, and some person that could read it to 
him ; being able, by the strength of bis own abilities, td 
surmount all difficulties that might occur. His education 
bad hitherto been at the expeoce of his father, who, hav- 
ing a numerous family, found it difficult to continue it; 
and his friends therefore began to think of fixing him in 
some way of business, by which he might support himself. 
His own inclination led him strongly to Cambridge ; and^ 
after much consideration, it was resolved he should make 
bis appearance there in a way very uncommon ; not as m 
scholar, but a master ; for, his friends, observing in him a 
peculiar felicity in conveying his ideas to others, hoped 
that be might teach the mathematics with credit and ad« 
vantage, even in the university ; or, if this design should 
miscarry, they promised themselves success in opening a 
school for him in London. 



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17t S A U N D E R S O N. 

Accordin^y, in 1707, being now twenty-five, he was 
brought to Cambridge by Mr. Joshua Dunn, then a fellow- 
oommooer of Christ's college ; where he resided with that 
Jrieod, but was not admitted a member of the college. The 
•ociety, however, much pleased with so extraordinary a 
guest, allotted him a chamber, the use of their library, 
and indulged him in every privilege that could be of ad* 
yaotage to him. But still many difficulties obstructed his 
design^ : he was placed here without friends, without for- 
tone, , a young man, untaught himself, to be a teacher of 
philosophy in an university, where it then flourished in 
the greatest perfection. Whiston was at this time mathe- 
matical professor, and read lectures in the manner pro- 
posed by Saunderson ; so that an attempt of the same kind 
by the latter looked like ah encroachment on the privileges 
of his office ; but, as a good-natured man, and an encou-> 
rager of learning, Whiston readily consented to the appli- 
cation of friends, made in behalf of so uncommon a person. 
Mr. Dunn had been very assiduous in making known his 
character ; bis fame in a short time had filled the univer*^ 
sity; men of learning and curiosity grew ambitious and 
fottd of his acquaintance, so that his lecture, as soon as 
opened, was frequented by many, and in a short time very 
^uch crowded. •^ The Principia Mathematica, Optics, 
and Arithmetica Universalis, of sir Isaac Newton,** were 
the foundation of his lecture ; and they afforded a noble 
field to display bis genius in. It was indeed an object of 
the greatest curiosity that a blind youth should read lectures 
in optics, discourse on the natufe of light and coloiurs, ex- 
plain the theory of vision, the effect of glasses, the phssno- 
mena of the rainbow, and other objects of sight : nor was 
the surprize of bis auditors much lessened by reflecting^ 
that as this science is altogether to be explained by linesi 
and is subject to the rules of geometry, he might be a mas- 
ter of these subjects, even under the loss of sight 
• As he was instructing the academical youth in the prin-- 
eiples of the Newtonian philosophy, it was not long before 
he became acquainted with the incomparable author^ al- 
though he had left the university several years ; and en- 
joyed his frequent conversation concerning the mote diflii- 
cuk parts of his works. He lived in friendship also with 
vhe most eminent mathematicians of the age; with Halley, 
Coles, De Moivre, &c. Upon the removal of Whiston 
from his professorship, Saunderson^s mathematical merU 



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8 A U N D E R S O N. IT* 

wat QdiTersilly allowed so much svp^rior to that of aoy 
compotitOTy that an OKtraordinary step was taken in bis 
£ivour, to qualify him with a degree, which the statutes 
require* Upon applioation made by the heads of colleges 
to the duke of Somerset, their cbaooellor, a mandate was 
readily granted by the queen for conferring on him the de- 
gree of master of arts : upon which be was chosen Lacatian 
professor of the mathematics, Nov. 1711, sir Isaac Ne^ 
ton all the while interesting him^lf rery much in the affair. 
His first performance, after he was seated in the chair, was 
ao ioauguration-speech made in very elegant Latin, and a 
style truly Ciceronian ; for he was w«ll versed in the 
writings o( Tully, who was his fiivourite in prose, as VirgA 
and Horace wero in verse. From this time he applied bioh- 
self closely to the reading of lectures, and gave ap bis 
whole time to his pupils. He ooadnned among the gen- 
tlemen of Christ^s college tiU 1723 ; when he took a houie 
in Cambridge, and soon after married a daughter of the 
rev. Mr. Dickens, rector of Boxworth in Cambridgeshire, 
by whom be bad a son and a daughter. In 1728, when 
George II. visited the miiversity, be was pleased to signify 
his d^ire of seeing so remarkable a person ; and acoora- 
iogly the professor waited upon his nsajesty in the senate^ 
bouse^ and was there created doctor of laws by royal favour: 
Saupderson was natorally of a strong healthy constitis- 
tion; but being too sedentary, and constantly confining 
himself to the bouse, be became at length a Taletudinari^m. 
For some years he frequently complained of a mitnbness^in 
bis Umbs, which, la the spring of 1739, ended in an iiK> 
cwrable mortificatiDn of bis foot. He died April 19, aged 
fifty-seven, and was buried, according to his request, in 
tbe cbancel at Boiurortb; He was ji warn rather to ^be ad- 
mired than loved^ He bad mach wit and vivacity in con«- 
versation, and many reckoned him a good companion. Her 
had also a great regard to troth, but was one of those who 
think it their duty to express their sentiments on men and 
opinions, without reserve or restraint, or any of tbe ooar* 
teiaes of conversation, which cr&ited him many enemies; 
nor was he less offensive by a habit of profane swearing, and 
the obtnision of infidel opinions, which laA beheld, not- 
withstanding the kindness of providence towards him 
throogbotft his extraordinary life*. He is said, however, 



» •• Wiih retpect to the iofidel part Monthly F«»'»«»er* " »«.«« »>«« »*- 
f Saondenon't charaeUr/' tajt tbe turally rtmioded of the juke U>ai waa 

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174 AAUNDEBSON. 

to have received the notice of hit approaching death with 
great calmness aud teretiity i and after a short silence, re- 
'eiiming life and spirit, talked with as moch composure as 
•sual, and at length, we are told, appointed to receive the 
sacrament the evening before his death, which a delirium 
that never went off prevented him from doing. 

A blind man moving in the sphere of a mathematician, 
seems a phsenomenon difficult to be accounted for, and has 
excited the admiratbn of every age in which it has ptppear- 
ed. Tully mentions it as a thing scarce credible in his own 
master in philosophy, Diodotus, that ** he exercised him« 
self in that science with more assiduity after he became 
blind ; and, what he thought almost impossible to be done 
without sight, that he described his geometrical diagrams 
JO expressly to his scholars, that they could draw every 
line in its proper direction.'* Jerome relates a more remark- 
able instance in Didymus of Alexandria, who, ^Vtbough 
blind from bb in&ncy, and therefore ignorant of the very 
fetters, appeared so great a miracle to the world, as not 
only to learn logic, but geometry also, to perfection, which 
seems the most of any thing to require the help of sight" 
But, if we consider that the ideas of extended quantity, 
which are the chief objects of mathematics, may as well be 
acquired from the sense of feeling, as that of sight | that a 
fixed and steady attention is the principid quaUfication for 
this study ; and that the blind are by necessity more ab- 
stracted than others, for which reason Democritus is said 
to have put out his eyes, that he might think more in- 
tensely ; we shall perhaps be of opinion, that there is no 
other branch of science better adapted to their circum- 
stances. 

It was by the sense of feeling, that Saunderson acquired 
most of his ideas at first; and this he enjoyed in great 
acuteness and perfection, as it commonly happens>to the 
blind, whether by tbe gift of nature, or, as is more pro- 
bable, by tbe necessity of application. Yet he could not, 
^s some have imagined, and as Mr. Boyle was made to be- 
lieve of a blind man at Maestricht, distinguish colours by 
that sense ; and, having made repeated trials, he used to 
say, it was pretending to impossibilities. But he could 

patted on thti leained univenity, on ibey btTe pot in Saandenon, who be* 

bit being elected to fiU the LucatUn lierek in no Qod at all*.'' Month. Rer. 

chair—* They have torned out Whit* TOl, XXXVl. 
ton for btllfviof in bat o<m O^d ; and 



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S A U N b £ R S !J. lU 

with great nicety and exactness discern the least differentre 
of rough and smooth in a surface, or the least defect of po- 
lish. Thus he distinguished in a set of Roman medals the 
genuine from the false, though they had been counterfeited 
with such exactness 9^ to deceive a connoisseur who had 
judged by the eye. His sense of feeling was very accurate 
also in distinguishing the least variation in the atmosphere ; 
and he has been seen in a garden, when observations have 
been making on the sun, to take notice of every cloud, that 
interrupted the observation, almost as justly as they who 
could see it. He could tell when any object was held near hb 
face, or when he passed by a tree at no great distance, pro- 
vided there was a calm air, and little or no wind : these he 
did by the different pulse of the air upon his face. 

An exact and refined ear is what such are commonly 
blessed with who are deprived of their eyes ; and our pro* 
fessor was perhaps inferior to none in the excellence of his. 
He could readily distinguish to the fifth part of a note ; and, 
by his performance on the flute, which he had learned as 
an asiusement in his younger years, dbcovered such a ge* 
nius for music, as, if he had cultivated the art^ would have 
probably appeared as wonderful as his skill in the mathe- 
matics. By his quickness in this sense he not only distin- 
guished persons with whom he had ever once conversed so 
long as to fix in his memory the sound of their voice, but 
in some measure places alsb. He could judge of the size 
of a room, into which he was introduced, of the distance 
be was from the wall ; and if ever he bad walked over a 
pavement in courts, piazzas, &c. which reflected a sound, 
and was afterwards conducted thither again, he could 
^exactly tell whereabouts in the walk he was placed, merely 
by the note it sounded. 

There was scarcely any part of the mathematics on which 
he bad not written something for the use of his pupils : but 
be discovered no intention of publishing any of his works 
till 1733. Then his friends, alarmed by a violent fever 
that had threatened his life, and unwilling that his labours 
should be lost to the world, importuned him to spare some 
time from his lectures, and to employ it in finishing some 
of his works ; which he might leave behind him, as a va- 
luable legacy both to his family and the public. He yielded 
so far to these entreaties as to compose in a short time bis 
** ElemeoU of Algebra ;** which he left perfect, and tran- 
fcribed fair for the press. It was published by subscription 



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176 S A U N D £ B 8 O N. 

at Cambridge, 1740, in 2 voU. ito, with a good mezza- 
tinto print of the author^ aod an account of his life and 
character prefixed. 

Saunderson entertained the floost profound Feneration for 
sir Isaac Newton. If he ever differed in sentiment from 
any thing in sir Isaac^s matheoiaucal and philosophical wri- 
tings, uppn more mature consideration, he said, be always 
found the mistake to be his own. The more be read his 
works, and observed upon nature the more reason be found 
to adnlire the justness and care as well as happiness of ex« 
pression, of that incomparable philosopher, Saunderson 
left many other writings, though none perhaps prepared 
for the press. Among these were some valuable comments 
on the *^ Principia," which oot only explain the more diffi- 
cult parts,' but often improve upon the doctrines ; these 
are published, in Latin, at the end -of his posthumous 
^* Treatise on fluxions,*' a valuable work, which appeared 
in 1756, 8vo. His manuscript lectures too on most parts 
of natural philosophy, might, in the o|)inion of Dr. Hutton, 
who has perused them, form a considerable volume, and 
prQve an acceptable present to the public' 

8AURIN (Elus), a protestant divioe, was born August 
28, 1639, at Usseaux, in the valley of Pragelas on the 
frontiers of Dauphiny, where his father officiated as minis- 
ter. He was himself appointed minister of Vencerole io 
1661, of Embrun in 1662, and would have been shortly 
chosen professor of divinity at Die, but meeting acciden*^ 
tally with a priest who was carrying the host to a sick per* 
son, he would not take off his hat. This trifle, as might 
be expected in a popish ooutitry, was bo much resented, 
that Saurin found it necessary to retire into Holland, where 
be arrived in June 1664, was appointed minister of the 
Walloon church at Delft the following year, and had a great 
share in deposing the famous L4i.badie. In 1671, be was 
invited to be minister of the Wallopa church at Utrecht, 
where he became very celebrated by his works, and had 
some very warm disputes with Jurieu, wJiich were the sub- 
ject 6f much conversation ; but he is said to have satisfiv:- 
torily answered the charge of heresy which that author 
brought against him. Saurin died unmarried at Utrecht, 
Apni &, 1703, aged sixty-four, leaving the fallowing works: 

> Life prefixed to his Alrebrt.— Mania't Biog. Philot.— Bioir. Brit Saim]fi» 
PH«t, fQl. Vtt.— Hmt«Ni|)iction.i7. n^ a-Wifi' 



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S A U ft t «. ill 

iati « fexitininatibn of M. Jurieu^s Theology,^ 3 vols. Svo, 
in which he treats of sereral important questions in divinity; 
*< Reflections on the Rights of Conscience,'' tgainst Jnrieii^ 
wid Bajl^s Philosophical Commentary; a treatise on ^th^ 
Love of Cod,** in which h^ supports the doctrine of disin^ 
terested love; and another on the ^* Love of oor Neigh- 
bours,'* &c.* 

SAUKIN (JaiAes), a Very celebrated preacher, was th6 
^on of ah eminent protestant lawyer, and was born ^t "^ismes 
in 167T. His father retired, after the repeal of the edict 
of Nant2, to Genen^ at which place be died. Saurih 
made bo small progress in his studies, but abandoned thdm 
for sonde time, that he might follow arms. In 1694^ he 
made a campaign as a cadet in lord Galloway's company^ 
and soon afterwards procured a pair of colours. But a$ 
soon as the duke of Savoy had concluded a peace with 
Franx^e, Saurin quitted a profession for which he never was 
designed ; and, on his rietbrn to Geneva^ again, applied 
himself to philosophy add divinity, under Turretin and 
T)ther professors* In 1700, he visited both Holland and 
England. In tfaid last country he remained five years, and 
preached among the Frernch refugees in London. |Ier^ 
also he married in 1703, and returned to the Hague ia 
l7i)5. Soon after he became pastor to the church of 
French refugees, who were permitted to asseiQble in the 
ehapel belonging to the palace of the princes of Orange at 
the Hague^ in which he officiated during the remainder of 
bia life* When the princess of Wales, afterwards queea 
Caroline, passed through Holland on her way to England. 
Saurin had the honour of paying his respects to het) kna 
she, upon her return, desired Dr. Boulter, the preceptor to 
prince Frederic, the father of the present king, to write 
to Saurin, to draw up a treatise ^on the education of 
princes.^* The work was done, but nevei^ printed, and the 
Author received a handsome present from the princess, and 
afterwards a pension from George II. to whom he dedicated 
a volume of nis sermons. Saurin died Dec. 30, HSO. He 
jKissessed ^reat talents, with a fine address, and a strongs 
clear, and harmonious voic^ while his style was pure, un- 
affected^ and doquent. His principles were what are called 
moderate Calvinism. Five Volumes of his sermons haye 
nmde their appearance at diflPerent times; the first in 1708, 

I ClMiif«fle.«-liDfeii.-*PiCt. Biit 

Voi^xxvn. N 

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17S S A U R I K. 

the second in 1712, tbe third some years after, tbefourtlr 
in 1722, and the fifth in 1725. Since his death, the ser« 
mons relating to the passion of Jesus Christ, and oliier 
anbjects, were published in two volumes. In 1727^ he 
published "The State pf Christianity in France.'" 

But his most considerable worl^ was, '^ Discourses histo- 
rical, critical, and moral, on the most memorable Events of 
the Old and New Testament," His first intention wa» to 
hare published a set of prints, with titles and explanations ; 
but, as that had been before executed by Fontaine amongst 
the Roman catholics, and by Basnage amongst the protes- 
tants, it became necessary to adopt a newer plan. This 
gave rise to the work above mentioned, which the author 
left imperfect. Two volumes made their appearance in 
folio, and the work was afterwards reprinted in four in 8vo. 
Six other discourses form a part of a fifth volume in 8voy 
published by Mr. Roques, who undertook a continuation of 
the work. It is replete with learning. The Christian and 
the heathen authors, philosophers, paets, historians, and 
critics, are cited with' the utmost profusion, and it forms a 
compilation of all their sentiments on every subject dis- 
cussed throughout the work. The author shews himself to 
be a warm advocate for toleration ; and, though the catho- 
lics are more frequently censured than commended, yet 
his principles are very moderate. " A Dissertation on the 
Expediency of sometimes disguising the Truth'^ raised a 
clamour against the author, the fury of which lie had not 
power to appease. As an historian, be believed that be 
was permitted to produce tbe chief arguments of those that 
niaintain, that in certain cases truth may be disguised ; and 
tbe reasons which they gave who have asserted the contrary. 
Without deciding the question, it is easy to perceive that 
he is a favourer of the former. His principal antagonist 
was Armand de la Chapelle ; to whom Francis Michael Ga- 
nicon replied with great spirit, in a work, entitled *^ Lettre» 
s^rieuses &.jocoses.'* The three first of the lettres,. in the 
second volume, are in favour of Saurin. He was answered 
by La Chapelle with great violeace. Saurin imagined, that 
he should be able to terminate this dispute by reprinting the 
dissertation separately, with a preface in defence of bia 
assertions : but he was deceii^ed ; for La Chapelle pub-r 
lisbed a very long and scurrilous reply. It was Saurin*s 
intention entirely to have neglected this production ; but 
he found a new chAmptoa ia f raucis Bruys. This dispute 



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6 A U R i K 179 

^as at length brought before the synod of Caxopen i who, 
in May it30, ordered the churches of Utrecht, Leyded^ 
and Amsterdam, to 'make their examinations, and report 
the result of them to the synod of the H^igue, which was to 
'sitin the September following. Comdaistories were ap* 
'pointed for this purpose. The syhod of Campien gave itil 
bpibion, aAd that of the tiague confirmed it : but, having 
tnade no m'^ntion of the instroctions sent to the Walloon 
church at Utrecht, that asselo&bly cbmpUined, and ordered 
Mr. Bpnvoust, one of its ministers, to justify his proceed* 
ings and his doctrine. This he did in a large Octavo Vo* 
lutoi^, printed at Utrecht in 1731, aftelr the death of Sau* 
rio, entitled " The Triumph of the Truth and Peac6; oj^, 
Reflections oh the most important Events attei\ding the last 
Synod assembled to determine in the case of Messieurs 
Saurin and Maty.'^ SaOrin had contributed to thb peace^ 
by giving such a declaration of his sentiments as satisfied 
the protestant churches ; and he repeated diat declaration^ 
when he foresaw that the new lights, which Mr. Bruys had 
thrown upob this subject, were going to raise a storm that 
might perhaps have been severer than the last. Saurin^s 
sermons are now well known in this country by the seliec- 
tions translated into English, and published in 1775—1784, 
by the rev. Rbbert Robinson, 5 vols. 8vo, to which Dr. * 
Heriry Hunter added a sixth volume in 1796.* 

SAURIN (Joseph), a French mathematician. Was bonk 
in 1659 at Courtuson, in the principality of Orange J Ho 
was educated by his father, and was at a veiy early nge made 
^ minister lit Eure in Dauphiny. &ut he was compelled to 
retire to Geneva in 1653, in consequence of having given 
oiFence in a sermon, which he afterwards heightened at 
Berne by preaching against some of the established doc- 
trines of the church. He then withdrew to Holland, bu2 
was so ill received by hils brethren, ^at he determined to 
turn Roman catholic ; with thb design, in 1690 he went to • 
Paris, and made an abjuration of bis supposed errors under 
die famous Bossuet, rather, it is believed, to have an op* 
portunity of pursuing his studies unmolested at Paris thau 
from anv motives of conscience or mental conviction. After 
this he bad a pension from the king, and was admitted a 
member of the academy of sciences in 1707, as a geome- 
trician. The decline of Saurin*s life was spent in the peace^ 

t Irffe by Bobinwn prefixed to btf Scfmoni*— Chsofepit.'-Moml 
N 2 



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180 !l A U R I K. 

able prosecution of his mathematical studies, occasionalty 
interrupted by literary controversies with Rousseau and 
others. He was a man of a daring ^nd impetuous spirit, 
and of a lofty and independent mind. Saurin died at Paris 
in If 37. Voltaire undertook the vindication of his memory, 
but has not been sufficiently successful to clear it from every 
unfavourable impression. It was even said he had been 
euil^ of crimes, by bis own confession, that ought to have 
been punished with death. 

Saurin's mathematical and philosophical papers printed 
in the Memoirs of the Academy of Sciences, which are 
numerous, are to be found in the volumes for the years fol- 
lowing; viz. 1709, 1710, 1713, 1716, 1718, 1720, 1722, 
1723, 1725, 1727. He left a son, who acquired some re- 
putation as a dramatic writer and lyric poet^ 

SAUSSAY (Andrew du), doctor of law and divinity, 
eurate of St. lieu, at Paris, official and grand vicar in the 
same city, and afterwards bishop of Toul, was bom about 
1585, at Paris. He was preacher in ordinary to Louis XIIL 
who had a great esteem for him, and by whose order he 
wrote the ^' Martyrologium Gallicanum,*' 1638, 2 vols. foL 
M. du Saussay succeeded Paul de Fiesque in the diocese of 
Toul, 1649, and discovered great zeal in the government 
of his church, and died September 9, 1675, at Toul, aged 
eighty. He left many works besides that above mentioned, 
which contain great learning, but shew very little critical 
knowledge.' 

SAUSSURE (Horace Benedict de), an eminent na- 
turalist, was born at Geneya in 1740. Hb father, an en- 
lightened agriculturist, to whom we are indebted for some 
essays on rural economy, resided at Couches, on the banks 
t>f the Arve, about half a league from Geneva. Botany was 
his first study, and this made him acquainted with Halter, 
whom he visited in 17^4, during his retreat at Bex. He 
was further excited to study the vegetable kingdom in con«» 
sequence of his connection with C. Bonnet, who married 
his aunt, and who soon discovered the talents of his nephew^ 
Bonnet was then engaged in examining the leaves of plants; 
Saussurealso turned his attention to these vegetable organs, 
and published ** Observations on the Skin of Leaves** about 
the year 1760. 

At this time the professorship of philosophy at Geneva 

* Chaalipie.— Hulton't DiciioBMy. « Nkerwi, toU XL.-«Dict, Wrt. 

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S A U S S UE E. 181 

becaoie vacant, and Saussure^ who was then only twenty- 
one» obtained the chain Wliile in this office, he cooi- 
menced his journeys among the mountains, to examine the 
substances of which the elevated ridges of our globe are 
composed, and during the first fifteen or twenty veats of 
his professorship, he was alternately employed in UilfilUng 
the duties which his situation imposed, and in traversing 
the different mountains in the neighbourhood of Genevi. 
He even extended his excursions on one side to the Rhine, 
and on the other to Piedmont* About this time, too, he 
travelled to Auvergne, for the purpose of examining some 
extinguished volcanos ; and soon after he undertook a tour 
to Paris, Holland, England, Italy, and Sicily. In these 
journeys his constant object was the study of nature. He 
always carried with him the instruments necessary for ob- 
servations, and never set out without having formed for 
himself a regular plan of experiments. 

In 1779, he published the first vplume oV ^^ His Travels 
in the Alps,^' which contains a detailed description of the 
environs of Geneva, and an account of an excursion as far 
as Chamouni, a village at the foot of Mont- Blanc. All 
naturalists have read with pleasure the description he has 
given, in this volume, of his MagneUrmetre. The more he 
examined the mountains, the more he felt the importance 
of mineralogy : to enable him to study this branch of science 
with still greater advantage, he learnt the German language. 
The new mineralogical knowledge which he acquired may 
be easily seen by comparing the latter volume of hb travels 
with the first. 

In the midst of his numerous excursions in the Alps, and 
even during the time of the troubled politics of Geneva in 
1782, he found opportunities to make his hygrometrical 
^ experiments, the result of which he published in 1783, 
finder the title of <^ Essays on Hygrometry.** We are in- 
debted to him for the invention of Uie hygrometre, although 
Deluc had already invented his whalebone hygrometre, 
which occasioned a dispute between him and Saussure. la 
1786, he gave up his professorship in favour of his disciple 
Pictet The second volume of the Travels of Saussure was 
published in 1786; and contains a description of the Alps, 
which surround Mpnt-Blanc. Some years after the publi- 
cation pf this volume, Saussure was received as a foreign 
associate in the academy of sciences at Paris; but our au- 
thor not only honoured, bat was desirous of «erviog l^i» 



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1S2 S A U S S U R E. 

country. He founded the Society of Arts, to wbich Get 
xieva is greatly indebted, and presided in thid society to 
the very last, its prosperity being one of his principal obr 

1'ects. He also shewed his zeal to serve his country while 
le was member of the Council of Five Hundred, and of 
the National Assembly of France. It was from his assidu- 
ous labour in that Assembly that his health first began to 
fail ; and in 1794 a paralytic stroke deprived him of the use 
of one side of his body^ It was, howcTcr, after this acci- 
dent that he drew up the two last volumes of his Travels, 
which appeared in 1796, They contain an account of his 
travek in the mpuntains of Piedmont, Switzerland, and in 
particular of his ascent to the summit of Mont BUnc. 

He gave the last proof of his attachment to science in 
publishing the "** Agenda,*' which completes the fourth vo- 
lume. During his Ulness he also published his observations 
*'on the Fusibility of Stones with the Blowpipe^'* and he 
directed the *^ ei^periinents on the height of the bed of tb^ 
Arve." When he was at the baths of Plombieres for his 
)iealth, he observed the mountains at a distance, and pro- 
cured specimens of the strata lie perceived in the most steep 
rocks. He had announced to the public, that he intended 
to complete his travels by his ideas on the primitive state of 
the earth ; but the more new facts he acquired, and the 
more he fneditat^d on this subject, the less could he deter- 
mine with regard to those great revolution^ which have pre- 
ceded the present epoch. In general, he was a Neptunian, 
that is to say, he attributed to water the revolutions of this 
globe. He admitted it to be possible that elastic fluids, in 
disengaging themselves from the cavities, might raise 
mountains. 

Though his health was gradually impaired by degrees, 
he still retained the hope of re-establishing it, but strength 
and life forsook him by slow and painful steps, apd he died 
March 22, 1799, lamented by his family and his co\intry.* 

SAUVAGES (Frai^cis Boissier de), the inventor of 
modern nosology, was born at Alais, in Lower Lan^uedoc, 
May 12, 1706. He appear^ to ha.ve owed little to nis first 
tutors, but his own talents enabled him to make a rapid 
progress in literature and philosophy. With a view to 
^tudy physic, he went to Montpellier in 1722, and receivedf 
the degree of doctor in 1726. The thesis which he de- 

( Life b J Seontbieri a «M»t extrtTaftnt pwif iTric 



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S A U V A G E S. 185 

fended on this occasion was on a singular subject, ^ Si Ta- 
moar pent £tre gu£ri par les rem^des tir6s des plantes?'' 
To determine whether love can be cured by herbs seem* 
rather a trial of skill, than a serious discussion; It procured 
kim» however/ the name of the love-doctor, and it is said 
tbat be wrote some poems on the same subject. In 1730^ 
be went to Paris witli a view to farther improvement 
in bis profession, and afterwards returned to MontpeU 
Iter, where he obtained a professorship in 1734. His re- 
putation for ingenuity of speculation and extensive reading 
for some time retarded his practice, but these speculations 
were not allowed much weight in the treatment of his pa- 
tients. In 1740^ he was appointed demonstrator of the- 
plants in the botanic garden, and in 1752 he was made pro*' 
fessor of botany. He married in 1748, and had twi> sons 
and four daughters, who survived him. A serious disease, 
which continued nearly two years, proved fatal in the midst 
of his useful and honourable career, in the month of Fe- 
bruary, 1767, in the sixty-first year of his age. 

Sauvages was much loved by his pupils, to whom he 
conrounicated freely all that he knew, and received with 
equal readiness whatever information any one was enabled 
to give him. He was an able mathematician, au accurate 
observer of phenomena, and ingenious in devising, experi'* 
ments ; but had too much bias to systems, so that he did 
not always consult facts uninfluenced by prepossession. He 
was a member of the most learned societies of Europe, viz. 
of the Boyal Society of London, of those of Berlin, Upsal, 
Stockholm, and Montpellier, of the Academy ^^Natoras- 
Curiosorum," of the Physico-Botanical Academy of Flo- 
rence, and of the Institute of Bologna^ He obtained the 
prizes given by many public bodies to the best essays on 
given subjects ; and a collection of these prize-essays was 
published at Lyons in 1770, in two volumes, with the title 
of " Chef d'CEuvres de M. de Sauvages.^' 

His works were very numerous on various medical sub- 
jects, and he published a valuable botanical work, '^ Me- 
thodus foliorum, sen Plantae Florse MonspeliensisjuxU folio- 
rum ordinem," containing about 500 plants, omitted in 
Magnol's ** Botanicon Monspeliense ;*' bat that on which bis 
fame most depends was his system of nosology. This was* 

£ receded by a small work, entitled "Nouvelles classes des^ 
laladies,'* &c. 1732, 12mo; and after considering the 
iubject for thirty years, he produced his complete systeig, 



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1S4 . 8 A U V A O E «. 

** Noiologiat melhodica, sittens morboram cIi»9es»g|iBect, 
et species," &c. 1.763, 6 vols. 8vo^ and after his deaths 
1 768, 2 vols. 4to. Since the appearance of this work, . the 
sobject has been ably ciiltivated by Linnseus, by Vogel, by 
Sagar, and lastly, by Dr. Culleo, to whose fMrraogetQent 
oo^y gi^6 the preference.' 

SAU VEUR (Joseph), an eminent Frenchioiathematiciant 
was born at La Fleche, March 24, 1653. He was tptally 
damb till he was seven years of age ; and ever after waa 
obUged to speak very slowly and with difficulty. He very 
early discovered a great turn for mechanics, and when sent 
, to the college of tbp Jesuits to learn polite literature, made 
very little progress, but read with greediness books of 
arithmetic and geometry. He was, however, prevailed on 
to go to Paris in 1670, and, being intended for the church, 
l^^plied himself for a time to the study of philosophy and 
theology; but mathematics was the only study be culti* 
rated wkfa any success ; and during his course of philoso-^ 
phy, he learned the first six books of Euclid in the space of 
^ month, ^idiout the help of fi master. 

As he hmi an impediment in hia voice, he W9» advised by 
M, Bossuet, to give up the church, and to apply himself 
to the study of physic : but this being against the inclina- 
tion of his uncle, f^qm whom he drew his principal re-r 
sources, Sauveur determined to devote himself to bis fa-* 
votirite study, so as to be able to teacb it for hia support. 
This scheme succeeded so well, that be soon became the 
fashionable preceptor in mathematics, and at twenty-three 
years of age he bad prince ^ugene for his scholar. — He 
bad not yet read the geometry of Des Cfirtes; bMt a 
foreigner pf the first quality desiring to be taught it. he. 
made himself master of it in an inconceivably small space* 
of time. — Basset being a fashionable game at that ume, 
the marquis of Dangeau asked him for some calculations 
relating to it, which gjtve such satisfaction, that Sauveur 
bad the honour to explain them to the king and queen. 

In 16S1 he was sent with M. Mariqtte to Chantilli, toi 
piaka some experiments upon the waters there, in which 
he gave great satisfaction, The frequent visits he made 
to this place inspiitd him with the design of writing a trea-> 
tise on fortification; i^nd, in order to join practice witl^ 
ihsqrjf he went to the siege of Mons in 16dl) where t|e 

I Pojt fiicU Hilt, ds 2(ediciiie.--IUct. Hut 



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S A U V E U R. ^ 1S5 

eonliDU^ all the while in the trenches. With the same 
view also be visited all the towns of Flanders ; and on bis re« 
turn he became the mathematician in ordinary at the court^ 
with a pension for life. In 1680 he had been chosen to 
teach mathematics to the pages of the Dauphiness. In 
}686 he was appointed mathematical professor in the Royal 
College. And in 1696 admitted a member of the Academy 
of Sciences, where he' was in high esteem with the mem« 
bers of that society. He became also particularly ac- 
qnainted with the prince of Cond^, from whom he reoeived 
many marks of favour aud affection. In 1703, M. Vauban 
having been made marshal of France, he proposed Sau« 
veur to the king as his successor in the office of examiner 
of the engineers ; to which the king agreed, and honoured 
htm with a pension, which our author enjoyed till his 
deaths which happened July 9, 1716, in the sixty- fourth 
year of his age. 

Sauvenr was of an obliging disposition, and of a good 
temper; humble in his deportment, and of simple manners. 
He was twice married. The first time he took a precaution 
more like a mathematician than a lover ; for he would not 
meet the lady till he bad been with a notary to have the 
conditions he intended to insbt on, reduced into a written 
form ; for fear the sight of her should not leave him enough 
master of himself. He had children by both his wives ; 
and by the latter a son, who, Kke himself, was dumb for 
the first seven years of his life. 

An extraordinary part of Sauveur^s character is, that 
though he had neither a musical voice nor ear, yet he 
studied no science more than music, of which he composed 
^ entire neit system. It w^ he also who first invented the 
monochord and the eohometer. He pursued bis researches 
even to the music of the ancient Greeks and Romans, to 
the Arabs, and to the very Turks and Persians themselves; 
imd was the inventor of the term Acoustics^ now generally 
adopted to signify the theory of sounds and their proper- 
ties. Bnt Dr. Bnrney does Qot speak very highly of some 
pf his musical theories. 

Sanvenr^s writings, which consist of pieces rather than 
of set works, are all inserted in the volumes of the memoirs 
of the Academy of Sciences, from 1700 to 1716, on vari- 
ous geom^cal, math^oaatical, philosophical, and musical 
subjects. 1 



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ISe SAVAGE. 

SAVAGE (Hekry), an English divine, was born about 
1604, of a good'family, in the parish of Eldsfield, Wor- 
cestershire. He entered of Baliol college, Oxford, as a 
commoner in 1621, took the degree of B. A. in Nov. 1625, 
in 162S was made probationer fellow, and in 1630 com- 
pleted his master's degree. On the commencement of the 
rebellion, he travelled into France with William lord 
Sandjs, whose sister, the lady Mary, he afterwards mar- 
ried. Soon after his return he obtained the mastership of 
his college, Feb. 20, 1650, being at that time bachelor of 
divinitv, and next year took his doctor's degree in the 
iameraculty. Notwithstanding this compliance with the 
usurping powers, he was, on the restoration, made chap- 
lain in ordinary to his majesty, prebendary of Gloucester 
in 1665, and rector of Bladon near Woodstock in Oxford- 
shire. He died, master of Baliol college, June 2, 1 672, 
and was buried in the chapel. 

Dr. Savage had a controversy with John Tombes, on in- 
iant baptism, and with Dr. Cornelius Burges on ohurch«> 
Teformations, which produced some pamphlets of little 
consequence now ; his principal work was his history of 
Balliol college, entitled *^ Balliofergus, or a commentary 
upon the foundation, founders, and aflPairsr of Balliol col- 
lege," 1668, 4to. Wood says, he had no natural geny for 
m work of this kind, and has committed many blunders ; 
and it may be added, that his style is uncommonly vague, 
diflFusive, aqd pedantic. His aim was to appear great in - 
little things, and the gravity with which he disctisses the 
origin, derivation, &c. of the name Katberine, ivhether it 
should be spelt with a K or a C, at what time the letter k 
was introduced, and the double / in BaUiol, is truly won-^ 
derful. By his wife, lady Mary Sandys, he left issue 
Henry, Edwin, John, Katherine, and Thomas, and had 
buried two daughters in 1670 and 1671, in St. Mary Mag- 
dalen's church, Oxford. His widow died in an obscure 
house in St. Ebbe's parish, between the church and West- 
gate, May 15, 1683, and was buried in St Mary Magda- 
len's church.' 

6AVAGE (John), D. D. the benevolent president of the 
femous club at Royston*, and, as Mr. Cole says, the only 

* Of Ukii dob, Me an acoouot by Uie list of members, we find Ralpl| 

Mr. GoQgh in Gent. Mag. LIIL p.^ Freeman and Christopher Anstey, both 

814. Or. SaTage, howeTer, was not B. D. The dob likewise bad its cbap^- 

Ibe only clergyman belonging to it. In lain, and a well-stored wine-cellar ! 

^ Atk Ps. vol. II«— Chalmers^i Hift of Oxt— Woofl'i MSS^ ia Mm. 4;dimo1t 



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SAVAGE. tS7 

clergyman ever admitted into it, was a member of Etna-' 
nuel college, Cambridge, where he took hU degrees, and 
was D. D. of both universities. He was rector, first of 
Bygrave, then of Clothall, Herts, and lecturer of St. George, 
Hanover-square, London. In his younger days he had 
travelled witd James, fifth earl of Salisbury, who gave him 
the great living of Clothall, where Dr. Savage rebuilt the 
rectory-house. In his more advanced years he was so 
lively, pleasant, and facetious, that be was called the 
'^ Aristippus*' of the age. One day, at the levee, Greorge L 
asked him, << How long he had stayed at Rome with lord 
Salisbury ?" Upon his answering how long, ** Why,** said 
t)ie king, '^you stayed long enough, why did you net 
convert the Pope ?" "Because, sir,'* replied he, "I bad 
nothing better to offer him.'* Having been bred at West^ 
minster^ be had always a great fondness for the school, at- 
tended at all their plays and elections^ assisted in all their 
public exercises, grew young again, and, among boyii 
W4S a great boy hidoself. He used to attend the schools, 
to furnish the lads with extempore epigrams at the elections. 
He died March 24, 1747, by a fall down the stairs belong- 
ing to the scaffolding for lord Lovat^s trial ; and the king^f 
scholars had so great a regard for him, that, after his de- 
cease, tfaey made a collection among themselves, and» at 
their own charge, erected a small tablet of wbite marble to 
his memory in the East cloister, with a Latin inscription. 
Besides a visitation und ah assize sermon, Mr. Cole attri- 
butes the following works to him : 1. ^^ The Turkish His- 
tory by Mr. Knolles and sir Paul Rycaut abridged," 1701, 
2 vols; 8vo. This was shewn to sir Paul, who approyed of 
it so much, that be designed to have written a preface to 
it, had not death prevented bim. 2. ^* A Collection of 
Letters of the Ancients, whereby is discovered the morality^ 
eallantry^ wit, humour, manner of arg^uing, and in a word 
die genius of the Greeks and Romans,'* 1703, 8vo.* 

SAVAGE (Richard), an eminent instance of the nae* 
lessness and insignificancy of knowledge, wit, and genius, 
without prudence and a proper regard to the common 
maxims of life, was born in 1698. He was the son of 
Aniic countess of Macclesfield, by the earl of Riverd. He 
mieht have been considered as the lawful issue of the earl 
pf Macclesfield; but his mother, in order to procure i^ 

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IM SAVAGE. 

•epvation from ber husband, made a public confession of 
adultery in this instance. As soon as this spurious offspring 
was brought to light, the countess treated him with every 
kind of unnatural cruelty. She committed him to the care 
of a poor woman, to educate as her own. She prevented 
the earl of Rivers from making him a bequest in bis will of 
6000/. by declaring him dead. She endeavoured to send 
him secretly to the American plantations ; and at last, to 
bury him iu poverty and obscurity for ever, she placed him 
as an apprentice to a shoemaker in Holbom. About this , 
, time his nurse died ; and in searching her eSects, which 
he imagined to be bis right, he found $ome letters which 
informed him of his birth, and the reasons for which it was 
cpncealed. He now left bis low occupation, and tried 
every method to awaken the tenderness^ and attract the 
r^;ard, of bis mother : but all his assiduity way without 
e6Feot; for be oould neither soften her heart, nor open her 
hand, and he was reduced to the miseries of want. By 
the care of the lady Mason, mother to the countess, he 
had been placed at the grammar-school at St Alban's^ 
where he had acquired all the learning which his aituatioa 
allowed; and necessity now obliged him to become an 
author. 

The first effort of his uncultivated genius was a poem 
against Hoadly, bishop of Bangor; of which the author 
was afterwards ashamed. He then attempted to write for 
the stage, but with little success : yet this attempt was at- 
tended with some advanuge, as it introduced him to the 
acquaintance of sir Richard Steele and Mr. Wtlks. Whilst 
I^ was in dependence on these gentlemen, he was an assi- 
duous frequenter of the theatres, and never absent irom a 
play in several years. In 1725 be brought a tragedy on 
the slag^ in which bin^self performed a part, the su^ect 
^ which was " Sir Thomas Overbury.'* If we consider 
the circumstances under which it was written, it will afford 
at once an uncommon proof of strength of genius, and an 
evenness ^f mind not to be ruffled. Whilst be was em- 
ployed upon this work, he was without a lodging, and 
often without food ; nor had be any other convei^ieqces for 
study .than the fields or the street ; and, when ha bad 
formed a speech, he would step into a shop, and beg th^ 
use of pen, ink, and paper. The profits of this play 
amounted to about 200/.; and it procured him the notice 
and esteem of many persons of distinction^ some rays of 



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SAVAGE. 18f 

genius glimmering through all the clouds of poverty and 
oppression. But, when the worid was ))eginning to be- 
hold him with a more favourable eye, a misfortune befel 
him, by which not only his reputation, but his life, was in 
danger* In a night-ramble he fell into a coffee-house of 
ill-fame, near Charing- Cross; when a quarrel happened, 
and one Mr. Sinclair was killed in the fray. Savage, with 
his companion, was taken into custody, tried for murder, 
and capitally convicted of the offence. Ris mother was so 
inhuman, at this critical juncture, as to use all means to 
prejudice the queen against him, and to intercept all the 
hopes he had of life from the royal mercy ; but at last the 
countess of Hertford, out of compassion, laid a true ad- 
Count of the extraordinary story and sufferings of poor Sa- 
vage before her majesty ; and obtained his pardon. ~ 

tie now recovered his liberty, but had no means of sub- 
sistence; and a scheme struck him, by which he might 
compel bis mother to do something for him, and extort 
that from her by satire, which she had denied to natural 
affection. The expedient proved successful; and lord 
Tyrconnel, on his promise to lay aside his design, received 
him into his family, treated him as his equal, and engaged 
to allow him a pension of 2002. a-year. In this ^ay period 
of life, when he was surrounded by affluence and pleasure, 
ha published "The Wanderer, a moral Poem,** 1729, 
which was approved by Pope, and which the author him- 
self considered as his master-piece. It was addressed to 
the earl of Tyrconnel, with the highest strains of panegy- 
ric. These praises, however, in a short time, he found 
himself inclined to retract, being discarded by that noble- 
man on account of his imprudent and licentious behaviour. 
He now thought himself again at liberty to expose the 
cruelty of his mother, and accordingly published ''The 
Bastard, a Poem.** This had an extraordinary^ sale : and^ 
its appearance happening at a time when the countess was 
at Bath, many persons there in her hearing took frequent 
opportunities of repeatbg passages from it, until shame 
obliged her to quit the place. 

Some time after this, Savage formed a resolution of ap- 
plying to the queen : she had given him his life, and be 
hoped her goodness might enable him to 8ut)port it. He 
published ' a poem on her birth-day, which he entitled 
*' The Volunteer Laureat.** She graciously sent him fifty 
pounds, with an intimation that he might annually expect 



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I9d SAVAGE. 

the fame bovnty. His coodact with regard to tbii pendorf 
was very characteristic ; as soon as he bad received it, Ue 
immediately disappeared, and lav for some time out of the 
reach of bis most intimate friends. At length be was seeh 
again, pennyless as before, but never informed any person 
where be had been, nor was bis retreat ever dbcovered^ 
His perpetual indigence^ politeness, and wit, still raised him 
new friends, as fast as his misbehaviour lost him his old 
ones ; and sir Robert Walpole, the ptim^ minister^ was 
warmly solicited in his favour. Promises were given, but 
ended in disappointment; upon which he published a 
poem in the *^ Gentleman^s Magazine,** entitled^ << The 
Poet's Dependence oti a Statesman." 

His poverty still increasing, he only dined by accident, 
when he was invited to the ubles of his acquaintance, from 
which the meanness of his dress often excluded him. Hav- 
ing no lodgings, he passed the night often in mean houses, 
which are set open for any casual wanderers, sometimes in 
cellars, amongst the riot and filth of the meanest and most 
profligate of the rabble; and sometimes, wbeti he was 
totally without money, walked about the streets till he was 
weary, and lay down in the summer upon a bulk, and, in 
the winter, with his associates in poverty, among the ashes 
of a glass-bouse. His distresses, however afflictive, never 
dejected him. In his lowest sphere, his ptide kept tip his 
spiriu, and set him oti a level with those of the highest 
rank. He never admitted any gross fiitniliarity, or sub-^ 
mitted to be treated otherwise than as an equal. Thi^ 
wretched life was rendered more unhappy, in 173S, by 
the death of the queen, and the loss of his pension. His 
distress was now publicly known, and bis friends, there- 
fore, thought proper to concert some measures for pro- 
curing him a permanent relief. It was proposed that he 
should retire into Wales, with an allowance of 50/. pet 
annum, to be raised by subscription, on which he was to 
live privately in a cheap place, and lay aside all his aspir- 
ing thoughts. 

This ofler he seemed to accept with great joy, and set 
out on his journey with fifteen guineas in his purse. Hl6 
friends and benefactors, the principal of whom was Pope, 
expected now to hear of his arrival in Wales ; but, on the 
14th day after liis departure, tbey were surprised with 4 
letter from him, acquainting them that he was yet upon 
the road^ and without money, and could not proceed with- 



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8 A y A G S. 19i 

%at a rernktance. The money was sent^ by which he wm 
enabled to reach Bristol ; whence he was to go to Swansea 
by water. He could not ioimediately obtain a passage^ 
and therefore was obliged to stay some time at Bristol; 
wher^ with his usual facility, he made an acquaintance 
with the principal people, and was treated with all kinds of 
civUity. At last he reached the place proposed for his re^ 
sidence ; where he stayed a year, and completed a tragedy^ 
which he had begun in London. He was now desirous of 
coming to town to bring it on the stage : but his friends, 
and particularly Pope, who was his chief benefactor, op- 
posed the design very strongly ; and advised him to put it 
into the hands of Thomson and Mallet, to fit it for the 
stage, and to alloiv his friends to receive the profits, out of 
which an annual pension should be paid him. The propo- 
sal he rejected, quitted Swansea, and set off for London ; 
but, at Bristol, a repetition of the kindness he had formerly 
found, invited him to stay. He stayed so long, that by 
his impi'udence and misconduct he wearied out all his 
friends. His wit had lost its novelty; and his irregular 
behaviour, and late hours, grew very troublesome to men 
of business. His money was spent, his cloaths worn out^ 
and his shabby appearance made it difficult for him to ob- 
tain a dinner. Here, however, he stayed, in the midst of 
poverty, hunger, and contempt, till the mistress of a coffee- 
house, to whom he owed about 8/. arrested him for the 
debt. He could find no bail, and was therefore lodged in 
prison. During his confinement, he, began, and almost 
finished, a satire, entitled ^^ London and Bristol deline- 
ated ;" in order to be revenged on those who had no more 
generosity than to suffer a man, for whom they professed 
a regard, to languish in a gaol fot so small a sum. 

When he had been six months in prison, he received a 
letter from Pope, on whom his chief dependance nQW 
rested, containing a charge of very atrocious ingratitude* 
Savage returned a very solemn protestation of his inno- 
cence ; and he appeared much disturbed at the accusation. 
In a few days after, he was seized with a disorder, which 
at first was not suspected to be dangerous;, but, growing 
daily more languid and dejected, at last, a fever seizing 
him, he expired, August I, 1743, in his forty-sixth year, 
and was buried in the church-yard of St. Peter, at the ex- 
pence of the gaoler. Thus lived, and thus died, Richard 
Savage, leaving behiud him a character strangely chequered 



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192 8 A V A O fi. 

with vices and good qualities. He was, howler, tltiddubl^ 
ediy a man of excellent parts ; and, bad he received the 
fall benefits of a liberal education, and bad his natural 
talents been cultivated to the best advantage, he might 
have made a respectable figure in life. He was happy in 
an agreeable temper, and a lively flow of wit, which made 
his company much coveted ; nor was his judgment, both 
of writings and of men, inferior to his mt ; but he was too 
much a slave to bis passions, and his passions were too 
easily excited. He was warm in his friendships, but im- 
placable in his enmity ; and his greatest fault, which is in- 
deed the greatest of all faults, was ingratitude. He seemed 
to think every thing due to his merit, and that he was 
little obliged to any one for those favours which he thought 
it their duty to confer on him : it is therefore the less 
to be wondered at, that be never rightly estimated the 
kindness of his many friends and benefactors, or pre<^ 
served a grateful and due sense of their generosity towards 
him. 

The works of this original writer, after having long lain 
dispersed in magazines and fugitive publications, were 
collected and published by T. Evans, bookseller, in the 
Strand, in an elegant edition in two volumes, octavo, to 
which are prefixed the admirable *' Memoirs of Savage,** 
written by Dr. Samuel Johnson. They have since been in- 
corporated in the " English Poets.*' * 

SAVARON (John), a celebrated president and lieute- 
nant-general in the senescbalship and presidial court of 
Clermont in Auvergne, was bom there about the begin* 
ping of the seventeenth century. He bad an extensive 
knowledge of the belles lettres and law, and was one of the 
most learned men and eloquent magistrates of his time* 
He attended the states-general held at Paris in 1614, as ^ 
deputy from the Tiers Eut of the province of Auvergne, 
and defended its rights with zeal and firmness against the 
nobility and the clergy. He afterwards pleaded with great 
credit in the parliament of Paris, and died at a very ad« 
vanced age in 1682, leaving many learned works much 
esteemed ; the principal are, an edition of ^* Sidoniqa 
Apollinaris,** 1609, 4to. with notes. ** Orijrine de Cler- 
mont, Capiule d' Auvergne,** the most complete edition of 
which is by Peter Durand, 1662, folio. *«Tridt6 des 

1 Life bj Pr. JolmNa. 



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S A V A R O N. 19S 

»< Do^V* Svo. ** Traill de k Souveraintg du Rm ct de 
son Roianoie aox Deputes de la Nobleue,** 16 1 5, 8ro, two 
parts ; a curioas and scarce work. '^ Chronologies des Etats 
G^n^rao V 8?o ; the object of which is to prove that the 
Tiers Etat has always had admittance tbere^ a seat, and a 
deliberative voice. ^ 

SAVARY (Francis), seigneur de Breves, a learned 

Frenchman who had the merit of introducing oriental 

printing into his country about the beginning of the se« 

venteenth century, was the French ambassador at Con«- 

stantinople for twenty-two years. On his return, about 

1611, Henry IV. sent him to Rome as ambassador 

in the pontificate of Paul V. where, in 1613, he ap« 

pears to have established a printing-office ; for in the title 

of a translation of Bellarmin's conclusion, and a Psalter into 

Arabic, they are said to come ex typograp/na Savariamu 

Savary is said to have cast the types, and employed oa 

theae two works^ as correctors, Scialac and Sionita, tm% 

Maronites from mount Lebanon. In 1615, Savary re* 

turned to Paris, bringing with him Sionita i^nd the printev 

Paulin, who, in the same year, printed in small quarto, in 

, Turkish and French, the ** Treaty of 1604, between Henry 

the Great, king of France, and the sulun Amurath,'* &c. 

The following year appeared an Arabic Grammar, edited 

by Sionita and Hesronita. It appears that Savary had the 

liberality to lend his t3rpes to those who were desirous of 

printing works iti the oriental languages. He died in*1627y 

when, we are told, the English and Dutch made offers for 

the purchase of his types, and the oriental manuscripts 

which he had collected in the Levant ; but the king H>f 

France bought them, and soon after a new establishment ' 

sfppeared at Paris for oriental printing, ^l the credit of 

which was given to the cardinal Richelieu, while the name 

of Savary was not once mentioned. 4$*!^ vos rum vobis^ &c. 

These types are said to be still extant in the royal print** 

tng office. Savary published an account of his travels^ 

from which we learn, that he projected certain conquests 

in the Levant, for the extension of the commerce of his 

country, and the propagation of Christianity. The number 

of oriental MSS. which he bnm^t from the Levant amounu 

to ninety-seven.* 

1 Niceron, vol. XVII. * ^^^ ^^ 

V6L.XXVIL O 



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194 S A V A R T. 

SAVART (James), m useful French wrher upon tb# 
fubject of trade, was born at Dou6 in Anjou Sept* 22, 
1622. He was sent to Paris, and pat apprentice to a mer- 
chant; and carried on trade till 1658, when he left off the 
practioe, Co apply with more attention to the theory. It 
is said, that he had acquired a very competent fortune; 
but, in 1667, when the king rewarded with certain privi-> 
leges and pensions such of bis subjects as had twelve chil- 
dren alive, Savary was not too rich to put in his clakn. He 
was afterwards admitted of the council for the reformation 
of commerce; and the orders, which passed in 1670, were 
drawn up from his instructions and advice. Being re* 
quested by the commissioners to digest his principles into 
a volume^ he published at Paris, in 1675, 4to, ** Le Par&it 
N^goeiant, ou, Instructibn g6n6rale pour ce qui regarde 
le Commerce des Merehandisea de France et des Pays 
Etrangers.** This went througltmany editions, the best of 
which is that of 1777, 2 vols. 4 to ; atid has been translated 
into almost all Europeah languages. In 1688, he pub* 
Ushed ** Avis et Conseils sur les plus importantes matieres 
dn Commerce,'' in 4to; which has been considered as a 
second volume to the former work, and often re-printed. 
He died in 1690; and, out of seventeen children which 
lie had by one wife, left eleven* 

Two of the sons. Jambs and Philemon, became after* 
wards writers on the same subject. James Savary being 
chdten in 1686 inspector general of the manufactures at 
the custom-house of Paris, took an account of all the se^ 
▼eral sorts of merchandise that passed through it; and 
ranged in alphabetical order all the words relating to ma* 
Dufactures and commerce, with definitions and explications^ 
meJtely at first for his private use, but being told how use- 
ful such a work might prove, if extended and methodised, 
he employed his brother Philemon to assist him, but died 
in 1716, leaving it unfinished. Philemon at length pub- 
lished it at Paris in 1723, onder thb title, ** Dictionnaire 
Universel du Commerce," in 2 vols, folio; and, animated 
by the favourable reception given to this work, spent three 
ether yeuB in making it more complete and perfect ; and 
finished a third volume, by way jof supplement to the two 
former, which appeared in 1729. This was after his death, 
which happened in 1727. This " Dictionary of Com- 
merce** has been universally spoken of as a very excellent 
work, and has been often reprinted. The best edition is 



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9 A V A R Y. 191 

that edited by Philibert, at Copenhagen, 1759—66. S 
vols. fol. ■ ' ' 

^ SAVAftY (Nicholas), a French traveller, was born at 
Vitre m Brittaityj and pursued his studies at Rennes with 
qonsiderable distinction. In 1776, he visited Egypt at 
which place he remained for the apace of three y^rs 
Whilst here he paid particular aUention to the manners of 
the inhabitants, a knowledge of the Arabic tongue, and an 
investigation of antiquities^ From Egypt he went to the 
islands of the Archipelago, over most of which he travelled 
and examined them with careful attention. On bis return 
to France, in 1780, be published, " A translation of the 
Koran, with a sketch of the life of Mahomet" He also 
pabiished an extract from the above work, which he called 
•'La Morale de Mahomet'^ His principal work was 
" Letters on Egypt," which have -been well received, and 
translated into different European languages. Yet it is 
objected to this work, and with great appearance of reason, 
that the author has yielded too much to the powers of a 
lively imagination, and that he has given rather a fasci- 
nating than a correct picture. Volqey's Travels may serve 
to restore the likeness, and correct Savary*s exuberances. 
Encouraged, however, by the success of this work^ Savary 
published bis « Letters on Greece," which is likewise an 
agreeable and entertaining performance. Soon after this 
period he died, at Paris, in 1788. He was a man of con- 
atderable talents, an excellent taste, and a lively fi^ncy ; and, 
although many of his positions have been controverted, at 
well by Volney, as by other writers on the same suligects. 
his works are written in a style and manner which render 
them highly interesting to a large ^lass of readers.' 

SA VILE (Sir GEoaQE), maiquia of Halifax, a celebrated 
statesman, but of equivocal character, was descended from 
an ancient family in Yprkshire. He was the spn of sir 
William SavJle, bart and Anne, daughter of Thomas lord 
Coventry, lord keeper of the great seal. He was bora 
probably about 1630. Upon the death of his father, he 
succeeded to the title of baronet, and soon distinguished 
himself by his abilities in public alfairs ;. and being aealoua 
in bringing about the restoration, ^as created a peer, in 
consideration of his own and bis father's inerits. In 166S 
he Vm$ appointed of that remarkable committee, which sat 

I KMeroo, yeli . IX mud X.— Di^ Ifiit, ^ X>ict. Biit^ 

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196 S A V I L E. 

St Brook^ball Gor the examination of the accounts of the 
money which bad becfn given during the Dutch war, of 
which no member of the House of Commons was admitted* 
In April 1672 he was called to a seat in the privy council ; 
and) June following, went over to Holland with the duke 
of Buckingham and the earl of Arlington, as ambassador 
extraordinary and plenipotentiary, to treat about a peace 
wkh France, when he met with great opposition from his 
colleagues. 

lu 1675 be opposed with vigour the non- resisting test* 
bill; and was removed from the council-board the year 
following by the interest of the earl of Danby, the trea- 
surer. He bad provoked this lord by one of those wittU 
oisms in which be dealt so largely. In the examination 
before the council concerning the revenue of Ireland, lord 
Widriiigton confessed that he had made an offer of a con- 
sideraUe sum te the lord treasurer, and that his lordship 
bad rejected it very mildly, and in such a manner as not to 
discourage a second attempt. Lord Halifax observed upon 
this, that ** it would be somewhat strange if a man should 
isk the use of another man's wife^ and the other should 
indeed refuse it, but widi great civility.'* His removal 
was very agreeable to the duke of York, who at that time 
bad a more violent aversion to him than even to Shaftesbury 
himself, because he had spoken with great 6rmness and 
spirit in the House of Lords against the declaration for a 
toleration. However, upon a change of the ministry in 
1679, his lordship was made a member of the new counciL 
The same year, during the agitation of the bill for the ex- 
clusion of the duke of York, he seemed averse to it ; but 
proposed such limitations of the duke's authority when the 
crowni should devolve upon him, as should disable him 
from doing any harm either in church or state ; such as the 
taking out of his hands all power in ecclesiastical matters, 
the disposal of the public money, and the power of peace 
or war, and lodging these in the two Houses of Parliament; 
md that the pairliament in being at the king's death should 
continue without a new summons, and assume the adminis- 
tration ; but his Ibrdsbip's arguing so much against the 
danger of turning the monarchy, by the bill of exclusion, 
into an elective government, was thought the more extras 
^>rdittary, because he made an hereditary king the subject 
of his mirth, and had often said *' Who takes a coachman 
to drive him, because bis father was a good coachman ?" 



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S A V I L E. 19r 

> Yet be was now jealous of a small dip in ^e siieeesaion ; 
though be at the same time studied to infuse into some 
persons a zeal for a commonwealth ; and to these be pre« 
tended^ that be preferred limitations to an exclusion, be- 
cause the one kept up the monarchy still, only passing 
orer one person; whereas the other really introdliiGed a 
commonwealth, as soon as there was a popish king. on the 
throne. And it was said by some of his friendti' that the 
limitations proposed were so advantageous to public libertyy^ 
that a man might be tempted to wish for a popish king, io 
order to obtain them. Upon thb great difference of opl« 
nioQ, a factbn was quickly formed in the new council 9 
lord Halifax, with the earls of Essex and Sunderland, ' de** 
'daring for limitations, and against the exclusion, while 
the earl of Shaftesbury was equally zealous for the latter ; 
and when the bill for it was brought into the House of 
Lords, lord Halifax appeared with great resolution at the 
head of the debates against it. This so highly exasperated 
the House of Commons, that they addressed Uie king to 
remove him from his councils and presence for ever : but 
be prevailed with hb majesty soon after to dissolye that 
parliament, and was created an earl. However, upon hia 
majesty's deferring to call a new parliament, according to 
his promise to his lordship, his vexation is said to have 
been so great as to affect bis health, and he expostulated 
severely with those who were sent to him on diat affur^ 
refusing the post both of secretary of state and brd^lieute* 
nant of Ireland. A parliament being called in 1680, he 
still opposed the exclusion-bill, and gained great ireputa- 
tion by bis management of the debate, though it occasioned 
a new address from the House of Commons to i^ove him. 
However, after rejecting that bill in the House of Lords, 
his lordship pressed them, though without success, to pro* 
ceed to limitations ; and began with moving that the duke 
might be obliged to live five hundred miles out of England 
during the king's life. In August 1682, he was created a 
marquis, and soon after made privy-seal, and, upon king 
James's accession, president of the council. But on re- 
fusing his consent to the repeal of the tests, he was told 
by that monarch, that, though be could never forget his 
past services, yet, since he would not comply in that point, 
he was resolved to have unanimity in his councils, and, 
therefore, dismissed him fit)m all public employmenu. He 
was afterwards consulted by Mr. Sidney, whether he would 



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198 S A V I L E. 

advise tbe pfinoe of Orange^t comiiig over ; but, this 
matter being only hinted, be did not encourage a fiuther 
explanation, looking upon tbe attempt as impracticable, 
since it depended on so many accidents. Upon tbe arrival 
of that prince, he was sent by the king, with the earls of 
Rochester and Godolphin, to treat with him, then at Hun^ 
gerford. 

In that assembly of the lords which met after king Jameses 
withdrawing himself the first time from Whitehall, the 
marquis was chosen their president ; and, upon the king'a 
return from Feversbam, he was sent, together with the 
earl of Shrewsbury and lord Delamere, from tbe prince of 
Orange, ordering his majesty to quit his palace at White- 
ball, and retire to Hull. In the convention-parliament, 
he was chosen speaker of the House of Lords; and strenti* 
ously supported tbe motion for the vacancy of the throne, 
and the conjunctive sovereignty of the prince and princess, 
upon whose accession he was again made privy-seal. But, 
in the session of 1689, upon tbe ioqniry into the authors 
of*the prosecutions against lord Russell, Algernon Sidney, 
&c. tbe marquis, having concurred in these councils in 
1683, now quitted the court, and became a zealous op« 
poser of the measures of the government till his death, 
which' happened in April 1695, and was occasioned by a 
gangrene in a rupture he bad long neglected. There 
seems little in his conduct that is steady, or in his charac** 
ter that is amiable. Towards his end he showed some signs 
of repentance, which, according to Burnet, were transient* 
'^ He was," says that writer, ^* a man of great and ready 
wit, full of life and very pleasant, much turned to satire ; 
be let his wit turn upon matters of religion ; so that he 
passed for a bold and determined atheist, though be often 

{protested to me, that he was not one, and said, be be« 
ieved there was not one in the world. He confeased be 
could not swallow down all that divines imposed on the 
world ; he was a Christian in submission ; be believed as 
inucb as he could ; and hoped, that God would not lay it 
to his charge, if he could not digest iron as an ostrich did, 
nor take into his belief things that must burst him. If be 
bad any scruples, they were not sought for nor cherished 
by bim ; for he never read an atheistical book in his life. 
In sickness, 1 knew him very much aflFected with a sense 
of religion : I was then often with him, 'be seemed full of 
good purpQses, but they went o^ with his sickness : be was 



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SAVlLt 19f 

continually talking of mcmility and friendship. He was 
punctual in his payments^ and just in all private dealings; 
but, with relation to the public, he went backward and 
forward and changed sides so often, that in the conclusion 
no side trusted him ; be seemed full gf commonwealth no- 
tions, yet he went into the worst part of kfng Charles's 
reign. The liveliness of bis imagination was always too 
bard for his judgment. His severe jest was preferred by 
bim to all arguments whatever; and he was endless iW 
council ; for, when afiter much disconrse.a point was settled, 
if be could find a aew jest, whereby be coald make that 
svbicb was digested by himself seem ridiculous, he could 
not hold, but would study to raise tbe credit of bis wit, 
though it made others call bis judgment in question. When 
be talked to me, as a philosopher, of the contempt of tbe 
worlds I asked him what be meant by getting sp many 
new. titles, which I called the hanging himself about with 
bells and tinsel ; he had no otheyr excuse for it but this^ 
that, if the world were auch fools as to value ihose matters^ 
a man must be a fool for company : be considered them 
but as rattles, yet rattles please children ; 90 these miglit 
be of use to bis family." 

By hb first wife, daughter of Henry Spencer^ earl of 
Sunderland, he had » son William, who succeeded bim ; 
and by a second wife, the daughter of William Piercepoint^ 
second son of Robert earl of Kingston, he had a daughter 
Gertrude, who was married to Philip Stanhope, third earl 
of Chesterfield, and was mother to the celebrated earl, wfac^ 
says Maty, may be perhaps justly compared to his grand- 
father in extent of capacity, fertility of genius, and bril* 
liancy of wit. They both, adds he, distingviished them- 
selves in parliament by their eloquence ; at court, by their 
knowledge of the world ; in company, by their art of pleas- 
ing. They were both very useful to their sovereigns, 
though not nuich attached either to the prerogative or to 
the person of any Jcing. .They both knew, humoured, and 
despised the different parties. The Epicurean philosophy 
was their common study. William, tbe second inarquis of 
JHalifax, died in 169.9^ when the dignity became extinct in 
his family, but was revived in 1700 in the person of Charles 
Montague. The marquis William left three daughters.: 
Anne, married to Charles Bruce, earl of Aylesbury j Do- 
rotby, to Richard Boyle, the last earl of Burlington j aa^ 
Mary, to Sackville Tufton^ earl of Thanet, 



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SOO 8 AfY 1 L Ek 

George, marqms of Halifiur, wis the author of some 
tracts, written with coasklerable spirit and elegance. Be* 
tides hb *' Character of a Trimmer/' be wrote << Advice to 
a Daughter;" ^ The Anatomy of an Equivalent;'* <<A 
Letter to a Dissenter, upon his Majesty's late Glorioiis De- 
claration of Indulgences ;" ^* A rough Draught of a new 
Model at Sea^ in 1694;" '< Maxims of State." All which 
were printed together after his death ; and the third edi- 
tion came out in 1717, Svo* Since these, there was also 
published under his name, ^^ The Character of king Charies 
the Second ; to which is subjoined, Maxims of Sute, &c.** 
1750, 8vo. ^* Character of Bishop Burnet," printed at the 
end of his. <^ History of bis own Times ;" <* Historical Obser- 
vations upon the Reigns of Edward I. II. III. and Richard 
II. with Remarks upon their faithful Counsellors and false 
Favourites," 1689. He also left memoirs of bis own times, 
from a journal which be kept every day of all the conver<« 
sations which he had with Charles II. and the most distin- 
guished men of bis time. Of these memoirs two fair copies 
were made, one of which fell into the hands of Daniel earl 
of Nouingham, and was destroyed by him. The other 
devolved on the marquises grand-daughter, lady Burling^ 
ton, in whose possession it long remained ; but Pope, as 
the late lord Orford informed Mr. Malone, finding, on a 
perusal of these memoirs, that the papisu of those days 
were represented in an unfavourablelight, prevailed on her 
to bum them ; and thus the public have been deprived of 
probably a curious and valuable work. ' 

SAVILE (Sir Hen^y), a most learned man, and a great 
benefactor to the learning of his country, was the son of 
Henry Savile of Bradley, in the township of Stiainland, in . 
the parish of Halifax, Yorkshire, by Ellen, daughter of 
Robert Ramsden. He was born at Bradley, Nov. 30, 1 549, 
and first entered of Brasen-nose college, Oxford, whence 
lie was elected to Merton«college in 1561, where he took 
the degrees in arts, and was chosen fellow. When he 
proceeded master of arts in 1 570, he read for that degree 
on the Alfusgest of Ptolemy, which procured him the re- 
putation of a man wonderfully skilled in mathematics and 
the Greek language ; in the former of which, he volun- 
urily read a public lecture in the university for some time^ 

1 Btroh't LiTet.— Royal mnd Noble Authors, by Bilr. Park.«*Maloiie'S Lid ol 
Drjdni«-4%efterfieki>t Memoin, by Dr. Maty. 



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S A V I L 1. tOl 

Having now great interest, he wts elected proetor for tw^ 
years together, 1575 and 1576, an faononr not rery com-^ 
non, for as the proctors were then chosen ont of the wliote 
body of the aniversity, by the doctors and masters, and tb# 
election was not, as now, confined to particnlar coUegea^ 
none but men of learning, and sncb as had considerate 
interest, durst aspire to that honour. In 1578 he lisited 
the continent, became acquainted with varioas learned 
foreigners, and obtained many valuable MSS. or copies of 
theni* He ii said to have returned a nian of hig^ accom* 
plishments, and was made tutor in the Greek tongue to 
queen Elizabeth, or, as it is otherwise expressed, he read 
Greek and mathematics with her majesty, who had a great 
esteem for him. In 1585 he^as made warden of Morton* 
college, which he governed six and thirty years with great 
credit, and greatly raised its repuution for learning, by 
a judicioQs patronage of students most distinguished for 
talenu and indnstry. In 1 596, he vl^as chosen provost of 
Eton-college, of which society also he increased the fame 
by filling it with the most learned men, among whom was 
the ever-memorable John Hales. It is said, however, that 
be incurred sotne odium among the younger scholars by 
bis severity, and bis dislike of those who were thought 
sprightly wirs. He used to say, ** Give me the plodding 
student. If I would look for wits, I would go to Newgate, 
there be the wits.'' John Earle^ afterwards bishop of Salis- 
bury, was the only scholar he ever accepted on the recom- 
mendation of being a wit James I. upon his accession to 
the crown of England, expressed a particular regard for 
faim, and would have preferred him either in church or 
state; but sir Henry declined it, and only accepted the 
faoooor of knighthood from his majesty at Windsor on Sept. 
81, 1604* His only son dying about that time, he devoted 
his fortune entirely to the promoting of learning. In 1 6 If 
he fbanded two lectures, or professorships, one in geome- 
try, the other in astronomy, in the university of Oxford ; 
which he. endowed each with a salary of 160/. a year, be- 
sides a legacy of 600/. for purchasing more lands for the 
same use. In the preamble of the deed, by which a salary 
was annexed to these two professorships, it is expressly 
■aid that " geometry was almost totally unknown and aban- 
doned in England.** Briggs was his first professor of geo- 
metry ; but Aubrey says, on the authority of bishop Ward> 
that be first sent for Ganter for that purpose, who, coming 



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S A Y I L E. 

witfa Yob aaetor amji qnadiMity << fell to retoWiog of tri« 
moglcft uid doiDg a great naoy fine things. Said tbe grave 
lui^t^ ^ Oo you call this reading of Geometrie ? Tbia k 
•hewing of tricks, mao/ and so dismissed bim with sconie, 
and sent for firign." Sir Henry also furnished a library 
with matbeauuicaT hooks near tbe mathematical scbool, for 
the- use of bis professors; and gave 100/. to tbe mathema^ 
tical chest of his own app<notiag; adding afterwards a 
legacy of 40/. a year to the same chest,^ to the university 
aadtghis professors jointly. He likewise gave 120/. to^ 
wards tbe new- building of the schools; seyeral rare manu- 
scripts and printed bocAs to the Bodleian library; and a 
good qnandty of matrices and Greek types to the printing* 
press at Oxford. Part of the endowment of tbe professor- 
ships was the manor of Little Hays in Essex. He died, a^ 
Eton-college, Feb. 19, lMi-2, and was buried in tbe 
chapel there, on the south side of the communion table, 
near the body of his son Henry, with, an inscription on a 
black marble stone. The university of Oxford paid him 
tbe greateH honours, hy having a public speech and verses 
made in his praise, which were published soon after in 4to, 
under the title of *<- Ultima Linea Savilii,'' and a sumptu- 
ous honorary monument was erected to hb memory on the 
•outh wall, at the upper end of the choir of Merton-colloM 
chapel. Sir Henry Savile, by universal consent, ranks 
amons; the most learned men of hb time, and the most 
liberal patrons of learning; and with great justice the 
highest encomiiuns are bestowed on him by all tbe learned 
of hb time: by Isaac Casaubon, Meroerus, Meibomius, 
Joseph Scaliger, and especially the learned bishop Mon-r 
tagu ; who, in his.<< Diatribas'' upon Selden*s << Hbtory of 
Tithes," styles him *' that magazine of learning, whose 
memory shall be honourable amongst not only the learned, 
bnt the righteous for ever." 

We have already mentioned several noble instances of 
bb munificence to the republic of letters : and bis works 
exhibit equal zeal for the promotion of literature. In 158], 
be published an English version of, 1. <<Four Books of 
tbe Hbtories of Cornelius Tacitus, and the Life of Agri'r 
cola; with notes upon thenH" folio, dedicated to queen 
ICIiaahetb. The tmtes were esteemed so valuable as to be 
trandated into Latin by Isaac Gruter, and published at 
Amsterdam, 1649, in 12mo, to which Gruter subjoined a 
realise of our author, publbl^ed iu 1598, under the titles 



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S. ** A Vievr of certain Military Mattery or co«{Bentarie«» 
concecoiDg Roman Warfere ;'* which, toon after its first 
appearance, was translated into Latin by Marquardus Fre- 
kerus, and printed at Heidelberg in 1601, but having be- 
come eKceeding scarce, was reprinted by Gruter. In 159^ 
be published a collection of the best ancient writers of our 
English history, entitled, 3. '< Rerum AqigUcanim Scrip* 
tores post BecUm prcecipui, ex vetiistissimis codicibus nunc 
primum in lucem editi f ' to which be added chronological 
^bles at the end, from Julius Ceesar to the coming in of 
William the Cpnqueror. This v^as reprinted at Francfbrt 
in 1601, which edition has a complete index to it The 
GoUection contains William of Malmsbary's. history of the 
kings of England, and the tires of the English bishops ; the 
bistorles of Henry of Huntingdon ; the aqnals of Rogef de 
Hovedeo ; the chronicle of Ethelwerd, and the history of 
Ingnlphus; with a dedication to queen Elizabeth, &c. 
WbartoQ, in the preface to his '^ Anglia Sacra,'' objects 
only to Malmsbury's history, which he says was printed 
from an incorrect MS. 4. He undertook and finished an 
edition, most beautifully printed, of ^* St. Chrysostom'a 
Works" in Greek, printed in 1613, 8 vols, folio. In' the 
preface, he says, <* that, having himself visited, about 
twelve years before, all the public and private libraries in 
Britain, and copied out thence whatever he thought useful 
to his design, he then sent some learned, men into France, 
Germany, Italy, and the East ; to transcribe such parts as 
be had not already, and to collate the others with the best 
manuflcripts." At the same time, he makes bis acknow- 
ledgment to several great men for their as&istauce; as 
Thuanus, Velsems, Schouus, Isaac Casaubon, J^ronto Dq- 
essus, Janus Grutenis^^ Hoeschelius, &c. In the eighth 
volume are inserted sir Henry Saviie's own notes, with those 
of the learned John Bois> Thomas Allen, Andrew Downes, 
an4 other learned men. The whole charge of this edition, 
including the several sums paid to learned men, at home 
and abroad, employed in finding out, transcribing, and 
collating, the best .manuscripts, is said to have amounted 
to no less than SQOOL ; but, as soon as it was finished, the 
bishops and clergy of France employed, somewhat nofau*ly, * 
as has been ssid, Fronton Due, or Fronto Ducaens, who 
was a learned Jesuit, to reprint it at Paris, in 10 vols, folio^ 
with a Latin translation, which lessened the price of sir 
Henry*a edition ; yet we are told, that the thousand copies 



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f 04 S A V I L E. 

wbicfa be printed were all se)d*. In 16 IS, be puUiAed a 
Latin itork, written by Thomas Bradwardin, abp. of Can- 
lerbury, against Pelagius, entitled, 5. ** De Causa Dei 
contra Pelagium, et de virtute causarum ;'* to which be 
prefixed the life of Bradwardin. This book Was printed 
from six MSS. carefully collated. 6. *^ Nazianzen's Ste- 
liteutics/' 16I0« Towards this, says Oldys, be was fa« 
voured with the MS epistles of Nazianzen oat of the Bod- 
leian library, ** which was a singular courtesy, and done be- 
cause of bis-afiection to the storing and preserving of the 
library,*' as if any thing could have been refused to suob a 
benefactor. 7, <^ Xenopbon's Institution of Cyrus,** Gr, 
1613, 4to. In 1691, he published a collection of his own 
tnathematical lectures. S. ^' Prelectiones Tredecim in 
principium Elemeptorum Euclidis OxonicB habitse," 4to. 
9. <^ Oratio coram Elizabeth^ Regina Oxonis habiu, anno 
1592,*' Oxon. 1658, 4to; published by Dr. Barlow from 
tbe original in the Bodleian library, and by Dr. Lampfaire, 
in the second edition of <* Monarchia Britannica,** Oxford, 
-1681, 8vo. 10. He translated iuto Latin king James's 
** Apology for the Oath of Allegiance." Six letters of bis, 
written to Hugo Blotius, and Sebastian Tenguagelius, 
keepers of tbe imperial library, were published in Lambe- 
cius's << Bibliotheca," vol. III.; four are printed amonfl" 
<^ Camdeni Epistolas," and others are in the Cotton and 
Harleian MSS. He was also concerned in the new trans- 
lation of the Bible, executed by command of James I. be- 
ing one of the eight persons at Oxford who undertook to 
translate the four Gospels, Acts, and Revelations. He left 
behind him several MSS. some of which are now in the 
Bodleian library, such as 1. «* Orations." 2. "Tract of 
the original of Monasteries." 3. *« Tract concerning the 
Union of England and Scotland, written at the command 
of king James I.'* He wrote notes likewise upon' the mar- 
gin of many books in bis library, particularly of Eusebius^a 

* This work required such long and beibre ChrytoitoB was finitbed, whea 

closeapplicmtion, that sir Henry's lady sir Henry lay sick, said, ** If sir 

thongbt herself neglected, and coming Harry djedf she would bum Chrjrsos- 

to bifli one day into bis stady, she tom f^r killing her bosband." Which 

said, ** Sir Henry, 1 would I were a Mr. Bois bearing, told her, ** That 

book too, and then you would a little would be a great pity, for be vras one 

more respect me.** To which, one of the sweetest preachers since tbe 

standing by, replied, « You must then apostles* times;" aith which she was 

be an almanack, nMdam, that he might so satisfied, that she said, ** the mwM 

change every year :>* which answer dis- not do it for sU tb« vorld,*^ 
l^ieaMd ber.^Ths taoMJady^-i^ UlU« 



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S A V 1 L E. 20* 

^ Ecclesiastical History/' which were afterwards used, and 
thankfully acknowledged, by Valesius, ia his edition ol 
that work in 1659. He is mentioned as a member of the 
society of Antiquaries, in the introductipn to the *^ Aitihs* 
ologia,*' and indeed there was no literary honour at that 
time of which he was not worthy. 

He had a younger brother, Thomas Savilb, who was 
admitted probationer-fellow of Merton college, Oxford, in 
1580^ afterwards travelled abroad into seireral countries; 
npon his return, was chosen fellow of Eton coUege ; and 
died at London in 1592-S, whence his body was removed 
to Oxford, and interred with great solemnity in the choir 
of Merton college chapeL He was a man of great learning, 
and an intimate friend of Camden; among whose letters 
there are fifteen of Mr. Savile's to him. 

There was anothetr HbnrY Savile, related to the above 
family, and familiarly called Long Harry Savile, who en« 
tered a student of Merton college in 1587, during the war* 
densbip of sir; Henry, and was soon after made one of the 
portionists, commonly called postmasters. After taking 
the degree of B. A. he left Merlon college, and removed to 
St Alban-hall, where in 1595, he took the degree of M. A. 
Under the inspection of his learned kinsman, he became an, 
eminent scholar, especially in the mathematics, physic (in 
which faculty he was admitted by the university to prac-* 
tise), chemutry, painting, heraldry, and antiquities. After** 
wards^ in order to extend his knowledge, be travelled into 
Italy, France, ahd Oermany, where he greatly improved 
himself. He is said to have written several things, but none 
have been published. He gave Camden the ancient copy 
of Asser Menevensis, which he published in 1602, and 
which contains the legendary story of the discord between 
the new scholars which Grimbaid brought with him to Ox* 
ft>rd, at the restoration of the university by king Alft'ed^ 
&c. This Henry Savile lived some years after his return 
from the continent, in the parish of St Martin's in the 
Fields, London, and dying there April 29, 1617, aged ; 
forty*nine, was buried in the chancel belonging to the pa- 
rish church, where was a monument to his memory. Among 
the Cotton MS& is a letter from him to Camden, ** con- 
cerning antiquities near Otley in Yorkshire." 

There still remains one of this family to be noticed, sir 
John Savile, elder brother to sir Henry, who was born at 
Bradley in 1545, and entered a commoner of Brasenose 



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tOf g A V I' L EL 

coHegc about 1 5$ if wfaetice) without uking a cl^gree, he 
went to the Middle Temple for the study of the law. Be- 
ing called to the bar, he became autumn reader of that 
bouse in 1586^ steward of the lordship of Wakefield, ser- 
jeaot at law in 1 694^ one of the barons of the exchequer 
in 1598, and a^the8ame time one of the jostices of assize.- 
In July 1603, a little before his coronation, king James 
eanferred the honour of knighthood on him, being one of 
the judges who were to attend that solemnity. He died at 
London, Feb. 2, 1606, aged sixty ^one, and was huried at 
8t DuDstan*8 church, Fleet-street, but his heart was bu- 
ried in Methley church, Yorkshire, where is a monument 
to his memory, erected by bb son. Camden acknowledges 
the assistance he received fr6m sir John Saviie in bts his- 
torical labours. He left at his death several pieces fit for 
publication, but none have appeared, except *^ Reports of 
divers cases in the courts of common pleas and exchequer, 
from 22 to 36 Elizabeth,'* a thin folio, printed first in 1675, 
and again in 1688.' 

SAVONAROLA (Jerome), a celebrated Italian monk, 
was bom at Ferrara in 1452. In 1466 he became a Domi- 
nican at Bologna, and afterwards preached at Florence, but 
with very little success, and left the place. In 1489«he 
was invited by Lorenzo de Medici to return to Florence, 
where he became a vei'y popular preacher. By pretensions 
to superior sanctity, and by a fervid eloquence, he hur- 
ried away the feelings of his hearers, and gained an ascen- 
dancy over their minds by his prophecies, which were 
directed both against church and state. Having by these 
means acquired a powerful influence,, be began to despise 
the patronage of Lorenzo, and avoided his presence. 
Af^ the death of Lorenzo, he placed himself at the head 
of a popular party in Florence, who aimed at the esuUbh- 
ment of a free constitution. &tvonarola seems to have pro- 
mised them something between a republic and a theocracy. 
By such means his party became very formidable ; and to 
flatter them yet more, be denounced terrible judgments to 
the court of Rome, and to the rest of the Italian states. In 
1498 many complaints having been carried to Rome, in 
which he was accused of having reproached, in bis sermons, 
the conduct of that court and the vices of the clergy, he 

> Alh. Ox. vol. T.— Biof, Brit.— WatsoD*s H«lir«x.— Harwood*8 Altunpi Et«^ 
iMniet, p. 9 and 62.— Peck'i DcsideratSir-Strjpe's Whttgift, p. S44«— LeUtri 
ky£aiiii«oiP«rwM» 1S13, 3 volt r STO.«»WQod's Anaali. 



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S A V O N A K O L A. ioi 

publicly ejccommiiniisated, wlfieh ct fim he regarded 
to ftir as to abs^n from preicbingy but finding that rileMc 
was considered as submission^ and would miu his cause, he 
resumed his function, and renewed his ihvecttres against 
the pope and the court of Rooie* But when the pope 
Alexander threatened to interdict the city, the magistfitet 
commanded him to desist from preaching. At length he 
procured the assistance of a fiiar of his own conrent, named 
Fra. Domenico da Pescia, who proposed to confirm his 
master^s doctrines by the ordeal of walking through the 
flanges, provided any one of their adversaries would do the 
same. The challenge was accepted by a Franciscan friar, 
and a day was appointed for the trial. Savonarola, finding 
that the adverse party were not to be intimidated, proposed 
that Domenico should be allowed to carry the host with 
him into the fire. This was exclaimed against by the whole 
assembly as an impious and sacrilegious proposal. It was, 
however, insisted upon by Domenico, who thereby eluded 
the ordeal. But the result was fetal to the credit of Savo* 
narola, who was deserted by the populace^ apprehended 
and dragged to prison, and condemned to be first stran* 
gled and then burnt, which sentence was put into execu* 
tion on the 23d of May, 1498. 

Various opinions have been entertained of this man*s 
real character. Some of the friends of liberty and protes- 
tantism have considered him as a man who had elevated 
views and good intentions, though perverted by a spirifof 
fanaticism ; and there seems no reason to doubt that he was 
really a friend to the liberty of Florence, and fdt an honest 
indignation at the profligacy of the court of Rome, and 
the corruption of the catholic church. For these last rea- 
sons, some have even admitted him among the ceformera 
and martyrs. But his title to this honour seema very ques- 
tionable, and^ the character of a leader of a party is as dis« 
cemible in his conduct as that of a reformer. There are a 
great number of his sermcfns remaining, and other works 
in Latin and Italian, most of them on religious subjects. 
His life, inserted in Bates's ** Vite Selectorum,'' was written^ 
in Latin by John Francis Picus de Miraudola, prinoe^of 
Concordia. Queti published an edition of it, to which he 
added notes, with the Latin translation of some of Saro- 
narola's works, and a list of them.* 

» Tiraboichi.— RoMOte'f Lor^x©.— Gen. DicU 



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toa SAWYER. 

SAWYER (Sa Robert)) m emioiMit lawyer in tba ae- 
^ttDteentb eetttuiy, was a meoiber of Magdalea collegey 
Cambridge, where he took bis degree of M. A. in \65Sf 
and was &e same year admitted ad eundem at Oxford. He 
was afterwards a beoefiictor to the library of bis college. 
After studying law at the Inner Temple, he was admitted 
to the bar, and had a large share of practice at Lpndon, 
and ou the Oxford circuit. In 1661 he was knighted, and 
in Feb. 1680, was appointed attorney-general. As a lawyer 
he formed bioiself after the lord chief justice Hale, under 
whom be practised, and of whom he was a just admirer. 
Like that excellent person, he was a man of general learn- 
ing, and, according to Granger, of an integrity that nothing 
could corrupt ; but bishop Burnet represeots him as a dull 
not man, and forward to serve all the designs of the court. 
Had this been always the case, however, king James would 
not have dismissed him from the office of attorney general, 
which he did in 1687, because he perceived that sir Ro* 
bert could not have been prevailed upon to mould the laws 
to such purposes as were never intended by the legislature. 
On the other hand, Granger allows that he was justly cen- 
sured for his harsh treatment of lord Russel on his trial, 
and it is certain that he supported some of. king Jameses 
arbitrary measures, being the mauag^r in depriving the 
city of London of its charter. At the time of the revolu- 
tion, be sat as meoiber of parliament for the university of 
Cambridge, and was expelled the house for being con- 
cerned, as attorney-general, in the prosecution of sir Tho* 
mas Armstrong, who was executed for being one of tfa^ 
conspirators in the Rye-house plot* In the next sessions 
be was re-chosen, and appears to have sat quietly for the 
remainder of his life. He died in 1632, at Highclear in 
Hampshire, where he had an estate, and rebuilt the parish 
ehurch. His only daughter married the earl of Pembroke, 
and died in 1706. Under his name, and those of Heneage 
Finch, sir George Treby, and Henry PoUexfen, were pub- 
Ibbed in 1690, folio, ^< Pleadings and arguments with other 
proceedings in the court of king's bench upon the Quo 
Warranto, touching the charter of the city of London, witU 
the judgment entered thereupon.''^ 

. 8AX£ (Maurice, Count of), a celebrated commander^ 
was born October 19, 1696, at Dresden, and was the 

1 Alb. Ox. Yol. II.^Barnet'8 Owa TimM.— Cole's MS Atheiw in Brit. Mm. 
—Onnstr.— North'! life of Lord Keeper Guilford, p, 287, 



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8 A X E. ^9 

natural son of Frederick Augustas II. king of Poland^ and 
Aurora, coMiUess of Konigsmarc. He gave evident 'proofs 
of bis taste for military affairs from his childhood ; was 
taught to read and write with the utmost difficulty ; nor 
could be ever be^ prevailed upon ta study a few hours in 
the morning, otherwise than by a promise that he should 
ride on horseback in the afternoon. He liked to have 
Frenchmen about him, for which reason their language was 
the only foreign one which he willingly* learnt grammati* 
cally. He attended the elector in all his military expedi- 
tions ; was at the siege of Lisle in 1708, when only twelve 
years old, and mounted the trenches several times both at 
the city and at the fortress, in sight of the king^ his father, 
who admired his intrepidity. Nor did he discover less cou- 
rage at the siege of Tournay, the year following, where he 
twice narrovvly escaped death ; and at the battle of Mai- 
plaquet, far from being shocked by the dreadful carnage 
which attended the engagement, he declared in the even- 
ing, "chat he wds well pleased with the day." In 1711, 
he followed the king of Poland to Stralsund, where he 
swam over the river, in sight of the enemy, with his pistol 
in his band, during which time he saw, without any seem- 
ing emotion, three officers and above twenty soldiers fall 
Jby his side. When he retired to Dresden, the king, who 
had been witness to his courage and abilities, raised a com- 
pany of horse for him. Count Saxe spent the whole win- 
ter in teaching his regiment some new evolutions, which 
he bad invented, and marched them against the Swedes 
the year following. This regiment suffered much at the 
battle of Gadelbusb, where he made them feturn three 
times to the attack. This campaign being ended, mad. de 
Konigsmarc married him to the young countess de Loben, 
a rich and amiable lady, whose name was Victoria^ which 
name, count Saxe afterwards said, coiltributed as much to 
'fix his choice on the countess, as her beauty and large for- 
tune. This lady brought him a son, who died young, and 
the connt having at length a disagreement with her, pro- 
eured bis marriage to be dissolved in 1721, but promised 
the conntess never to marry again, and kept his word. She 
married a Saxon officer soon after, by whom she had three 
children, and they lived in harmony together. It was with 
'great reluctance that the countess had consented td.hef 
marriage being dissolved, for she love^d count Saxe ; and 
the latter frequently repented afterwards of having takta 
Vol. XXVII. P 



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210 S A X E. 

such a step. He continued to signalize himself in tli<e wvt 
against Sweden, was at the siege of Stralsund in December 
1715, when Charles XII. was blocked up, and bad the 
satisfaction of seeing him in the midst of his grenadiers. 
The behaviour of this celebrated warrior inspired count 
. Saxe with a high degree of veneration, which he ever re- 
tained for his memory. He served against the Turks in 
Hungary in 1717, and on his return to Poland in 1718, 
received the order of the white eagle from the king. In 
.1720, he visited France, aiul the duke of Orleans, then re- 
gent, gave him a brevet of marechal de camp. Count Saxe 
afterwards obtained leave from his Polish majesty to serve 
in France, where he purchased a German regiment in 1722, 
which afterwards bore his name. He changed the ancient 
exercise of this regiment for one of liis own invention ; and 
the chevalier Folard, on seeing this exercise, foretold im* 
mediately, in his Commentary on Polybius, torn. III. b. ii. 
chap. 14, that count Saxe would be a great general. Dur« 
ing his residence in France, he learnt mathematics and the 
arc of fortification with astonishing facility, till 1723, when 
prince Ferdinand, duke of Courland, falling dangerously 
ill in the month of December, he turned his thoughts to 
obtaining the sovereignty of Courland. With this view, he 
set out ior Mittau, and arrived there, May 18, 1726.. He 
was received with open arms by the states, and had seve- 
ral private mterviews with the duchess dowager of Cour- 
land', who had resided there since her husband's decease, 
1 his lady wds Anne Iwanaw, second daughter of the czar 
Iwan Alexiowitz, brother of Peter the Great Count Saxe, 
having communicated his design to her, soon engaged her 
in his interests ; an<l she acted with such indefatigable ar- 
dour, and conducted affairs so well, that he was unani- 
mously elected duke of Courland, July 5, 1726. This 
choice being opposed by Poland and Russia, the duchpse 
supported count Saxe with all her interest, and even went 
to Riga and Petersburg, where she redoubled her solicita- 
tions in favour of the late election. There seems indeed 
to be no doubt, but that, if the count had returned her 
passion, he would not only have maintained his gruund in 
Courland, but shared the throne of Russia, which this prin- 
cess afterwards ascended ; but, during his stay at Mituu^ 
an affair of gallantry between him and one of her ladies 
broke off the marriage, and induced the duchesa to aban- 
(iun him. From that moment the count's affairs^ took aa; 



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S A X E. 211 

N 

unhappy turn, and he was forced to go back to Paris in 
172d. The following remarkable circumstance occurred 
during the course of bis enterprize : Having written from 
, Courlandto France for a supply of men and money, made- 
moiselle le Couvreur, a celebrated actress, who was at that 
time attached to him, pawned her jewels and plate, and 
sent bim 40,000 lirres. When count Saxe returned to 
Paris, he applied himself to obtain a complete knowledge 
of the mathematics, and acquired a taste for mechanics^ 
He refused the command of the Polish army offered him 
by the king, his brother, in 1733, and distinguished him-» 
self on the Rhine under marechal Berwick, particularlyrat 
the lines of Etlingen, and the siege of Philipsburg, after 
which he was made lieutenant-general August 1, 1734* 
Hostilities having recommenced on the death of the empe- 
ror Cliarles VI. count Saxe took Prague by assault, Nov. 
26, 17 41, then Egra and Ellebogen, raised a regiment of 
Hullaos, and brought back marechal de Broglio's army 
upon the Rhine, where he fixed various posts, and seized 
the trenches of Lanterburg. He was appointed marechal 
of France, March 26, 1744, and commanded the maia 
body of the army in Flanders, where he so exactly ob* 
served the motions of the enemies, who were superior \\\ 
number, and made use of such excellent manoeuvres, that 
be reduced them to remain inactive, for they were afraid 
to undertake any thing. This campaign in Flanders did- 
count Saxe great honour, and was considered as a chef- 
d^GBUvre of the military art. He won the famous battle of 
Fontenoi, under the king's command, May 1 1, 1745," where, 
though sick and weak, be gave his orders with such pre- 
sence of mind, vigilance, courage, and judgment, as made 
him the admiratipn of the whole army. This vrctory was 
followed by the capture of Tournay, which the French be* 
sieged ; of Ghent, Bruges, Oudenarde, Ostend, Ath, &c.; 
and at the time that tlie campaign was supposed to 1>e 
finished, he took Brussels, February 28, 1746. Nor was 
the next campaign less honourable to count Saxe. He 
won the battle of Raucoux, Oct, II, the same year, 1746 ; 
and bis majesty, to reward such a constant series of glo- 
rious services, declared him marechal general of his camps 
and armies, Jan. 12, 1747. Marechal Saxe carried troppg 
into Zealand, gained the battle of Lanfeldt, July 2 follow- 
ing* approved the siege of Bergen-op-Zoom, of which M. 
de Loewen made himself master, and took Maestrech^ 

P 2 

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U2 8 A X E. 

BImy 7f 1 74S. In coasequence of these yictories « peac« 
was concluded at Aix-la-CiMpelle, Oct. 18, the same year. 
Marechftl Saxe went afterwards to Cbambord, which the 
king bad ffiTen him, ordered his regriment of Hullans thi- 
theri and kept a stud of wild horses, more proper for light 
cavalry than those used by the French, ite yisited Berlin 
some time after, and was magnificently entertained by his 
Prussian majet^. On his return to Paris, he formed a plan 
for the establishment of a colony in the island of Tobago ; 
but gave it up, when he found that England and Holland 
dpposed it. Count Saxe died, after a nine days* illness, at 
* Chambord, Nov. 90, 1750, in the fifty-fourth year of his 
age. He wrote a book on the art of war, called-^* Mes 
Reveries/* of which a very splendid edition, with his life, 
was published in 1757, f vols. 4to* There is also an Eng- 
lish translation of it. His <^ Life*' was printed in 1752, S 
vols. If mo, reprinted often. 

Count Saxe was a man of ordinary stature, of a robust 
constitution, and extraordinary strength. To an aspect, 
noble, warlike, and mild, be joined many excellent qaali- 
ties of disposition. Affable in his manners, and disposed 
to sympathize with the unfortunate, his generosity some* 
times carried him beyond the limits of bis fortune. - He 
was remarkably careful of the lives of his men. One day 
a general officer was pointing out to him a post which would 
have been of great use ; ** It will only cost you,*' , said he, 
^^ a dozen gremdiers:'* '^That would do very well," replied 
the marshal, ^ were it only a dozen lieutenant-generals.** 
He had beeb educated and died in the Lutheran religion. 
^' It is a pity (said the queen of Fiance, when she heard of 
his death) that we cannot say a single De-prqfundis for a . 
man who has made us sing so many Te Deums^ Religion 
had not mock influence on his general conduct, but on his 
death-bed he is said to have reviewed his errors with remorse, 
and expressed much penitence.' 

SAXI, or SASSr(Jos£?& Anthony), an ecclesiastical 
historian, was born at Milan in 1673. He for some time 
taught the belles lettres in his native city, and afterwards 
was employed as a missionary. In 1703 he was admitted a 
doctor of the Ambrosian coUege at Milan, and eight years 
afterwards was appointed director of that college, and keeper 
ef its fine library. He died about 176e« He was author 

& Diet Hitt. 



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S A X X 21% 

of many theologictl, hktarical, and oknmological works, 
among whieli are, 1. ^* EpUtola ad Card. Quirium de Lite* 
ratura Mediolanensium,*' 4to. S. <^ De Studiis Mediola* 
BenaiQoi Anciqnis et Novis/* Milan, 1729. %. << Archi* 
•piscoponuD Mediolanennuni Series critico-cfaronologica,^^ 
ibid. 1756, 4to. 4. '* St. Caroli Borromei Homilise, prefa- 
tione et notis/* 1747, &c. 5 vols. fol. Some of the works 
of 8axi have been inserted in the colleftion ^^ Renim Itali- 
caram Scriptores'* by Muratori.' 

8AXIUS (CaaisTOPHEft)) a very learned philologer and 
literary historian, was bom at Eppendorff, a village between 
Cbeniniiz and Freyberg, in Saxony, where his faitber was 
a clergyman, Jan. 13, 1714. His proper name was Ghris* 
topber Gottiob Bach, which, when he commenced author, 
he Latinised into Sachsuis, and afterwards into Saxiu^, 
dropping the Gottiob altogether. His father first gave him 
some instructions in the learned languages, which he after* 
wards improved at the sehool of Chemnitz, but more effec*^ 
tually at the electoral school of Misnta, where he also stu« 
died classical antiquities, history, and rhetoric, and in 1735 
went to Leipsic with the strongest recommendations for in* 
dustry and proficiency. Here he studied philosophy under 
the celebrated WolO^ but as he had already perused the 
writings both of the ancient and modern philosophers with 
profound attention, he is said to have had the courage to 
differ from the current opinions. Philosophy, however, as 
then uught, was less to his taste than the study of antiqui* 
ties, classical knowledge, and literary history, to which he 
determined to devote his days *f and the instructions of pro- 
fessor Christ, and his living in the house with Menkenius, 
Who had an excellent library, were circurastatices whichr 
very powerfully confirmed this resolution. He had not been 
here above a year, when two young noblemen were confided 
to bis care, and this induced him to cultivate the modem 
languages most in use. His first disputation had for its 
subject, ^* VindicisB secundum libertatem pro Marpnis 
iEneide, cui manom Jo. Harduinus nuper assertor injece- 
fat,'* Leipsic, 1737. Among other learned men who highly 
applauded this dissertation was the second Peter Burmann, 
in the preface to his Virgilj but who afterwards, in his 
character as a critic, committed some singular mistakes in 
condemning Jiurnu, while be applauded Sachsius, not know- 

> Diet Hist. 



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fl4 S A XI U.S. 

ing that they were one and the same. In 1738 Saxiai took 
bis master's degree, and commenced his literary career by 
writing a number of critical articles in the ** Nova acta 
eruditorum," and other literary journals*, from this year to 
1747. This employment involved him sometimes in con- 
troversies with his learned brethren, particularly with Peter 
Burmann, or with foreign authors with whose works he had 
taken liberties. In, 1745 he visited the most considerable 
parts of Germany, and was at Franckfort on the Maine 
during the coronation of the Emperor. In 1752 be was 
appointed professor of history, antiquities, and rhetoric at 
Utrecht, and on entering on his office pronounced an ora- 
tion on the science of antiquity, which was printed in 1753^ 
4tp. After this his life seems to have been devoted entirely 
to the duties of his professorship, and the composition of a 
great many works on subjects of philology and criticism, 
some in German, but principally in Latin. The most 
considerable of these, the only one much known in this 
country, is his '^ Onomasticon Literarium," or Literary 
Dictionary, consisting of a series of biographical and criti- 
cal notices or references respecting the most eminent writers 
of ^very age or nation, and in every branch of literature, 
an chronological order. The first volume of this appeared 
in 1775, 8vo, and it continued to be published until seven 
volumes were completed, with a general Index, in 1790, 
To this, in 1793, he added an eighth or supplementary vo- 
lume, from which we have extracted some particulars of his 
life, as given by himself. This is a work almost indispen-r 
aable to biographers, and as the work of one man, must 
have been the production of many years* labour and atten^ 
tion. Some names, however, are omitted, which we might 
have expected to find in it; and the English series, as in 
every foreign undertaking of the kind, is very imperfect. 
We have seen no account of his latter days. He lived to a 
very advanced age, dying at Utrecht, May 3,^ 1806, in his' 
pinety-second year." 

SAXO (Grammaticus), a Danish historian, is su|:^osed 
to have been a native of Denmark, but this has been a 
disputed point. As to his name Sachse, it is evident froni 
many monuments of Danish antiquity, that it is of no ob- 
scure or late origin in the history of Denmark. Saxo hicn- 
aelf calls the Danes his countrymen, Denmark his country; 

1 Saxii OnooMit. toI. VXlI.-<>-Harles da Vitis Philologorum, vol. I. 

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S A X O. 215 

"ihd'spealKing of the kings, he terms them our kings. Some 
attribute his origin to Ambria, others with more reason tQ 
Sialandia, a Danish island. The name Scatandicus is also 
added to that of Saxo^ in some edition^ of his works. He 
has been called Longus, which has induced some to attri- 
bute his descent to the noble family of the Langii. Others 
have rather chosen to ascribe this name to the height of his 
stature. Saxo, in his preface, speaks of his ancestors as 
having been distinguished in war, which indicates that they 
ifere of no ignoble race. His name of Grammaticus was 
titular, and expressive of his attainments in literature* 
There are different opinions concerning the year of his 
birth. It is, however, certain that he flourished in the 
twelfth century. Carpzovius endeavoured, by some acute 
and subtile reasonings, to ascertain the date. The educa- 
tion of Saxo is equally involved in uncertainty. Pontoppi- 
dan supposes that he studied at Paris, and there acquired 
the elegance of style for which he afterwards was distin- 
guished. It is certain, that in the 12tli century the Cimbri 
and the Danes frequently went to France for education. It 
may, however, be doubted, whether in the rage for trifle 
virhich then prevailed at Paris, Saxo could have procured a 
roaster who was capable of instructing him. We must be 
rather inclined to suppose that he owed his attainments to 
bis own tndastry and talents. It appears that he applied 
to theology, for we find him appointed capitular in the 
bishopric of Lundens, and afterwards a prefect in the ca- 
thedral of Roschild. While he filled this office he was sent, 
ill 1 161, by Absalon, the bishop of RoschiM, to Paris, with 
a view of inviting some monks from St. (Jenevieve, who 
might correct the depraved morals of those which belonged 
to Eskilsco. William Abbas accepted the invitation of 
Saxo, and three brothers followed him. These monks in- 
troduced into Denmark the monastic discipline which had 
been prescribed by St. Augustine. Various opinions have 
been offered about the date of Saxo*s death. Pontanus 
supposes it to have been in the year 1208. Some conjecture 
the time to have been UM, others in 1201. But, whei^ 
we reflect that in his preface he speaks of Waldemar II. 
who ascended the throne of Denmark in 1203, and that 
Andrew Suno, to whom the history is dedicated, succeeded 
Absalon in the bishopric in 1202, we cannot agree with' 
those who have adopted the earlier -dates. Though some 
others have fixed the date in 1204, and others in 1206, the 



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216 S A X O. 

general opinitui is, that he died in iSOS, tilgeA upwards of 
seventy. He was buried in the cathedral of Roscbild. 
Three centuries afterwards, an inscription was added to bis 
tomb by Lago Urne, bishop of Scalandre. Though mora 
elegant verses might iiave been invented, says Klotzius, 
none could have been. more true. ' 

Absalon, bishop of Roschild, first instigated Saxo to un- 
dertake the iustory of Denmark, and assisted him with hit 
advice and with books.. Saxo employed twenty years in 
accomplishing his undertaking, and at last rendered it wor- 
thy the expectations of Abssdon/. who, however, died be^ 
fore the history w^as completed, which Saxo inscribed to 
Andrew Suno, who was the successor to the see. After 
remaining in MS. for three hundred years, Christianus Pe- 
traeus undertook the publication, having received the ma- 
nuscript accurately written from Bergeius the archbishop 
of Lundens. It was delivered to be printed to Jodocus Ba- 
dius Ascensius, and was published at Paris in 1514, and 
re-published at Basil, in 1534^ by Oporinus. A third edi- 
tion appeared at Francfort on the Maine, in 1576. At last, 
Stephan us Johannes Stephanies, historian to the king, and 
professpr of eloquence and history in the university, of Solii, 
with the aid of some Danish nobles, and the liberal con- 
tribution of the king, was enabled to publish an edition of 
Saxo, in folio, printed at Sora, 1644. A second part of 
the volume appeared in the following year, containing the 
** Prolegomena,^' and copious notes. There is a later edi- 
tion by Christ. Adolphus Klotz, printed at Leipsic in 
1771, 4to, and there are several Danish translations. The 
credibility of Saxo is somewhat doubtful, but his style is 
good, and much praised by critics of authority.* 

SAY (Samuel), a dissenting minister of considerable 
talents, was born in 1675, and was the second son of the 
Rev. Giles Say, who bad been qected from the vicarage 
of St Michael's in Southampton by the Bartholomew-act 
in 1662 ; and, after king James the second's liberty of con- 
science, was chosen pastor of a dissenting congregation at 
Guestwick in Norfolk, where he continued till bis death, 
April 7, .1692, Some years after, the subject of this article 
being at Soutbwark, where he had been at school, and 
conversing yvith some of tbe dissenters of that place, met 

> From the last edit, of thiy Diet, probibly Ukeu from Klotaius's PrologQaens* 
—Diet, Hist, 



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SAT. «W 

with a wom^ of great repotation f<ur piefcy^ vfao i^di "bm^ 
with joyi that a sermcQ on Ps. cxix. 130^ preached by bis 
father tbirtj' years beforei was the means of her €on¥eraion. 
Beiog strongly inclined to ttie ministry, Mr. Say en^ersd 
as a pupil in tlie. academy of the Rev. Mr. Thomas Howe 
at London about 1692, where he bad for his fellow-atu- 
dents Mr. (after\vards Dr.) Isaac Watts, Hogbcs the poet, 
and Mr. Josiah Hort, afterwards archbishop of Tuam. When 
be had finished his studies, be became chaplain to Thomas 
Scott, esq. of Lyminge in Kent, in whose fie(mily lie CQUti^ 
nued three years. Thence be removed to Andover iq 
Hampshire, then to Yarmouth in Norfolk, and soon after 
to LowestoflPin Sufiblk, where he oontinued laboimog in 
word and doctrine eighteen years. He was afterwards eo^ 
pastor with the Rev. Mr; Samuel Baxter at Ipswich nine 
years; and lastly was called, in 1734, to succeed Dr. E^« 
mund Calamy in Westminster, where he died at his house 
in James-street, April 12, 1743, of a mortification in bis 
bowels, in the sixty-eighth y^ar of his age. 

In his funeral -sermon, preached by Dr. Obadiah Hughes, 
and afterwards printed, a due elogiam is paid to his miiH<^ 
sterial abilities; and, soon after his deatli, a thin quartsa 
volume of his poems, with two essays in pvose, ^' On the 
Harmony, Variety, and Power of Numbers,** written at 
the request of Mr. Richardson the painter, were published 
for the benefit of bis daughter, who married *the Rev. Mf. 
Toms, of Uadleigh in Suffolk. The essays have been muck 
admired by persons of taste and judgment. And the Oen- 
tleman^s Magazine, for 17 80, p. S6S, has rescued firom 
oblivion some remarks, by the same judicious hand, from 
the margin of a copy of Mr. Auditor Benson^s ^ Prefatoiy 
Discourse to bis Edition of Johnston's Psalms, and the 
Conclusion of that Discourse, 1741.*' 

Id the preface to bis works, we are told that Mr. Say 
« was a tender husband, an indulgent fieidMr, and of a most 
heaevoleot, communicative disposition, ever ready to de 
good, and to distribute. He was well versed in astroaomy 
and natural philosophy; bad a taste for musie and poetry^ 
was a good critic, and a master of the classics. Yet so 
great was his mcMlesty, ikat he was keown only to a few 
select friends, and never published above two or three ser- 
mons, which were in a manner extorted from him.** Among 
the modern Latin poets Broukhusius was his favourite £ 
among the English, Milton, whose head, etah^d byMn 



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lis SAY. 

RicfaardfOQ, is prefised to his second essay. A letter from 
Mr. Say to Mr. Hughes, and two from Mr. Say to Mr. Dun- 
combe, with a Latin translation of the beginning of ** Pa- 
radise Lost,^* are printed among the ^^ Letters of Eminent 
Persons deceased," vol. L and vol. IL His characters of 
Mrs. Bridget Bendysh, grand-daughter of Oliver Cromwell, 
in the appendix to vol. IL first appeared (without a name) 
io pent. Mag. 1765, p. 357. In the same volume, p. 423, 
*^ The Resurrection illustrated by the Changes of the Silk- 
i^orm'* is by the same hand. And some of bis poetical 
pieces are in Nicholses " Select Collection, vol. VI. 

Mr. Say bad collected all the forms of prayer en public 
occasions from the time of archbishop Laud, which after 
his death were offered to the then archbishop of York (Dr. 
Herring), but were declined by him as " never likely to be 
employed in compositions of that sort for the public, that 
work being in the province of Canterbury .*' Yet, unlikely 
as it seemed, this event soon happened.' 

SCiEVOLA. See St. MARTHE. 

SCALA (Bartholomew), an Italian, eminent as a states* 
man and man of letters, when letters were just reviving in 
Europe, was born about 1424, some say 1430. He was 
only the son of a miller; but, agoing early to Florence, he 
fell under the notice of Cosmo de Medici ; who, observing 
uncommon parts in him and a turn for letters, took him 
under his protection, and gave him an education. He stu- 
died the law ; and, taking a doctor's degree in that faculty, 
frequented the bar. After the death of Cosmo in 1464, 
Peter de Medici shewed the same regard for him ; and 
Scala, through, his means, was trusted by the republic in- 
the most important negociations. In 1471, the freedom of 
the city was conferred on him and his descendants ; and the 
year after he obtained letters of nobility; he was then se- 
cretary or chancellor of the republic. In 1484, the Flo- 
rentines sent a solemn embassy to Innocent VIII, to con- 
gratulate him on bis being raised to the pontificate ; when 
Scala, one of the embassy, delivered a speech so very 
pleasing to the pope, that he was made by him a knight of 
the golden spur, and senator of Rome. In 1436, he was 
made holy-standard-bearer to the republic. He died at 
Florence in 1497 ; and left, among other children, a daugh- 

1 Gent. Mag. See Index.— Abp. Herriog*t Letters.— WiiMii*t Hist of Qif- 
•entiog Chorohet* 



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S C A L A. £19 

ter, named Alexandra, who afterwards became fambua for 
her learning and skill in tbe Greek and Latin tongues. 

During bis life-time were published the abovementioned 
speech. to pope Innocent; another speech which he made 
as chancellor of Florence, ^^ Pro Imperatoriis militaribus 
signis dandis Constantio SfortisB Imperatori,^' 1481 ; and 
** Apologia contra vituperatores cjvitatis Florentiae," 1496, 
in folio. His posthumous works are four books, <^ De His- 
toria Floreptina," and " Vita diVitaliani Borromeo;'* both 
printed at Rome in 1677, 4to. This history of the Floren- 
tine republic was written in twenty books, and deposited in 
the Medicean library ; but, as only four of these books and 
part of a fifth were finished, no more have been thought fit 
for the press. He was the author also of ** Apologues,** 
and of some Latin and Italian <^ Poems.'* Some few of bis 
letters have been published; and there are eight in the 
collection of Politiao, with whom Scala, as appears from 
the correspondence, had the misfortune to be at variance. 
Politian probably despised him for being his superior in 
every thing but letters, and Scala valued himself too much 
on his opulence. Erasmus also has not passed a very fa- 
vourable judgment on bim : he represents him as a Cicero- 
nian in his style. Scala*s daughter Alexandra, above men- 
tioned, was no less distinguished by her personal beauty, 
than her literary acquirements. She gave her hand to the 
,Greek Marullus (See Makulli^); aud Politian is numbered 
among her unsuccessful admirers; a circumstance that may. 
in some degree account for the asperities which marked bis 
controversy with her father. She is said to have been as* 
sisted in her studies by John Lascaris, and Demetrius Chal- 
oondylas. In evidence of heir proficiency, we are told 
that she replied to a Greek epigram, which the gallantry of 
Politian addressed to her, in the same language and mea- 
nure; and in a public representation of the ** Electra** of 
Sophocles at Florence, she undertook to perform tbe prin- 
cipal female character^ which, according to Politian, she 
did with great success. She died in 1506.' 

SCALIGER (Julius C^sar), a very learned and emi- 
nent critic, was bom, according to his son's account, April 
23, 1484, at Ripa, a castle in the territory of Verona, and 
was the son of Benedict Scaliger, who, for seventeen years, 
commanded the troops of Matthias, king of Hungary, to 

« Tirabotchi.— Gen. Diet— GrewwcU't Poritlan.— RoMOt'f I^renz*. ' 



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120 S C AXIGD R. 



whom he wm rektcd. Hit motfaer wmt Berenice Lodronia^ 
daughter of count Pant. From ^he same authority we 
learn, that 8c«liger was a descendtat from the ancient 
fxrtnces of Veroaa ; but while other particulars of the birth 
«nd family of Scaiiger are called in question, this seems to 
he refuted by the patent of naturalization which Francis L 
granted him in 162$, in which such an honourable descent 
•woald unquestionably have been noticed, whereas in this 
JBttrument he is called only <* Julius Csesar della Scala dm 
-Bordons, doctor of physic, a native of Verona.'' When 
therefore^ his critical asperities had raised him enemies, 
they did not fail to strip him of his royal origin,, and in- 
•tead of it« asserted that he was the son of a school- master 
(some say an illuminator) of Verona, one Benedict Bor- 
den, who, renK>vii>g to Venice, took the name of Scaiiger, 
^ther because he had a scali for his sign, or lived in a street 
called from that instrument; and although Thuanus seems 
inclined to consider this story as the fabrication of Augus- 
tine Niphus, out of pique to Scaiiger, it is certain that the 
voyal origin of the Scaligers has always appeared doubt« 
-lol, aiHl we have now no means to remove the uncer- 
tainty. 

He was taught Latin at home, and, according to his son^ 
had for his preceptor John Jocundus of Verona, whom he 
himself in various pans of his works mentions as his mastet ; 
but even this oircumsunce^his opponents are not disposed 
to credit, and tell ns, that as be was the descendant of 
princes, it was necessary to provide him with a preceptor 
Kke Jocundus, who was a man not only of high character, 
hut a gentleman by biith. They also add some circum- 
. slances which certainly make it doubtful whether Scaiiger 
reaHy was taught by Jocundus, because it was neither by 
his knowledge of Latin, nor by pbilosoptiy or theology, 
that Jocwsdus acquired his reputation, but by his- skill i» 
-the fine avts. (See Jocundus.) It appears, however, less 
qwestienable, that at the age of twelve Scaiiger was pre- 
sented to the empefor Maximilian, who made him one of 
his pages, and diat be served that emperor seventeen years, 
end gave preofii of his vakmr and dexterity in several ex- 
peditions, in which he attended bis master. He was at 
the hjaltle of Ravenaa in 1512, in which he lost his father 
and bffttber Titus, whose bodies he conveyed to Ferrara, 
where his mother resided, who some time after died with 
grief. 



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8CALIGE1L 381 

His fWther dying in nurrow circumslancei) SeaUger (omni 
himself almost without a maintenance, and therefore re* . 
aolved to enter into the Franciscan order, for which purpose 
be went to Bologna, and applied himself yigoroosly tm 
study,, especially to logic and Scotys^s divinity ; hut cbimg* 
ing his views of the ecclesiastical profession, he again 
entered into the army, and served some time in Ptedmoiit; 
A physician, whom he knew at Turin, persuaded him to 
study physic ; and accordingly he prosecuted it at his lei*> 
sure hours, while he was in the army : he likewise learned 
the Greek language, of whieh he had been entirely igoo- 
rant till then. At length, frequent attacks of the gout 
determined him, at forty years of age, to abandon a mill* 
tary life, and devote himself entirely to the profession of 
physic' In this he had already acquired both skill aad 
fame, and the bishop of Agen, being indisposed, and ap* 
prehending some need of a physician in his journey ta bis 
diocese, requested Scaltger to attend him. Scaligercon* 
sented upon condition that he should not stay at Agen 
above eight days: there, however, he conceived an at- 
tachment for a young lady, said to be not more than thir- 
teen years of age, and remained at Agen waiting for her 
parents* consent. That obtained, be married her in 1529^ 
lived with her twenty-nine years, and had fifteen children 
by her, seven of whom survived him. Whatever his ori- 
gin, he must have been now a man of some considecationt 
for this lady was of a noble and opulent family. 

After his settlement at Agen, he began to appljr himself 
seriously to those general studies which made him most 
known in the literary world. He learned the French tongot 
at his first coming, whtcb he spcke perfectly well in threia 
months; and^en made himself master c^ the Goseoni 
Italian, Spanish, German, Hungarian, and Sclavoniao. 
During these studies, he maintained himself by the prao* 
tice of physic. It is probable that he had taken a doctor*s 
degree in this faculty at Padua ; for, the letters of natu** 
ral^ation, which were granted him by Francis I. in 1538, 
give him this title. As he began his studies late, it way 
proportionably so before he commenced author, none of 
bis works having appeared until he was forty-seven; bu^ 
he soon gained a name in the republic of letters, which 
was both great and formidable. From this time, compo- 
sition, and ccHitroversy employed him till his death, whiek 
happened in 1558, in the seventy-fourth year of- his 



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t22 scaliger: 

ftge. His epitaph was^ *^ Julii Cssaris Scaligeri qaod 
fuit.*' 

His son Joseph has described him as a man with manjr 
excellent qualities both of body and mind; tall, well-madei 
of a noble and venerable air, and very strong and active 
eveh to old age ; of such sagacity, that he could divine 
the characters of men from their looks; of a prodigious 
memory; singularly averse to every departure from truth, 
and so charitable that his house was a bind of hospital to 
the indigent and distressed. With these good qualities, 
however, he had an insupportable pride and vanity, and 
m fastidious and petulant temper, which was excited to fury 
by every difference from his opinions, and every, the least 
contradiction, or fancied mark of disrespect. This ap- 
peared particularly in his treatment of Erasmus, who, in , 
his ** Ciceronianus, sive de optimo dicendi genere,'* had 
ridiculed certain of the learned in Italy, who would allow 
no expressions to be pure latinity but what were to be 
found in Cicero ; and had even criticised the style of Ci- 
cero himself, for whom, nevertheless, he had the pro- 
foundest veneration. This provoked Scaliger to publish 
two orations in his defence ; in which he treated his an- 
tagof^ist with the utmost virulence of contempt. The death 
of Erasmus, however, which happened while the second 
oration was printing, appears to have softened ScaMger^s 
heart, and he wrote a poem; in which he expressed great 
grief at his dying before they were reconciled, and shewed 
a willingness to acknowledge his great virtues and merit 
- Julius Cassar Scaliger was certainly a man of extraordi* 
nary capacity, and of great talents both natural and ac- 
quired ; but those who were his contemporaries, or who 
lived nearest to his times, have spoken of him in language 
too nearly approaching to extravagance. Colcrus does not 
scruple to say, that he was the greatest philosopher since 
Aristotle, the greatest poet since Virgil, and the greatest 
physician since Hippocrates. Lipsius goes a little farther, 
and not only gives us Homer, Hippocrates, Aristotle, and 
Scaliger, as the four greatest men that ever appeared, but 
adds, that he prefers Scaliger to the three others. The 
elder Vossius ascribes to him a sort of human divinity ; and 
Huet thinks he was expressly formed by nature as a con- 
solation for our degeneracy in these latter days. From 
these, and other encomiums, which might be multiplied 
by a reference to tb« works of his contemporaries and im*^ 



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S C A L 1 O E K. 229 

mediate successors, it' is evident that his reputation was 
great and extensive ; and if he began to study and to write 
so late in life as has been reported, it is easy to believe that 
bis endowments and application must have been of the 
most extraordinary kind. A list of bis principal works, 
therefore, seems necessary to illustrate his character. 1. 
^' Exotericarum exercitationum liber quintus decimus de 
subtilitate ad Hieronymum Cardanum," Paris, 1557, 4tov 
often reprinted in 8vo. He calls this attack on Cardan the 
fifteenth bciok, because he had written fourteen others 
under the same title of <' Exercitationes," which had no 
relation to Cardan. These, however, never were pub- 
lished. 2. '< In Theopbrasti libros sex de causis planta* 
rum commentarii,'' Geneva, 1566, folio. 3. ^^Commen- 
tarii in Aristoteli adscriptos libros duos de plantis,*' ibid. 
1566, folio. 4. '^Aristotelis Hist. Animalium liber decimus, 
ac versione et commentario," Lyons, 1584, 8vo. This was 
a prelude to the entire work published by Maussac at 
Toulouse, in 1619, fol. ^^ Aristotelis Hist. Animalium, Gr. 
& Lat. ex versione et cum commentariis J. C. Scaligeri/* 
5. ^* Animadverjiiones in Theopbrasti historias plantarum,'' 
Lyons, J 584, 8vo. 6. " Com.men tarii in Hippocratts li-» 
brum de Insomniis,'* Gr. &, Lat. Lyons, 1538, 8vo, re- 
printed several times after. 7. << De causis lingus Latinse 
libri XIII." Lyons, 1540, 4to, &c. This is esteemed one 
of his most valuable works. 8. *' J. C. Scaligeri adversus 
Desiderium Erasmum orationes duse eloquentis Ronianaa 
vindices, cupd ejusdem epistolis & opusculis,'' Toulouse, 
1621, 4to. The first of these orations, which we have al- 
ready noticed, was printed at Paris in 1531, 8vo, and seems, 
therefore, to have been the first of our author*s publica- 
tions, an earnest of what the' world might expect both 
from his genius ^nd temper. 9. ^^ EpistolsB,'' Leyden, 1600, 
8va 10. ^^ EpistoloB nonnullae ex manuscripto BiUio- 
thecee Z. C. ab UfTenbach,'* printed in the sixth and eighth 
volumes of the " Amcenitates Litterariie," by Schelhorn. 
They all relate to his orations against Erasmus. 1 1. *' De 
Analogia sermonis Latini," subjoined ^o Henry Stephen** 
** Appendix ad Terentii Varronis assertiones analogiae ser- 
monis Latmi," 1591, 8vo. 12. « Poetices Libri Septem,** 
1561, fol. and several times reprinted; this is his greatest 
critical work, in which, however, many mistakes and many 
untenable opinions have been discovered by more recent 
critics. 13. " Heroes/' or epigramson various personages 



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is^ 8CALIOER. 

of aatiqiihy, Lyons, 1589, 4to. 14. <^ Epidorpides, sea 
oarmen de si^ietitia et beatitudiD^/' ibid, 1573, 8vo. 15. 
^^ Poemata io duas partes dtvisa,** 1574 and 1600, 8vo. 
16. <^ De comicis dimeosionibus," prefixed to an edition 
of Terence printed at Paris, 1552, fol.' 

SCALIGER (Joseph Justus), son of the preceding, and 
heir to bis talents and temper, was born at Agen in 1540 ; 
and, at eleven years of age, was sent with two of his bro- 
thers to the college of Bordeaux, where he was taught 
Latin. Three years after, on the appearance of the plague, 
be was obliged to return home to his father, who then 
superintended his education. He required of him every 
day a short exercise or theme upon some historical sub- 
ject, and made him transcribe some poems, which he him- 
self had composed. This last task is supposed to have in- 
spired him with a taste for poetry, and so eager was he to 
sboif bis proficiency, that he wrote a tragedy upon the 
•Cory of Oedipus before he was seventeen. Hi» father 
dying in 1558, he went to Paris the year following to study 
Greek, and attended the lectures of Tumebus for two 
months. But finding the usual course too dilatory, he re- 
solved to study it by himself, and with the assistance of 
some knowledge of the conjugations, attempted to read 
Homer with a translation, in which he succeeded very 
•oon, and at the same time formed to himself a kind of 
grammar, with which he was enabled to proceed to the 
other Greek poets, and next to the historians and orators, 
and by persevering in this course, he gained in the space 
of two years a perfect knowledge of the language. He 
i^terwards turned his thoughts to . the Hebrew, which he 
learned by himself in the same manner. All are agreed 
indeed, that he had an extraordinary capacity for learning 
languages, and is said to have been well skilled in no less 
than thirteen. He made the same progress in the sciences, 
and in every branch of literature ; and he at length obtained 
the reputation of being the most learned man of his age, 
and his biographers have handed down to us little else than 
the progress of his studies and the chronology of his publi- 
eations. In 1503 he was invited to the university of Ley- 
den, to be honorary professor of Belles Lettres, on which 
oecasioq, if we may believe the " Menagiana," Henry IV*.^ 

I Gen. Diet.— Nioeron, vol. XXIII.— Life b j bb ton iu Batet*! Vita Selacto- 
ruou — Suui On^masticon. 



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bF France treated bim with great coldness and negleeC 
Scaliger had determioed to accept the oflfer ; am), waiting 
tipon the king to acquaint him with his journey, and th6 
otcasioD of ift, *^ Well, Mr. Scaliger,^^ said his majesty^ 
*^ the Dutch want to have you with them, and to aHow you 
a good stipend : I am glad of it," adding some other re* 
marks of a grosser kind. Henry was no patron of leammg 
or learned men : but some have supposed that he wished to 
mortify Scaliger, who had already shewn too much of his 
fatber^s vauity and arrogant spirit He now went to L^y-^- 
den, where he spent the remainder of bis life; and died 
there of a dropsy, Jan. 21, 1609, without having ever been 
tnarrJed; He was a man of perfect sobriety of manners, 
and whose whole time was well spent in study. He bad as 
great parts as his father, and far greater learning, having 
been trained to it from his infancy^ which his father bad 
not. He bad a profound veneration for bis father, and un« 
fortunately extended it to an imitation of his irritable tem- 
per, and disrespect for his learned contemporaries. But be 
was oft^n a discemer and encourager of merit While at 
Leyden he was so struck with the early appearance of ta- 
lent m Grotius, that be undertook to direct his studies. 
Grotiu9 repaid bis care by the utmost respect, and Scali- 
ger's counsels were commands to him. The elder Scaliger 
lived and died in the church of Rome : but the son em- 
braced the principles of Luther, and relates that bis father 
also had intentions of doing so. « 

The works of Joseph Scaliger are very numerous and 
various : biit his " Opus de Emendatione Tempornm/* 
printed at Paris 1583 in 'folio, is his greatest performance, ' 
10 which be has collected every thing which might serve to 
establish tbe principles of chronology, and was the first 
who undertook to form a complete system. He has in this 
work rendered bis name memorable to posterity, by th6 
invention of tbe Julian period, which consists of 7980 years, , 
being the continued product of the three cyclfes, of tbe 
sun 28, the moon 19, and Roman indiction 15. This pe- ' 
riod bad its beginning fixed to the 764th year before tbe 
creation, and is not yet completed, and comprehends all 
other cycles, periods, and epochas, with tbe times of all 
memorable actions and hbtories. Scaliger has, therefore, 
been styled tbe father of chronology ; and bis <* Tbesauru[S 
Temporum; complectens Eusebii Pamphili Chronicon cum 
V Isagogicis Cbronologiss Canonibus/' in which he has c^. 

Vol. XXVII. Q 

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22i S C A L I G E It 

r^ted aqd reformed many things in bis ^^ Opus de EmeiH 
datione Temporum>'' seems ta give him a sufficient claiai 
to the title* The best edition of ^< De Emendatione Tern- 

?>rum** is that of Geneva, 1609, folio; of the ** Thesaurua 
emponim** that of Amsterdam, 165S, in 2 vols, folio. 

He wrote notes and animadversions upon almost ail the- 
Greek and Latin authors : those upon Varro *' de Lingua 
Latina'* were written by him at twenty years of age ; but 
scarcely any of his editions of the classics are now held in 
esteem* Gerard Vossius observes, that his conjectures are 
too bold, and quotes Peter Victorius, who said, that Scali- 
ger was bom to corrupt the ancients rather than to correct 
them. It is certain, at least, that he dealt too much in 
conjectural criticism, although he often shows a great de- 
gree of ingenuity, even in the most fanciful of the free- 
doms he takes with his author^s meaning, and always leaves 
the reader impressed with his extensive, learning. 

He wrote some dissertations upon subjects of antiquity ; 
and gave specimens of his skill in all branches of literature. 
He made a Latin translation to two centuries of Arabian 
proverbs, which were published at Leyden, 1623, with the 
notes of Erpenius, at the request of Isaac Casaubbn, who 
tells us^ that he employed less time in translating^ it than 
others who understood Arabic would have done in reading 
it He was also obliged to write some controversial pieces : 
itnd his controversy with Scioppius, concerning the biogra* 
phy of bb family in his work, entitled ^^ De vetustate & 
splendore gentis ScaligeransB,'' is a wretched example of 
literaiy rancour and personal obloquy. His ^^ Poemata^** 
in which there is not much poetical spirit, were published 
at Leyden, 1615, 8vo; his << Epistolse,*' which are leam^ 
and contain many interesting particulars of literary history^ 
were edited by Daniel Heinaius, at the same place, 1637^ 
8vo. 

There are two ^^ Scaligerana;^* one printed at the Hague 
in 1666; the other at Groningen 1669, and for some rea-^ 
son or other called ^^ Scaligerana Prima.'^ Desmaiaeaur 
published a neat edition of them, together with the << Tfau« 
ana,'* " Perroniana," " Pithoeana," and " Colomesiana,** 
at Amsterdam, 1740, in 2 vols. 12mo.' 

SCAMOZZI (Vincent), a celebrated architect^ waa 
born at Vicenza in 1550. He was educated under hia 

*'OcB« Pict«— NiceroD, vol. XXtH.^-Batesii Yit», <tc.— Stxii Qnomtft. 



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8 C A M O Z Z I. 227 

imther, also an able archiiect, and went to Venice for im- 
provement^ where afterwards, on Palladio'a death, be be- 
came the first architect, and was employed in various 
works, particularly the additions to tlie library of St. Mark, 
the Olympic theatre at Vicenza, and. the new theatre at 
Sabbioneta. In 1615 he published in 2 vols, smallfolio, a 
work entitled ** L'Idea dell' Architettura universale,'* in 
six books, the sixth of which, containing the five orders of 
architecture, is most esteemed. The French hate a trans-* 
lation of bis works, and an abridgment by Joubert Sea- 
jnozzi also published *^ Discorsi sopra leaotichita di Koma,'' 
1583, fol. with forty plates. He died in 1616.^ 

SCAPULA (John), the reputed author of a Greek Lex* 
icon, studied first at Lausanne, but has his name recorded 
in the annals of literature, neither on account of his talents 
and learning, nor for his virtuous industry, but for a gross 
act of disingenuity and fraud which he committed against 
an eminent literary character of the sixteenth century. 
Being employed by Henry Stephens, the celebrated prin-^ 
ter, as a corrector to his press, while he was publishing his 
^* Thesaurus Lingue Grsecse,'* Scapula extracted those 
words and explications which be reckoned most usetul, 
comprised them in one volume, and published them as an 
original work, with hb own name. The compilation and 
printing of the Thesaurus had cost Stephens immense labour 
and expence ; but it was so much admired by the learned 
men to whom be had shown it, and seemed to be of such 
essential importance to the acquisition of the Greek Ian* 
guage, that he reasonably hoped his labour would be 
crowned with honour, and that the money be had expended 
would be repaid by a rapid and extensive sale. Before^ 
however, his work came abroad, Scapulars abridgment ap«. 
peared; which, from its size, price, and obvious utility, 
was quickly purchased, while the 7'hesaurus itself lay neg- 
lected in the author's hands. The consequence was a 
bankruptcy on the part of Stephens, while he who had oc- 
casioned it was enjoying the fruits of his treachery. Sca<» 
pula*s Lexicon was first published in 15S6, in 4to. It was 
afterward enlarged, and published in folio. It has gone 
through several editions, the best of which is the Elzevir 
of 1652, some copies of which have the following imprint, 
<< Londini, impensis Josnse Kirktou ^t Samuelis Thomp- 

l Tirabotchi. 
a2 



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328 SCAPULA. 

ton;" bat it is the gen nine Eisevir edition^ the names 6( 
Kirkton and Thompson being appended only to the copies 
they purchased from the Leyden proprietors. Stephens 
charges the author with omitting a great many important 
articles, and with misunderstanding and penrerting his 
meaning) and tracing out absurd and trifling etymologies, 
which he himself had been careful to avoid. Dr. Busby, 
•o much celebrated for his knowledge of the Greek lan- 
guage, and his success in teaching it, would never permit 
his scholars in Westminster-school to make use of Scapula.^ 
SCARBOROUGH (Sir Charles), an eminent physi- 
ciab and mathematician, was born about 1616. After the 
usual classical education he was admitted of Caius college, 
Cambridge, in 1632, and took his first degree in arts in 
1636. He was then elected to a fellowship, and com- 
mencing A. M. in 1640, he took pupils. In the mean 
time, intending to pursue medicine as his profession, he 
applied himself to all the preparatory studies necessary for 
that art. Mathematics constituted one of these studies : 
and the prosecution of this science having obtained him 
the acquaintance of Mr. (afterwards bishop) Seth Ward, 
then of Emanuel college, they mutually assisted each other 
in their researches. Having met with some difficulties in 
Mr. Oughtred's ^'Clavis Mathematica," which appeared to 
them insuperable, they made a joint visit to the author, 
then at his living of Aldbury, in Surrey* Mr. Oughtred 
(See OuGHTREi>) treated them with' great politeness, being 
much gratified to see these ingenious young men' apply so 
zealously to these studies, and in a short time fully resolved 
all their questions. They returned to Cambridge complete 
masters of that excellent treatise, and were the first that 
read lectures upon it there. In the ensuing civil wars, Mr. 
Scarborough became likewise a joint sufferer with his fel- 
low-student for the royal cause, being ejected from his fel- 
lowship at Caius. Upon this reverse of fortune he with- 
drew to Oxford, and entering himself at Merton college, 
was incorporated A. M. of that university, 23d of June, 
1646. The celebrated Dr. Harvey was then warden of 
that college, and being employed in writing his treatise 
"De Generatione Animalium," gladly accepted the assist- 
ance of Mr. Scarborough. The latter also became ac- 
quainted with sir Christopher Wren, then a gentleman 

' Clark's Biblioj. Pict. vol. IV.— Baillct Jugcmcw.— Morhoff Polyhist* 

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SCARBOROUGH, 229 

commoner of Wadham college, and engaged him to traus^ 
late '* Oughtred^s Geometrical Dialling^* into Latin, which 
was printed in 1649. 

Upon leaving Oxford, and taking the degree of doctor 
of pbjsic, Dr. Scarborough settled in the metropolis, where 
be practised with great reputation. In the College of 
Physicians^ of w^ich he was a fellow, he was particularly 
respected as a man of uncommon talents; and, in 1658, 
by the special appointment of the president, he introduced; 
with an elegant Latin speech, the marquis of Dorchester 
for his admission into the college that year. In the mean 
time Dr. Scarborough began to read his highly celebrated 
anatomical lectures at Surgeons' Hall, which he continued 
for sixteen or seventeen years, and was the first who in- 
troduced geometrical and mechanical reasonings upon the 
musicles. 

Such extraordinary merit did not escape the notice of 
king Charles II., who conferred on him the order of knight- 
hood in 1669, and at the same time appointed him his 
principal physician. He was nominated to the same ho- 
nourable office by his majesty's brother, which he held both 
before and after his accession to the throne ; and he also 
served king William in the same capacity. He was like- 
wise appointed physician to the Tower of London, and held 
that office till his death, which occurred about 1696. Sir 
Charles Scarborough was married and left a son, who was 
created doctor of civil law at Oxford, in August 1702. In 
1705, this gentleman printed in, folio, from his father's 
manuscripl, << An Elnglish Translation of Euclid's Elements, 
with excellent explanatory notes." Sir Charles also wrote 
•VA Treatise upon Trigonometry;" "A Compendium of 
LiPy's Grammar;" and "An Elegy on Mr. Abraham 
Cowley." » 

SCARRON (Paul), an eminent burlesque French wri- 
ter, was the son of Paul Scarron, a counsellor in parlia* 
ment, and bom at Paris in 1610. Although deformed, and 
of very irregular manners, his father designed him for an 
, ecclesiastic, and he went to Italy for that purpose, in his 
twenty-fourth year, whence he returned equally unfit for 
his intended profession, and continued his irregularities un- 
til he lost the use of his limbs, and could only use his 

» Biog. BrU.v#I.Vll.— Smpplement.— Kiiigbt»f LifeolColet— AUi.Ox.to1. IL 
Cole's MS Atknm CsBtab, in 9rU. Muf . 



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330 S C A R R O N. 

faaods and toAgue. This happened in bis twenty- seventh 

i^ear ; but, melaDcholy as his condition was, bis burlesque 
lumour never forsook him : he was continually talking and 
writing in this strain ; and bis house became the rendez- 
vous of all the men of wit Afterwardr, a fresh misfortune 
overtook him : his father, who had hitherto supplied his 
wants, incurred the displeasure of cardinal Richelieu, and 
was banished, and although Scarron presented an bumble 
request to Richelieu, which' from its humour pleased 
that minister^ no answer appears to have been returned, 
and both Richelieu and his father died soon after. Scar- 
ron at length, helpless, and deformed as he was, con- 
ceived thoughts of marriage; and, in 1651, was actually 
married to mademoiselle d*Aubign^, afterwards the cele- 
brated madam de Maintenon, who lodged near him, and 
was about sixteen years of age. Unequal as this match 
was, she bad influence enough to produce some salutary 
change in his manners and habits, and her wit and beauty 
served to increase tbe good company which frequented his 
bouse. Scarron died in 1660, and within a few minutes of 
bis death, when his acquaintance were about him all in 
tears, "Ah! my good friends,** said he, "you will never 
cry for me so much as I have made you laugh.'* 

He had a considerable fund of wit, but could never pre* 
vent it from gunning into buffoonery, which pervades his 
works to such a degree, that few men of taste or delicacy 
have been able to peruse them. They sunk into oblivion 
in the refined age of Louis XVI. and have never been 
effectually revived since. Yet his " Virgil Travestie" and 
his "Comical Romance** are occasionally read. The whole 
of his works were printed at Paris, in 1685, and at Am- 
sterdam in 1737 and 1752, 10 vols. 12mo.* 

SCHAAF (Charles), a learned German, was born at 
Nuys, in tbe electorate of Cologne, 1646; his father was 
a major in the army of the landgrave of Hesse Cassel. He 
was educated for the church at Duisbourg ; and, haying 
made the Oriental tongues his particular study, became 
professor of them in that university in 1677. In 1679 he 
xemoved to Leyden, to fill the same post for a larger sti- 
pend; and there continued till 1729, when he died of an 
apoplexy. He published ^ome useful books in tbe Ocien<- 
tal way ; as, 1. " Opus Aramceum, complectens Gram- 

1 Mortri.— Diet Hist.i— D'lsraeli^s Cariotitiet, toU II, 



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8 C H A A p. S9l 

naticam Cbaldfticam & Syriacam,'* 1686, 8vo. 2.' ^< No* 
▼am Testamentofii Syriacum, cam versione Latina,*- 1708, 
4to. The Laiin version is that of Tremetlius, retoaebe<L 
Leusdeii laboured jointly with bim in this work till deatby 
which happened when they were got to LUke xv. 20 ; and 
Schaaf wrote the remainder by himself. At the end of it 
is subjoined, ** Lexicon Syriacum ConcordantiaIe«'^ 3, 
^^ Epitome GrammaticcB Hebraic^/' 1716, Svy. 4. *< A 
Letter in Syriac of the bishopL^Mar Tbomas, written from 
Malabar to the patriarch of Antioch, and a Latin version by 
himself/^ 1714, 4to. 5. *^ Sermo Academicus de Liagoa- 
rum Orientalium scientia^"' an Inauguration-Speech. In 
1711 he drew up, at the request of the curators of the aca« 
demy at Leyden, a catalogue of all the Hebrew, Chalde^ 
Syriac, and Samaritan books and manuscripts in the li- 
brary there ; which was joined to the catalogue of that li« 
brary, published in 1711.^ 

SCHALKEN (Godfrey), an ingenious painter^ was 
bom at Dort, in 1643. His father placed him first witk 
Solomon Van Hoogstraten, and afterwards with Gerard 
Dow, from whom he caught a great delicacy of finishing ; 
bat his chief practice was to paint caadle-lights. He 
placed the object and a candle in a dark room ; and look- 
ing through a small bole, painted by day-light what he saw 
in the dark chamber. Sometimes be drew portraits, and 
came with that view to England, but found the business 
too much engrossed by Kneller, Closterman, and others. 
Yet he once drew king William ; but, as the piece was to 
be by candle-light, be gaye his majesty the candle to hold^ 
till the tallow ran down upon bis fingers. As if ^ justify 
this ill-breeding, he drew his own picture in the saiqe situ- 
ation. Delicacy was no part of his character: having 
drawn a lady who was marked with the small-pox, but had 
bandsome hands, she asked him, when thefiicewas finished, 
if she most net sit for her hands : ** No,'' replied Schalken, 
** 1 always draw them from my house-maid.'' After carry* 
ing on Us btisiness for some time in England, he settled at 
the Hague, where be died in 1706. Some additional anec« 
dotes of bim may be found in our aatbority.* 

SCHEELE (Charles WiLUAM), avery learned chemist, 
was born in 1742, at Stralsond in the capital of Swedish 

» Bibl. GermD. vol XXII.— Nioeioo, toU XXXIX.— Chaufepie, 
• Walpok'i ARMdotet. 



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«39 S C H £ E L E. 

Pomerania, where bis father was a tradesmao. Hayiog 
sjiowD an iocliDation to leara pharmfu^y, he was bouad ap- 
prentice to an apothecary at Gottenburg, with whom^fae 
lived eight years^ and at his leisure hours contriyed to 
make himself master of the science of chemistry, reading 
the best authors, and matting such experiments as his cout 
fined means would permit. From Gottenburg, he went to 
MalmO} aiy) two years after to Stockholm. In 1773 he 
went to Upsal, and resided for some time in the house of 
Mr. Loock. Here Bergman first found him, saw his ooerit 
and encouraged it, adopted his opinions, defended him 
with 3eal, and took upon him the charge of publishing his 
treatises. Under this liberal patronage (for Berg^man prot 
cured him also a salary from the Swedish acadcfmy), 
Scheele produced a series of discoveries which at 'once 
astonished and delighted the world. He ascertained the 
nature of manganese ; discovered the existence and singu* 
lar properties of oxymuriatic acid : and gave a theory of 
the composition of muriatic acid, which promises fair to 
be the true one. He discovered a new earth which was 
afterwards called barytes ; and he tietermined the consti- 
tuents of the volatile alkali. All these discoveries are re- . 
Uted in one paper published about 1772. He discovered 
%od ascertained the properties of many acids, the nature 
pf plumbago and molybdena ; analyzed fluor spar, which 
had eluded the searches ci. all preceding chemists ; and 
determined the constituents of tungstate of lime, (iia 
two essays on the prussic acid are particularly interes^og, 
find display the resources of his mind, and his patient in* 
dustry, in a very remarkable point of view. His different 
papers on animal subsunces are particularly interesting, 
end replete with valuable and accurate information. On 
one occasion, in his treatise on fire, Scheele attempted 
the very difficult and general subject of combustion ; but 
his attempt was not crowned with success. The acuteness, 
however, with which he treated it deserves our admiration ; 
And the vast number of new and important facts, which he> 
brought forward in support of his hypothesis, is truly 
astonishing, and perhaps could not have been brought to- 
gether by any other man than Scheele. He discovered 
pxygen gas, and ascertained the composition of the atmo* 
sphere, without any knowledge of what had been previously 
done by Dr. Priestley. His views respecting the nature of 
{itmospberic air were much more correct than those of • 



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8 C H E E L K. ^ S5S 

Priestley; and his experiments on vegetation andrespinttfeiit 
founded on those views, were possessed of considerable va« 
loe. These and, other discoveries which stamp the charac* 
ter of Scheele as a philosopher, are to be found generally 
in the transactions of the Royal Society of StockhcStn. Dn 
Beddoes published an English translation of most of hit 
dissertations, with useful and ingeuious noteis. There if 
also an English translation of his dissertation on air and 
fire» with notes by Richard Kirwan, esq. 

In 1777 he was appointed by the medical college to be 
apothecary at Koping ; and in this situation he remained 
until bis death, although it was often wished that he had 
obtained a more conspicuous situation. He is said to have 
been offered an annuity of 3002. if he would settle in Eng«p 
]and, and that his death only prevented his accepting it 
On May 19, 1786, he was confined to his bed ; on the S^lst 
ke bequeathed his whole property to the widow of his pre- 
decessor at Koping, whom, when his end was approaching^ 
))e married out of a principle of gratitude, and on the same 
day he died, aged only forty-four. 

According to the report of his friends, the moral cha^ 
racter of this ingenious man was irreproachable, and though 
bis manners were reserved, and he mixed little in com- 
pany, he was of a very frieildly and communicative dispo« 
sition. He attained high fame under very disadvantageous 
circumstances. He understood none of the modern Ian* 
guages, ejLcept the German and Swedish, so that he bad 
not the benefit of the discoveries made by foreigners, unlesa 
by the slow and uncertain niedium of translations. The 
important services, however, which he rendered tp natural 
philosophy, entitled him to universal reputation, and he 
obtained it' 

SCHEFFER (John), a learned German, was born at 
Strasburg in 1621, and probably educated there. He apr 
plied himself pf^ncipally tQ.the study of Greek and Latin 
antiquities, and of history ; and made himself a tolerable 
verbal critic upon Latin and Greek authors. He was dri« 
yen out of his own country by the wars ; and, as Christina 
of Sweden was at that time the general patroness of all mea 
of letters, he withdrew into heif kingdom in 1648. He was 
made, the same year, professor of eloquence and politic* 

1 Crcll'i Chemicsl 4wm\ in CUnt. ffin^ toL LIX.— TlioiMan»i Hitt «f tiie 
|U>yal JBodety, 



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M4 SCHEFFER. 

lit Upsal ; afterwards, bonorarj professor royal of tbe lair 
of nature and nationsy and assessor of the royal college of 
' antiquities ; and, at length, librarian of the university of 
Upsal. He died in 1679, after having published a great 
number of works. Many of his pieces relate to Greek and 
Roman antiquities, and are to be found in the collection of 
Grsvius and Gronovius. He wrote notes upon many an* 
cient authors ; upon iElian, Phsdrus, *< Arriani Tactics,** 
of which last he made also a Latin version ; Petronius, Hy« 
ginus, Julius Obsequens, Justin, &c. He was one of those 
who stoutly defended the authenticity of that fragment of 
Petronius, pretended to have been found at Trau ; which, 
however, is generally judged to be a forgery, and accord- 
ingly rejected by Burman and other critics.^ 

SCHEINER (Christopher), a considerable mathema*' 
tician and astronomer, was born at Mundeilheim in Schwa« 
ben, in 1575. He entered into the society of the Jesuits 
when be was twenty ; and afterwards taught the Hebrew 
tongue and the mathematics at Ingolstadt, Friburg, Brisac, 
and Rome. At length, he became rector of the college 
ef the Jesuits at Neisse in Silesia, and confessor to the 
archduke Charles. He died in 1650, at the age of seventy- 
five. 

Scheiner was chiefly remarkable for being one of tbe 
first who observed the spots in the sun with the telescope, 
though not the very first; for his observations of those 
spots were first made, at Ingolstadt, in the latter part of 
1611, whereas Galileo and Harriot both observed them in 
the latter part of the year before, or 1610. Scheiner con« 
tinned his observations on tbe solar phenomena for many 
years afterwards at Rome, with great assiduity and accu- 
racy, constantly making drawings of them on paper, de- 
scribing their placies, figures, magnitude, revolutions, and 
periods, so that Riccioli delivered it as his opinion that there 
was little reason to hope for any better observations of those 
spots. Des Cartes and Hevelius also say, that in their 
judgment, nothing can be expected of that kind more sa- 
tisfactory. These observations were published in 1630, in 
one volume folio, under the title of ** Rosa Ursina,*' &c. 
Almost every page is adorned with an image of the tun 
with spots. He wrote also several smaller pieces relating 
IQ mathematics and philosophy, the principal of which are, 

1 Geo. Dict«*MioeroB, toL XXXIX. 



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SCHEINEIL 255 

4. " Ocuks, sive Fundamentam Opticum," &c.; which 
was reprinted at London, in 1652, in 4to. 2. "Sol Eclip- 
ticus, Dis<]uisitiones Mathematics.'' 3. ** De Controver- 
tiis et Novitatibus Astronomicis." * 

SCHELIIaMMER (Gonthier Christopher), a cele- 
brated German physician and philosopher, was born March 
3^ 1649, at Jena, and was son of Christopher Scbelham- 
mer, a learned professor of anatomy and surgery in that 
city, and at Keil, where he was also physician to the duke 
of Holstein. Gonthier died January 1 1, 1716, in his sixty- 
seventh year, leaving " Introductio in artem medicam,'' 
^ Hall. 1726, 4to, and a great number of valuable and learn- 
ed works on physic, of which it is to be wished that a com- 
plete collection was published. He published also some 
botanical dissertations, and first described the peculiar 
change which, during germination, takes place in the co- 
tyledon of palms. The Scbelhammera, in botany, was so 
called in honour of him. His life, by Schefielius, in Latin, 
Vismar, 1727, 8vo, is prefixed to the letters written to him 
by several of the literati.' 

SCHEUCHZER (John James), an eminent physician 
and naturalist, was the son of a very learned physician of - 
the same names at Zurich, where he was born, August 2, 
1672. His father dying in the prime of life, he appears 
to have been left to the care of his mother, and his mater* 
nal grandfather. He was educated at Zurich under the 
, ablest professors, of whom he has left us a list, but sayt 
that he might with great propriety add his own name to 
the number, as he went through the greater part of his 
studies with no other guide than his own judgment. In 
1692 he commenced his travels, and remained some time 
at Altdorf, attending the lectures of Wagenseil, HofFman^ 
iiatber and son, Sturm, &c. In 1693 he went to Utrech^ 
where he took his degree of doctor of physic in Jan. 1694^ 
and in 1695 returned to Nuremberg and Altdorf to studr 
mathematics under Sturm and Eimmart. To Sturm he ad- 
dressed a learned letter on the generation of fossil shells^ 
which he attempted to explain on mathematical principles ; 
but, discovering the fallacy of this, he adopted the tb^ry 
of our Dr. Woodward, whose work on the subject of the 
natural history of the earth he translated into Latin, and 
published at Zurich in 1704. 

> Ma(tln*tBiog.Pbn<M.— HuttOD'fDfct. 
/? Diet Hirt.— lUei'i Cyclop»d», art. ScheUiM»n«r». 



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£36 S C H E U C H Z £ R. 

Relnrning to Zurich, before this period, be was Appoint- 
ed first physician of the city, with the reversion of the pro- 
fessorship of mathematics. He now b^gan to write various 
dissertations on subjects of natural history, particularly that 
of Swisserland, and wrote a system of natural history in 
German, which he published in parts in the years 1705, 6^ 
and 7, the whole forming three small 4to volumes. He 
published afterwards three more in 1716, L717, and 17 18^ 
which complete the natural history of Swis$erland, with 
the exception of the plants, of which he had formed an 
herbal of eighteen vast volumes in folio. His '* Nova Htte- 
raria Helvetica*' began in 1702, and were continued to 
1715, In 1694 he began his tours on the Alps, which ha 
repeated for many years, the result of which was published 
under the title of ** Itinera Alpina," one volume of which 
was published at London in 1708, 4to, and four at Leyden 
in 1713. In the course of these journeys, he improved the 
geography of his country, by a small map of Toggenbourg, 
and by bis map of Swisserland in four large sheets. Amidst 
afl these pursuits, his official duties, and his extensive lite-> 
rary correspondence, he found leisure to gratify his taste 
for medallic history, and translated Jobert's work on that 
subject, which does not, however, appear to have been 
printed. In 1712, Leibnitz, being acquainted with his 
learqing and fame, procured him an invitation from the 
czar, Peter the Great, to become his majesty's physician, 
but the council of Zurich induced him to decline the offer, 
^y an additional salary. Some time afterward, he obtained 
a canonry ; but, according to Meister, his colleagues had 
no very profound respect for him, of which he gives the 
following ludicrous proof: A favourite crane belonging to 
Pr. Scheuchzer one day made her escape, and the doctor 
, was obliged to climb the roof of the house to recover her, 
which he did at no small risk. The canons are said to have 
declared on this occasion, that they would have given a 
pension to the crape, if the doctor had broke his neck. It 
appears that this disrespect was mutual. They considered 
Scheuchzer as an intruder, and be despised their ignorance 
in condemning the Copernican system, and the theory of 
Swammerdam, as profane and pernicious. He appears ta 
have had a considerable band in the political and ecclesi- 
astical affairs of Zurich, and had at one time a sharp con* 
troversy on religion with a Jesuit of Lucerne, whom Meis-^ 
ter describes as the Don Quixote of the Romish church. 



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SCHEUCRZER. fS7 

tn 17^ appeared his great work, " Physica sacra," in 
4 yds. folio, which was immediately republished in French 
at Amsterdam, in both instances enriched with a profusion 
of fine plates illustratiye of the natural history of the Bible. 
This had been preceded by some lesser works on the same 
subject, which were now incorporated. He did not long 
survive this learned publication, dying at Zurich about the 
end of June 1733. He was a member of many learned so- 
cieties, of our Royal Society, and of those of Berlin, Vienna, 
&c. and carried on a most extensive correspondence with the 
principal literati of Europe. He left a welUchosen and nu* 
merous library, a rich museum of natural history, and a col- 
lection of medals. Besides the works we have incidentally 
•noticed, he published, 1. '^Herbarium Diluvianum,'* Zu- 
rich, 1709, reprinted and enlarged, at Leyden, 1723, foIio« 
2. *^ Piscium querelse et vindiciae," Zurich, 1708, 4to. S. 
•* Oratio de Matheseos usu in Theologia," ibid. 1711, 4to. 
4. ^* Museum Diluvianum,'^ ibid. 1716, 8vo. 5. "Homo 
diluvii testis,^' ibid. 1726, 4to. C. " De Helvetii aeribus, 
aquis, locis, specimen,'^ ibid. 1728, 4to. He also wrote in 
German, a treatise on the mineral waters of Swisserland^ 
Zurich, 1732, 4to. In 1740, Klein published <^ Sciagra- 
phia lithologica curiosa, seu lapidum figuratorum nomen- 
clator, olim i Jo. Jac. Scheuchzero ^onscriptus, auctus et 
illustratus," '4to, Of his " Physica Sacra,*^ we have no- 
ticed the first edition published at Augsburgb, 1731 — 1735, 
four vols, folio, or rather eight volumes in four, the text 
of which is in Gjerman ; this edition is valued on account of 
its having the first impressions of the plates. The Amster- 
dam edition, 1732 — SB, 8 vols, has, however, the advantage 
of being in French, a language more generally understood, 
and has the same plates. Scheuohzer had a brother, pro- 
fessor of natural philosophy at Zurich, who died in 1737, 
and is known to all botanists by his laborious and learned 
^* Agrostographia,** so valuable for its minute descriptions 
of grasses. He had a son with whom we seem more inte- 
rested, John Caspar Scueuchzer, wfab was born at Zurich 
in 1702, and after studying at home came over to England, 
and received the degree of M. D. at Cambridge, during the 
royal visit of George I. in 1728, and died at London April 
13, 1729, only twenty-seven years old. He had much of 
the genius and learning of his family, and was a good anti- 
quary, medallist, and natural historian. He translated inio 
^English Koempfer*s history of JapM,.l7a7, » vola, felics •»* 



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83S SCHEUCHZER. 

bad begUD a translatioA of-Koempfer's trjivels in Mo9covy, 
Persia, i&c. but did not live to complete it. He wrote alto 
a treatise od inocalation. Some part of the correspondence 
of this learned family is in the British Museum.^ 

SCHIAVONI (Andrea), named Medula, an eminent 
artist, was born in 1522, at Sebenico, in Palmatia. His 
parents, who were poor, placed him with a house-painter at 
Venice, where, at his leisure hours, he acquired a superior 
taste, by studying the etchings and compositions vofParmi- 
giano and the works of Giorgione and Titian in the public 
buildings of the city% At length, Titian, being informed 
of bis unfortunate situation and promising talents, took 
him under his care, and soon afterwards employed him in 
the library of -St. Marco, where Scbiavoni is said to have 
painted three entire cielings. Feeling his strength, he ven- 
tured to paint, in competition with Tintoretto, a picture 
for the church of the Santa Croce, representing the visi- 
tation of the Virgin to Elizabeth; and though he did not 
equal his antagonist, yet he received a considerable share 
of applause. Schiavoni was accounted one of the finest 
colourists of the Venetian school, and to colouring sacri* 
ficed almost every other attribute of the art ; yet his com* 
positions are managed with great dexterity, and executed 
with astonishing freedom. Two of his most admired works 
are in the church of the Padri Teatini at Rimini, repre- 
senting the Nativity and the A3sumption of the Virgin, and 
his *^ Perseus and Andromeda,'' and the <^ Apostles at the 
Sepulchre," are in the royal collection at Windsor. He 
died at Venice in 1582, at the age of sixty.* 

SCHIAVONETTI (Lewis), a very ingenious artist, was 
born at Bassano, in the Venetian territory, April 1, 1765. 
His father was a stationer, who was enabled to give him a 
useful, but limited education. From his infancy he had a 
peculiar taste for drawing ; and attained such proficiency, 
that an able painter, Julius Golini, to whom some of bis 
productions were shewn, undertook to instruct him in that 
art. At the age of thirteen Lewis was put under his care, 
and the high opinion he had formed of the boy's genius was 
confirmed by the rapid progress he made, while his amiable 
disposition endeared him so much, that he loved him as his 
own son. After three years of useful instruction, he had 
the misfortune to lose this master, who expired in his arms. 

1 Moreri — Mei«ter'f Hommes Uloftrei de Soifte.-*E1oy, Diet. Hiit dc Mede- 
eiiit.-*A3rtQo«fk*s Catalogv* of MSa* * ArgeoTiUe, ?<4. 1.— Stmtt*! Dicir 



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S C H I A _V O N E T T I. 3J9 

Left to pursue bis own. course, be turned bis views to Count 
Remaudini, whose extensive typographical and cbalcogra- 
phical concern is rendered more famous by the giving em- 
ployment to Bartolozzi and Volpato ; and the works of those 
artists gave fresh impulse to the youth's ardour for improve- 
ment. About this time be became acquainted with one 
Lorio^ an indifferent engraver, with whom he worked about 
twelve months, when, finding be bad exhausted his fund of 
instructions, he resolved to alter his situation. A copy of a 
holy family in the line manner, from Bartolozzi, after Car- 
lo Maratta, gained him immediate employment from Count 
Bemaudini, and attracted the notice of Mr. Suntacb, an 
engraver and printseller in opposition to Remaudini. About 
this time came to B^sano a wretched engraver of architec- 
ture, but a man of c^ummate craft and address. He be- 
came acquainted with Schiavonetti at Mr. Suntach's, and 
was ultimately the means of bringing him to England, where 
he became acquainted with Bartolozzi, and lived in his 
house until be established himself on his own foundation ; 
a^ter which Schiavonetti cultivated his genius with a success 
that answered the expectations which were first formed of 
ity and conducted all his affairs with an uprightness and in- 
tegrity that will cause bis memory to be equally revered as 
a gentleman and an artist. He died at Brompton, June 7, 
1810, in the forty^fourth year of bis age ; and on the 14th 
was buried in Paddington church-yard, with a solemnity 
worthy of his talents and character. 

In bis person, Mr. Schiavonetti was rather tall and well 
made, and bis amiable modesty, equability of temper, and 
promptness to oblige, won the good will of all who saw and 
conversed with bim. Many acts of his private life showed 
the excellence of his character ; among others, as soon aa 
he began to derive profit from his profession, he devoted a 
portion of it to the support of his relatives in Italy ; and 
constantly remitted to his aged parent a stipend sufficient 
to ensure him comfort. 

Some of his principal performances are, the '^ Madr^ 
Dolorosa^'' after Vandyke : the Portrait of that Master in 
the character of Paris : Michael Angelo's celebrated Cartoon 
of the Surprize of the Soldiers on the Banks of the Arno : 
a series of Etchings, from designs by Blake, illustrative of 
Blair's Grave : the Portrait of Mr. Blake, after Phillips, for 
the same work : the Landing of the British Troops in Egypt, 
from Loutherbourg; and the Etching of the Cauterbury 
Pilgrimage, from Stpthard's esteemed picture. 

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440 SCHIAVONfiTTt 

There is no Gircumstance which more forcibly riiews Mt 
SchiavoDetti's power of delineation, than his print from th^ 
Cartoon, considering the disadvantages under which he 
produced it. He had neither the benefit of an original, or 
an authentic copy, but engraved after a copy painted by H. 
Howard, R. A. from San^lo^s copy of his own study of 
Michael Angelo's Cartoon. * The woiiL of the ** Caaterbuiy 
Pilgrims'* being no farther advanced than the etched state, 
is another and still more striking example of his powers as 
a draughtsman ; every line is expressive of the object it 
aims to represent This is the last great work of Mr. Schia- 
▼onetti's hand. From his own avowal in eonversatiota at 
Tarious times since he undertook it, and even during his last 
illness, it was a performance on which he meant to concen*^ 
irate all his powers, and to build his reputation. He had, 
however, others in view, particularly a portrait of the pre<& 
aident of the Royal Society, from a picture by Mr. Phillips^ 
and the splendid representation of the Stag Hunt, by Mr. 
West, in which Alexander IIL king of Scotland was rescued 
from the fury of a stag by Colin Fitzgerald. Schiavodetti, 
in the opinion of his biographer, classes with Grerard Au^ 
dran, wit& Edelinck, Strange, andWoollett. He not only 
possessed the powers of delineation, the harmony of lines, 
the union in tones and in a general effect, which severally 
distinguish these eminent men ; but he added a brilliancy 
and playful movement to his productions, approaching more 
nearly to the free pencilling of the painter, than any thing 
that can be found in the performances of those artists.^ 

SCHIDONI, or rather SCHEDONE (Bartolomeo), was 
born at Modena in 1560. He is said to have acquired the 
principles of the art of painting in the school of the Ca-^ 
racci, but must have remained there a very short tio^e, as. 
k is difficult to meet with any traces of their style in his 
worics. He afterwards studied, and with the gr^test suc- 
cess, the works and manner of Corregio. When his early 
works came to be admired, Ranuccio, duke of Parma, took 
him into his service, and for this patron he painted several 
pictures, which were among the principal ornaments of the 
collection of the king of Naples, who was heir to the Far- 
nese faipily. Sir Robert Strange counted in that palace and 
the city of Naples near fourscore pictures by this artist. 
There are but few in the other collections. In the catbe* 

> Life by a brother artitt, Cromer, ia Gent. Mag. vol. LXXX. 



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S C H I D O N L 841 

drai of Modena there is an admirable picture of bis^ of S; 
Geminiano restoring a dead child to life ; there are al^o a 
few at Parma, but in general they are seldom to be met 
with to purchase. In all he is the imitator of Corregio, and 
between their works some connoisseurs have found it diffi« 
cult CO distinguish, nor has any syrtist so successfully imitated 
bim, either in the harmony of bis colouring, his knowledge 
of light and shadow, or thegraces he has diffused through- 
out many of bis compositions* Schidoni is said to have been 
addicted to gaming, which wasted his substance, and dis* 
turbed his mind ; and at last to have fallen a sacrifice to it^ 
not being able to overcome the mortiBcation of having one 
night lost more than he was able to pay. He died at the 
age of fifty-six, in 1616.* 

. SCHILLER (Frederic), a German writer, principally 
known in this country as a dramatist, was born Nov. 10^ 
1759, at Marbacb, in the duchy of Wurcemberg, where 
his father was lieutenant in the service of the duke. WhiU 
a boy, he was distinguished by uncommon ardour of imagi* 
nation^ which He never sought to limit or controul. When 
voung, he was placed in the military school at Stuttgard^ 
but disliked the necessary subordination. He was intended 
for the profession of surgery, and which be studied for some 
time ; but from the freedom of bis opinions, be was obliged 
to withdraw himself through apprehension of the conse*^ 
quences, and it is said that, at this time, he produced bis 
6rst play, « The Robbers." This tragedy, though full of 
faults and pernicious extravagancies, was the admiration of 
all the youth of enthusiastic sentiments in Germany, and 
several students at Leipsic deserted their college, with the 
avowed purpose of forming a troop of banditti in the forests 
of Bohemia ; but their first disorders brought on them a 
summary punishment, which restored them to their senses^ 
and Schiller's biographer gravely tells us, that this circum- 
atance added to bis reputation. The tragedy certainly was 
quite adapted to the taste of Germany, was soon trans- 
lated into several foreign languages, and the author ap- 
porated to the oflSce of dramatic composer to the theatre of 
Manheim. For this he now wrote his «* Cabal and Love,** 
the " Conspiracy of Fiesco,'* and « Don Carlos," and pub- 
lished a volume of poems, which procured him a wife of 
good family and fortune. This lady fell m love with 

» Pilkiiiitoo.*-Slrutt.— Straoge'i Caltloric 

voL.xxvn. R 



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Ui SCHILLER. 

him from reading his works, and is said to have rodsed 
him from those habits of dissipation in which he had in* 
dulgedi and to which he was in great danger of falling a. 
victim. He was now patronized by the duk^ of Saxe-Wei« 
tnar, who conferred on him the title of aulic counsellor^ and 
nominated him to the professorship of history and philoso- 
phy at the university of Jena. He had previously written 
an account of the ** Revolt of the Netherlands from the 
Spanish government,'* and he now set about composing his 
** History of the thifty Years' War in Germany," a work 
which has been much admired in his own country. At 
length be removed to Weimar, where the pension, as ho- 
norary professor from the duke, was continued to him ; and 
produced the *' History of the most memorable Conspira< 
ties,*' and the " Ghost- Seer," which displayed the peculiar 
turn of hb mind, and were much read. In the latter part 
of his life he conducted a monthly work published at Tu- 
bingen, and an annual poetical almanac, and composed a 
tragedy entitled " The Maid of Orleans.'* He was the au- 
thor of other dramatic pieces, some of which are known^ 
though imperfectly, in this country, through the medium 
of translation. He died at Weimar, May d, 1 805, and 
be was inferred with great funeral solemnity. In bis private 
character Schiller was friendly, candid, and sincere. In 
his youth he affected eccentricity in his manners and appear- 
ance, and a degree of singularity seems always to have ad- 
hered to him. In his works, brilliant strokes of genius are 
no questionably to be found, but more instances of extra- 
vagant representation of passion, and violation of truth and 
nature. They enjoyed some degree of popularity here, 
during the rage for translating and adapting German plays 
for our theatres; and although this be abated, they have con- 
tributed to the degeneracy of dramatic taste, and have not 
produced the happiest effects on our poetry.* 

SCHILTER (John), an eminent jurist, was born atPe- 
gaw in Misnia, Aug. 29, 1632, and studied at Leipsic and 
Naumberg, wherein 1651, he removed for two years to 
Jena, and then completed his course at Leipsic. In 1655 
be took the degree of doctor in philosophy, as he did the 
same in the faculty of law at Strasburgh some years after. 
He practised for some time as an advocate at Naumberg^ 
where prince Maurice of Saxe made him keeper of his ar- 

1 Gent. Mag.— Re«t*f CjrUp«dia . 



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S C H I L T E R. 243 

fjliivea, and inlendant or director of the territory of Sul in 
the county of Henneberg. About 1686 he accepted an 
invitation to Strasburgb, where he was appointed counsellor 
and advocate of the state, and honorary professor of the 
academy. He died there, Ma^ 14, 1705, in the seventy-^ 
third year of his age. He wrote a great raariy volumes on 
subjects connected with antiquities and with his profession, 
the principal of which are, 1. *• Codex juris Alemannici 
feudj^lis,'' 1696, 3 vols. 4to. 2. " Thesaurus an tiquitatum 
Teutonicarum,** 1728, 3 vols. fol. a posthumous publica- 
tion, eJited by Scheraius at Ulm. 3. " Institutioiies Ca^ 
tionici,'* 1721, 8vo, in which he endeavours to reconcile 
the canon laW to that tn use among the protestant churches. 
4. *< Institotionesjuris publici,"' 1696, 2 vols. 8vo, one of 
his first, and a very learned work.' 

SCHMIDT {Christopher), a learned German^ was born 
May 1 1, 1740, at Nordheim, and studied law at Gottingen» 
In 1762 he visited St. Petersburgh in company with count 
Munich, in whose family he had been tutor for some time, 
but returned to his studies, and took his law degrees at Got- 
tingen, whence he removed to Helmstadt. He was soon 
after appointed professor in the Caroline college at Bruns- 
wick, where he lectured on history, public law, and statis- 
tics until 1779, when the prince made him a counsellor and 
keeper of the archives at Wolfenbuttel. In 1784, thii 
prince added the title of aulic counsellor. He died in ^801. 
In his visit to Russia he contracted a fondness for that coun- 
try and its language, and employed much of his time on 
its history. This produced various works, published in 
Oerman, *^ Letters on Russia,*' *^ Materials for a knowledge 
of the Constitution and Government of Russia," ** Aw at- 
tempt towards a new introduction to the History of Russia,** 
&c. &c. He published also ** A manual of History," ** His- 
torical miscellanies," and "A History of Germany," which 
is spoken of as a^i eloquent and useful work.' 

SCHMIDT (Erasmus), an excellent Greek scholar, was 
botn at Delitzch in Misnia, 1560, and becameeminent for 
his skill in the Greek tongue and in the mathematics ; bot^ 
which, although they are accomplishments seldom found 
ki the same person, he professed with great reputation for 
many years at Wittemberg, where be died in 1637. He 

1 Niceron, wl IL— Moteri.— Diet. Hiit— Saxii Onomatt, 
« Diet. Hist, 

It 3 

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244 SCHMIDT. 

published an edition of <' Pindar'* in 1616^ 4to9 with a 
Latin version and learned notes. While Heyne finds many 
defects in this edition, he honours the editor with the title 
of ** Editorum Pindari facile princeps.'' He wrote notes 
also upon Lycophron^ Dionysius Periegetes^ and Hesiod ; 
which last was published at GeneTa in J693 ; an excellent 
** Concordance to the Greek Testament/' fol. the best edi^ > 
tion of which is that of 1717; and a ^^ Commentary on the 
New Testament," much esteemed, Argent. 1650; fol.' 

SCHMIDT (John Anx>R£w), a learned Lutheran divine, 
was bom at Worms, in 1652. In his twenty-seventh year, 
be hurt bis right arm with a fall so much, that he could 
never recover the use of it : he learned to write, however, 
ao well with the left, as to be able to compose near a in]n« 
dred publications, without the help of an amanuensis, but 
they are chiefly theses upon subjects of ecclesiastical his-* 
tory. One of his pieces is entitled ^^ Arcana dominationis 
in rebus gestis Oliverii Cromwelli;*' another is against a 
book, supposed to be Le Clero's, with this title, *^ Liberii 
de sancto amore EpistoisB Theologies^*" He translated Par« 
die's ** Elements of Geometry** out of French into Latin. 
He died in 1726 ; and his funeral oration was made by John 
Laurence Mosheim, who speaks very highly in his praise.* 

SCHNEBBELIE (Jacob), was son of a native of Zu* 
rich, in Switzerland, lieutenant in the Dutch army at the 
memorable siege of Bergen-op-Zoom in 1747 ; when, after 
a gallant resistance of two months, it was, as generally be*' 
lieved, surprised by the French under marshal LoweodaU' 
Upon quitting the service Mr. Schnebbelie came over to 
England, and settled in the business of a confectioner, in 
which capacity he had frequently the honour of attending 
on king George II. He afterwards opened a shop at Ro- 
chester, where one of his sons still resides ; and the same 
profession his son Jacob (who was born Aug. 30, 1760, ia 
Duke> Court, in the parish of St. Martin in the Fields) 
followed for some time, first at Canterbury, and afterwards 
at Hammersmith ; till, nature pointing out to him the pfo- 
per road to fame and credit, be quitted his shop and com* 
menced self-taught teacher, at Westminster and other 
public schools, of the art of drawing, in which he made a 
proficiency which introduced him to the notice of many 
among the learned and the great. To the earl of Lei* 

« Moreri.^Dict. Hist • MorerL 



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8 C H N £ B B E L I E. 24S 

cettet^s notice he was first introduced by accidentally 
iketebing a view in bis park near Hertford, and was em* 
ployed by him in taking some of tbe aaost picturesque 
landscapes about Tunbridge Wells, mth a view to their 
publication for his benefit. At their noble president's ex-^ 
press recommendation he was appointed draughtsman of 
the society of antiquaries ; and filled that office with equal 
credit to himself and his patron. The merits of his pencil 
ftre too generally known and acknowledged to require any 
exaggerated eulogium. Happy in a quick eye and a dis^ 
criminating taste, he caught the most beautiful objects in 
the happiest points of view ; and for fidelity and elegance 
of delineation, may be ranked high among the list of first* 
rate artists. The worksr put forth on his own account are 
Hot numerous. In 1781 he intended to publish six views 
of St Augustine's Monastery, to be engraved by Mr. Ro« 
gers^ fcc. ; five of wbicb were completed, and one small 
iriew of that religious house was etched by himselE In * 
1 717 he etched a plate representing the Serpentine River, 
part of Hyde Park, with tbe house of earl Bathurst, a dis« 
tant view of Westminster Abbey, &c. now the property 
Md in the possession of Mr. Jukes, intended to be aqua«» 
tinted for publication. Mr. Jukes purchased also from him 
several views of Canterbury cathedral, St. Augustine's mo« 
Hastery, &c. In March 1788 he published four views of 
8t Alban's town and abbey, drawn and etched by himself; 
which in tbe November following were published, aqua«» 
tinted by F. Jukes. About tbe same time that he set on 
foot the '^Antiquaries Museum,*' be became an associate with 
tbe late James Moore, esq. F. S. A. and Mr. Parkyns, in the 
^' Monastic Remains * ;" which, after five numbers had ap«* 
peared, be relinquished to hb coadjutors. The assistance 
he occasionally gave to ** The Gentleman's Magazine," the 
smallest part of his merit, it will be needless to particu-> 
larize ; his masterly hand being visible on whatever it was 
exerted. It is of more consequence to his fame to point 
out the beauties of many of the plates in the second and 
Aird volumea of the « Vetusta Monumenta" of the Society 
of Antiquaries ; ^nd in the second volume of the ** SepuU 
chral Monuments of Great Britain t," the far greater part 
•f the nuiperous plates in which are after him ; or icr the 
very many drawings he had finished, and the sketches he 

♦ See Gent. Meg. ▼ol. WL pp. 143, 1 1 18, 1207. 

t loUieprcfeeetowhkhlieifgfeuWIycoimiiwnofMea. 

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246 S C H N £ B B E L I E. 

bad designed, for Mr. NichoisV '< History of Leicester-^ 
ftbire.^' He had completed also some views, of Kiiig^f 
college chapel at Cambridge, in a style worthy that most 
beautiful and most perfect of all our gotbic buildings, and 
in a manner which bad so far recommended him to royal 
notice, that, bad bis life been spared, there ig no doubt 
but be would have been properly distinguished. 
. Mr. Schnebbelie was not contented with drawing the 
i:emain8 of antiquity ; his close pursuits had made him a 
proficient in the study of our national antiqinties, and a 
judge of the different styles of Gothic architecture and mo- 
numents. His description of the various places and build* 
ings which be bad examined were judicious and accurate, 
and discovered what attention be paid to them. An out- 
line, if we may so call it, of Gothic architecture, bad been 
suggested to htm, to have been illustrated by drawings of 
the various parts ; and he had actually begun to compile a 
work under the. title of ^^ Antique Dresses since the reign 
pf William the Conqueror, collected from various works ; 
with their authoriries."* It may be safely affirmed, that 
few urtists have produced more specimens of their, talents^ 
*in their particular departments, than Mr. Schnebbelie in 
the four last years of his life, which is the short space of 
time since he seriously took up the pursuit 

Thus much for his professional abilities. But he bad 
qualities of still greater worth, the virtues of an excellent 
heart. Those only who knew him intimately, and more 
especially those who at any time have travelled with him 
when be has been employed as a draughtsman, can judge 
of the alacrity of zeal with which he has dispatched his la- 
bour, <^the cheerful pleasantry with which he has relieved 
Its toil, and of the ingenuous frankness of his natural dis- 
position. On all these accounts his loss will not be easily 
made up to his friends; and to his family it is irreparable. 

He died in Poland-street, Feb. 21, 1792, in the thirty- 
second year of his age, after an illness of six weeks, which 
commenced with a rheumatic fever, occasioned by too 
intense an application to bis professional engagements, 
and terminated in a toul debility of bod^ ; leaving an 
amiable widow and three children. Two sons and a 
daughter died during the last year of their father's life ; 
and a son was born five days after his death. He was in-^ 
texzed in the burying-ground belonging to a new chanel 



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SCHNEBBELIE. 347 

then building for St James's parisb, in tbe.road from ToU 
tenbam court to Hampstead. 

The Tery small portion of time which elapsed after th« 
talents of Mr. Schnebbelie became universally acknow- 
ledged, did not enable him to lay by much store for his 
surviving family, who received a handsome relief from th# 
Society to which he was draughtsman. ' 

SCHOEPFLIN (John Daniel), a learned historian and 
antiquary, was born September 6, )6i^4-, at Sulzbourg, a 
town in the margraviate of Baden Dourlach ; bis father, 
holding an honourable office in the margrave's court, died 
soon after in Alsace, leaving his son to the care of his mo- 
ther. After ten years studying at Dourlach and Basil, he 
l^ept a public exercise on some contested points of ancient 
history with applause, and finished his studies in eight 
years more at Strasbourg. In 1717, be there spoke a 
Latin panegyric on Germanicus, that favourite hero of 
Germany, which was printed by order of the city. In 
return for this favour he spoke a funeral oration on M* 
Bartby under whom he had studied ; and another on Kubn, 
the professor of eloquence and history there, whom he wa9 
soon after elected to succeed in 1720, at the jtge of twenty* 
six. The resort of students to him from the Northern na<» 
tions was very great, and the princes of Germany sent their 
sons to study law under him. The professorship, of history 
at Francfort on the Oder was offered to him ; the czarina 
invited him to another at St. Petersburg, with the title of 
historiographer royal; Sweden .offered him the same prot 
fessorship at Upsal, formerly held by Scbeffer and Boeder, 
his countrymen ; and the university of Leyden named him 
successor to the learned Vitriarius* He preferred Sjtras* 
bourg to all. Amidst the succession of lectures public and 
private, he fouud time to publish an innumerable quantity 
of historical and critical dissertations, too many to be her^ 
particularised. In 1725 be pronounced a congratulatory 
oration before king Stanislaus, in the name of the univer- 
sity, on the marriage of his daughter to the king of France ^ 
and, in t7?6, another on the birth of the dauphin, .besides 
an anniversary one on the king of Ffance*s birthday, and 
others on bis victories. In 1726 he quitted bis professor- 
ship, and began his travels at the public expence. Froin 

> Account drftwn up by Mr. Qoug h for Mr. SchiiebbtH*^ " Antiqotriw H%^ 
«eam.f 



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MS 8 C H O E P F L I N. 

Paris be went to Italy, stayed at Rome six months, re« 
ceived from the king of the Two Sicilies a copy of the 
** Antiquities of Herculaneum/* and from the duke of 
Parma the '^ Museum Florentiinim." He came to £ng-> 
land at the beginning of the late king's reign, and left it 
the*day that Pere Courayer, driven out of Paris by theolo- 
gical disputes, arrived in London. He was now honoured 
with a canonry of St. Thomas, one of the most distinguished 
Lutheran chapters, and visited Paris a third time in 1728. 
Several dissertations by him are inserted in the ** Memoirs 
of the academy of inscriptions and belles lettres;^ one^ 
ascribing the invention of moveable types to Guttenberg of 
Strasbourg, 1440, against Meerman, 

In 1733, he narrowly escaped from a dangerous illness. 
He had long meditated one of those works, which alone, by 
their importance, extent, and difficulty, might immortalise 
a society, a " History of Alsace." To collect materials 
ibr this, he travelled into the Low Countries and Germany 
in 1738, and into Switzerland 1744. At Prague he found 
that the fragment of St. Mark's Gospel, so carefully kept 
there, is a continuation of that at Venice. The chancellor 
D*Aguesseau sent for him to Paris, 1 746, with the same 
view. His plan was to write the History of Alsace, and to 
illustrate its geography and policy before and under the 
Romans, under the Franks, Germans, and its present go* 
Ternors; and, in 1751, he presented it to the king of 
France, who had before honoured him with the title of 
•* Historiographer Royal and Counsellor,'* aitd then gave 
him an appointment of 2000 livres, and a copy of the cata^ 
logue of the royal library. He availed himself of this op-, 
yiortunity to plead the privileges of the Protestant univer* 
sity of Strasbourg, and obtained a confirmation of them. 
His second volume appeared in 176 1 ; and lie had prepared^ 
as four supplements, a collection of charters and records, 
an ecclesiastical history, a literary history, and a'Kst of 
authors who had treated of Alsace : the publication of these 
he reconm)ended to Mr. Koch, his assistant and successor 
in his ch^ir. Between these two volumes he published his 
•*Vindici8B Cehicae,** iu which he examines the origin, 
revolution, and language of the Celts. The " History of 
Baden" ivis his* last considerable work, a duty which he 
t;^ougbt be owed his country* He completed this history 
in seven volumes in four years ; the first appeared in 176:^ 
the last in 1766. Having by this history illustrated his 



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S C H O E P F L I N. ^49 

country, he prevailed upoh the marquis of Baden to build 
a roonriy in which all its ancient monumeilts were deposited 
in 1763. He engaged with the elector palatine to found 
the academy of Manheim. He pronounced the inaugural 
discourse, and furnished the electoral treasury with an- 
tiques. He opened the public meetings of this academy, 
which are held twice a year, by a discourse as honorary 
president. He proved in two of these discourses, that no 
electoral house, no court ih Germany, bad produced a 
greater number of learned princes than the electoral bouse. 
In 1766, he presented to the elector the first volume of the 
** Memoirs of a Rising Academy,** and promised one every 
two years. 

A friend to humanity, and not in the least jealous of his 
literary property, he made his library public. It was the 
most complete in the article of history that ever belonged 
to a private person, rich in MSS. medals, inscriptions, 
figures, vases, and ancient instruments of every kind^ 
collected by him with great judgment in his travels. All 
these, in his old age, he presented to the city of Strasbourg, 
without any other condition except that his library should 
be open both to foreigners and his own countrymen. The 
city, however, rewarded this disinterested liberality by a 
pension of a hundred louis. He was admitted to the de- 
bates in the senate upon this occasion, and there compli* 
niented the senate and the city on the favour they had 
shewn to literature ever since its revival in Europe. No- 
vember 22, 1770, closed the fiftieth year of the professor- 
ship of Mr. S. ; this was celebrated by a public festival: 
the university assembled, and Mr. Lobstein, their orator^ 
pronounced before them a discourse in praise of this ex- 
traordinary man, and the whole solemnity concluded with 
a grand entertainment Mr. S. seemed born to outlive 
himself. Mr. Ring, one of his pupils, printed his life in 
1769. In 1771, he was attacked by a slow fever, occa- 
sioned by an obstruction in his bowels and an ulcer in his 
lungs, after an illness of many months. He died August 7, 
the first day of the eleventh month of his seventy-seventh 
year, sensible to the last. He was buried in the colle*' 
• giate church of St. Thomas, the city, in bis favour, dis- 
pensing with the law which forbids intermeut within its 
limits. * 

» Gent JIag. 1783, by Mr. Govgb, mppuwMf frdm Harlcj de ViUi Philo. 
logoraiii, ToL UI. or firom Rm(*t Life* 



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250 S C H O M B E R G. 

SCHOMBERG (Alexander Crowcher), a learned 
English clergyman, was born July 6, 1756,^ and educated 
at Southampton-school, where be laid the foundation of his 
classical learning, and displayed bis taste in some juvenile 
performances which were much approved. He afterwards 
cultivated these attainments under Dr. Warton at Winches- 
ter-school, whence he removed to Magdalen -college, Ox- 
ford, of which he became M. A. in 1781, and fellow and 
tutor. Although formed to excel in polite literature, his 
inclination led him into other pursuits, and the whole oeco- 
Bomy of human life became the subject of his observation. 
The interests of nations, the relations of arts, the cir- 
cuitous channels and the secret recesses of commerce, and 
the wide range of operations in manufactures and agri- 
culture, were open to his intuition. His ** Chronological 
View of the Roman Laws,*' published in 1785, was the in- 
troduction to a larger work, for which he bad furnished 
himself with ample materials, by his study of juridical an- 
tiquities. Connected with this, was his ^' Treatise on the 
Maritime Laws of Rhodes,*' in which be dearly investi- 
gated the origin, and elegantly described t^e nature, of the 
maritime codes which bore an analogy to the Rbodiat\ 
laws. During the intervals of his occupation as tutor of 
the college, be visited the principal seats of commerce and 
manufactures in England and on the continent The re-* 
suit of these researches was given, in 1787, in his " Histo- 
rical and Political Remarks on the Tariff of th§ Commer- 
tial Treaty with France," which proved the very enlight- 
ened progress he had made in the science of political 
teconomy. From that time he bad, with minute attention^ 
observed the effects of that famous treaty upon both na- 
tions ; and he bad made a considerable progress in print- 
ing a series of facts and collateral deductions, under the 
title of " Present State and Manufactures in France," 
when he was interrupted by an excruciating disorder, 
which proved fatal April 6, 1792, at Bath, whither heliad 
gone in hopes of relief from the waters. He was a man 
of an amiable disposition, and greatly lamented by biq 
friends. He bad taken orders, but had no preferment in 
the church. * 

SCHOMBERG (Frederic duke of), a distinguished ge- 
neral, was descended of a noble family in Germany, and W9A 

1 Gent, llsf • Td. UCII. 



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S C H O M B E R G. ist 

the son of count Scbomberg, by his first wife, an English lady, 
daughter of the lord Dudley; which count was killed at the 
battle of Prague in Bunemia in 16.^0, together with seve-* 
ral of bis s»ons. The duke was born in 1608. He served 
first in the array of the United Provinces, and afterwards 
became the particular confident of William II. prince of' 
Orange ; in whose last violent actions he had so great a 
share, and particularly in the attempt jipon Amsterdam, 
that, on the prince's death in 1650, he retired into France. 
Here be gained so high a reputation, that, next to the 
prince of Cond6, and Turenne, he was esteemed the best 
general in that kingdom ; though, on account of bis firm 
adherence to the Protestant religion, he was not for a con- 
siderable time raised to the dignity of a marshal. In Nov* 
1659 he. offered his service to Charles II. for his restora* 
tion to the throne of England ; and, the year following, 
the cour( of France being greatly solicitous for the interest 
of Portugal against the Spaniards, he was sent to Lisbon ; 
and in his way thither passed through England, in order 
^o concert measures with king Charles for the support of 
Portugal. Among other discourse which he had with that 
prince, be advised his majesty to set up for the head of 
the Protestant religion ; which would give him a vast as- 
cendant among the princes of Germany, make him umpire 
of all their affairs, procure him great credit with the pro- 
testants of France, and keep that crown in perpetual fear 
of bim. He urged him likewise not to part with Dunkirk^ 
the sale of which was then in agitation ; since, considering 
the naval power of England, it could not be taken, and the 
possession of it would keep both France and Sp^n in a 
dependence upon his majesty. 

In Portugal be performed such eminent services to that 
kingdom that be was created a grandee of it, by the title 
of count Mertola, with a pension of 5000/. to himself and 
his heirs. In 1673 he came over again into England, to 
command the army ; but, the French interest being then 
very odious to the English, thoug*h he would at any other 
time of his life have been acceptable to them, he was at 
that crisis looked on as one sent over from France to bring 
our army under French discipline. Finding himself, there- 
fore, obnoxious to the nation, and at the same tinrie not 
loved by the court, as being found not fit for the designs of 
the latter, he soon returned to France. In June 1676, he 
was left by the king of France, upou his return to Pari% 



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SBt > S C H O M B E R G. 

with the command of his army in Flanders ; and soon after 
obliged the prince of Orange to raise the siege of Maes^ 
trichty and was made a marshal of France. But, when 
the prosecution against those of the reformed religion was 
begun in that kingdom, he desired leave to return into his 
own country ; which was denied him^ and all the farour he 
could obtain was to go to Portugal. And, though he had 
preserved that nation from falling under the yoke of Cas«> 
tilO) yet now, when he came thither for refuge, the inqui-> 
sition represented that matter of giving harbour to an 
heretic so odiously to the king, that he was forced to »end 
the marshal away. He went thence to England ; and, 
passing through Holland, entered into a particular con<» 
fidence with the prince of Orange ; and, being invited by 
the elector of Brandenburgh to Berlin, was made governor 
of Prussia, and placed at the head of all tUe elector's 
armies. He was treated likewise by the young elector 
with the same regard that his father had shewn him ; and, 
in 16S8, was sent by him to Cleves, to command the 
troops which were raised by the empire for the defence of 
Cologne. 

When the prince of Orange was almost ready for his ex-* 
pedition into England, marshal 8chomberg obtained leave 
of the elector of Brandenbourg to accompany his highness' 
in that attempt ; and, after their arrival at London, he h 
supposed to have been the author of that remarkable stra« 
tagem for trying the affections of the people, by raising 
an universal apprehension over the kingdom of the ap-r 
proach of the Irish with fire and sword. Upon the prince's 
advancement to the throne of England, he was appointed 
master of the ordnance,.and general of his majesty's forces; 
in April 16S9, knight of the garter, and the same month na- 
turalized by act of parliament; and, in May, was created a ba- 
ron, earl, marquis, and duke of this kingdiom, by the name 
and title of baron Teys, earl of Brentford^ marquis of Har- 
wich, and duke of Schomberg. The House of Commons like- 
wise voted to him 100,000/. for the services which he had 
done; but he received only a small part of that sum, the king 
after his death paying bis son 5000/. a year for the remain-* 
der. In Aug. 1689 he sailed for Ireland, with an army, 
for the reduction of that kingdom ; and, having mustered 
all bis forces there, and finding them to he not above 
14,000 men, among whom there were but 2000 horse, he 
marched to Duadalk, whete he posted himself; king Hm€$ 



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BCHOMbERGJ 353 

being come to Ardee, within fiye or six miles of him, with 
above thrice his number. Schomberg; therefore, being 
disappointed of the sapplies from England, which had been 
promised htm, and his army being so greatly inferior to the 
Irish, resolved to keep himself on the defensive. He lay 
there' six weeks in a rainy season ; and hh men, for want 
of due management, contracted such diseases that almost 
one half of them perished. 

He was censured by some for not making a bold attempt; 
and such complaints were sent of this to king William, that 
bis majesty wrote twice to him, pressing him on the 8ab« 
ject. But the duke saw that the enemy was well posted 
end well provided, and had several good officers among 
them ; and knew that, if he met with a check, his whole 
army, and consequently all Ireland, had been lost, since 
be could not have made a regular retreat. The surest me* 
tbod was to preserve his army ; which would save Ulster, 
and although his conduct exposed him to the reproaches of 
some persons, better judges thought, that bis management 
of this campaign was one of Ibe greatest actions of his life. 
At the battle of the Boyne, July 1, 1690, he passed the 
river in his station, and immediately rallied and encou* 
raged the French ProtesUnts, who had been left exposed 
by the death of their commander, with this short harangue; 
*^ Aliens, messieurs, voilil vos pers6cnteurs," pointing to 
the French Papists in the enemy's army. But these words 
were scarcely uttered, when a few of king James's guards, 
who returned full speed to their maiu body, after the 
slaughter of their companions, and whom the French re« 
fugees suffered to pass, thinking them to be of their own 
party, fell furiously upon the duke, and gave him two 
wounds over the head, which, however, were not mortal. 
Upon this, the French regiment acknowledged their error 
by committing a greater; for, firing rashly on the enemy, 
they shot him through the neck, of which wound be in« 
stantly died* He was buried in St Patrick's cathedral, 
where the dean and chapter erected a small monument to 
his honour, at their own expence, with an elegant inscrip- 
tion by Dr. Swift, which is printed in the Dean's works. 

Burnet tells us, that he was " a calm man, of great ap« 
plication and conduct, and thought much better than he 
spoke ; of true judgment, of exact probity, and of an hum* 
ble and obliging temper." And another writer observes, 
that he had a thorough experience of the wprld ; knew 



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«34 S C H O M B £ R G. 

«ien and things better than any man of his profession ever 
did ; 'and was as great in council as at the head of an army. 
He appeared courteous and afTabie to every person, and 
yet had an air of grandeur that commanded respect from all. 

In king William's cabinet are the dispatches of the duke 
of Schoniberg ifi Ireland to king William, which sir John 
Dalrymple has printed in the second volume of his me-* 
moirs ; ** because,'* he remarks, ** they paint in lively co* 
lours the state of the army in that country; clear Schom* 
berg of inactivity, which has been unjustly thrown upon 
him ; and do honour to the talents of a man, who wrote 
with the elegant simplicity of Caesar, and to whose repn* 
tation and conduct, next to those of king William, the 
English nation owes the revolution.' 

SCHOMBERG (Isaac), one of a family of physicians of 
some note in their day, was the son of Dr. Meyer Schom-- 
berg, a native of Cologne, a Jew, and, as it was said^ 
librarian to some person of distinction abroad, which oc- 
cupation he left, and came and settled in London, where 
he professed himself to be a physician ; and, by art and 
address, obtained a lucrative situation amidst the faculty^ 
In 1740 he had outstripped all the city physicians, and 
was in the annual receipt of four thousand pounds. He 
died March 4, 176 1 • This, his son, was born abroad^ 
and at the age of two or three years was brought to Eng- 
land, where he received a liberal education, and afterwards 
studied at Leyden. After his return to London he set up 
in practice, but had a dispute with the college of physi- 
cians, as, we are told, his father had before him. The 
particulars of this dispute are not uninteresting in the 
history of the college. 

After Dr. Schomberg bad practisl^d some years as a phy- 
sician in London, he received a notice from the college of 
their intention to examine him in the usual form, and to 
admit him a licentiate. This notice he was thought to 
have treated with contempt ; for, instead of submitting to 
the examination, he objected to the names of some persons 
who were to be examined at the same time, and behaved, it 
is said, with some haughtiness to those of the college who, 
he complained, had used him ill, in ordering him to be 
examined in such company. The college considering 
themselves the sole judges of what persons they should 

' Birch's Livet«— BurncVi Owa Timef .— Swid'i Works. See lodcx. 



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JBCHOMBERG. 25$ 

^1 upon, refused to attend to the doctor's objection, but 
examined the persons against whom he seemed most to 
except ; but this not tending to make up the dispute, they 
proceeded to interdict the doctor. from practice until he 
had given such satisfaction as his conduct required. In 
the mean time, the doctor submitted to be* examined, and 
in 1750 procured the degree of doctor of physic to be con- 
ferred on him by the university of Cambridge ; and, thus 
supported, demanded his admittance a second time, not 
as a licenciate, but one of the body. This demand was re- 
fused to be comphed with, and it was objected, that the 
doctor, though naturalized, could not bold the office of 
censor of the college, which was an office of trust ; and 
this refusal brought 'Hie determination of the business to 
the decision of the lawyers. A petition was presented to 
the king, praying him, in the person of the lord chancellor^ 
to exercise his visitatorial power over the college, and re- 
•tore the licenciates to their rights, which, by their arbi- 
trary proceedings, the president and fellows had for a suc- 
<:ession of ages deprived them of. This petition came on 
to be heard at Lincoln's Inn hall, before the lord chief 
justice Willis, baron Smythe, and judge Wilmot, lords 
commissioners of the great seal ; but the allegations therein 
pontained not being established, the same was dismissed. 
This attack on the college was the most formidable it ever, 
austained. 

. In this dispute Dr. Schomberg was supposed to have 
employed bis pen against his adversaries with considerable 
effect. It is certain he was well supported by his friends ; 
one of whom, Moses Mendez, esq. exposed hiis opponents 
to ridicule, in a performance entitled <^ The Battiad," since 
preprinted in Diily's Repository. 

from this period Dr. Schomberg took his station in the 
medical profession, with credit and approbation, though 
without the success that inferior talents sometimes expe- 
rienced. On the last illness of David Garrick, he was 
called in, and hailed, by his dying friend, in the affectionate 
terms of — " though last not least in-our dear love." He sur- 
fived Garrick but a short time, dying at his bouse in Con- 
dnit'Streec, the 4th of March, 1780; and the following 
character was given of him by one who seems to have 
known him well : 

"His great talenu and knowledge in his profession, 
were universally acknowledged by the gentlemen of the 



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^56 SCHOMBEtta 

fmcultj ; miul bis Undernen and hamanity recommended 
bim to the friendship and esteem, as well as veneration^ of 
bis patients. He was endued with uncommon quickness 
suid sagacity in discovering the sources, and tracing the 
progress, of a dif»order ; and though in general a friend to 
prudent regimen, rather than medicine, yet, in emergent 
cases, be prescribed with a correct and happy boldness 
equal to the occasion. He was so averse from that sordid 
%varioe generally charged, perhaps often with great injus« 
lice, on the faculty, tbafr many of bis friends in affluent cir^ 
cumstances found it impossible to force on him that reward 
for bis services which he bad so fairly earned, and which 
bis attendance so well merited. As a man he was sincere 
end just in his principles, frank and amiable in bis temper, 
instructive and lively in conversation ; his many singulari* 
ties endearing him still further to his acquaintance, as they 
proceeded from an honest plainness of manner, and visibly 
flowed from a benevolent simplicity of heart. He was, for 
many days, sensible of bis approaching end, which he en* 
countered with a calmness and resignation, not easily to 
be imitated by those who now regret the loss of so good a 
man, so valuable a friend, and so skilful a physician." 

Dr. Schomberg had a younger brother, Ralph Schom-» 
BERG, M. D. who first settled at Yarmouth as a physician^ 
and published some works on professional subjects that in- 
dicated ability, and others from which he derived little re- 
putation. Of tbe former kind are, I. *< Apborismi prac- 
lici, sive observationes medicse,^' for the use of students, 
and in alphabetical order, 1750, 8vo. 2. " Prosperi Mar- 
iiani Annotationes in csecas prscnotationes synopsis," 1751. 
3. " Van Swieten's Commentaries" abridged. 4. *^ A 
Treatise of the Colica Pictonum, or Dry Belly-ache," 1764, 
8vo. 5. ** Duport de signis morborum libri quatuor," 
1766. Of tbe latter, are some ^ dramatic pieces of very 
little value, and 6. << An Ode on the present rebellion,^* 
1746. 7. " An Account of the present rebellion," 1746. 
8. " The Life of Maecenas," 1767, 12mo, uken without 
acknowledgment from Meibomius. 9. "A critical Disser- 
tation on the characters and writings of Pindar and Horace^ 
in a letter to the right hon. the earl of B — ," also a shame- 
ful instance of plagiarism from Blondeirs "Comparison de 
Pindareet D* Horace." It would have been well if his pil- 
ferings had only been from books; but after he had removed 
to Bath, and practised there some years with considerable 



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S C H M B E R G: «t 

success, he tried his skill upon the funds* of a public cha- 
rity, and; detection following, was obliged to make a pre- 
cipitate retreat from Bath, and froip public practice^ He 
appears to have hid himself first at Pangbourn in Berkshire^ 
and afterwards at Reading, where he died June 29, 1792, 
In the obituary he is called " Ralph Schomberg, Esq^^ 

SCHONER (John), a noted German philosopher and 
mathematician, was born at Carolostadt in 1477, and died 
in 1547, aged seventy. From his uncommon acquirements, 
he was chosen mathematical professor at Nuremberg when 
he was but a young man. He wrote a great many works, 
and was particularly famous for his astronomical tables^ 
which he published after the manner of thpse of Regiomon* 
tan us, and to which he gave the title of Rcsoluta^ on ac* 
count of their clearness. But, notwithstanding his great 
knowledge, he was, after the fashion of the times, much 
addicted to judicial astrology, which he took great pains 
to improve. The list of his writings is chiefly as follows t 
1. " Three Books of Judicial Astrology." 2. " The astro- 
nomical tables named ResolqtsB." 3. " De Usu Globi 
Steliiferi; De Compositione Globi Coelestis; De Usu Globi 
Terrestris, et de Compositione ejusdem.'* 4. " Equate* 
rium Astronomicum.^' 5. ^* Libellus de Distantiis Loco-, 
rum per Ihstrumentum et Numeros investigandis." 6. " De- 
Compositione Torqueti." 7* " In Constructionem et Usun* 
Rectanguli sive Radii Astronomic! Annotationes." 8, 
" Horarii Cylindri Canones." 9. " Planisphserium, seu 
Meteoriscopium." 10. ** Organum Uranicum.'* 1 1. ** la- 
strumentum Impedimentgrum Lunae." All printed at Nu- 
remberg, in 1551, folio. Of these, the large treatise of 
dialling rendered him more known in the learned world 
than all his other works* besides, in which he discovers a 
surprising genius and fund of learning of that kind ; but 
some have attributed this to his son.* 

SCHONNING, SCHOENING, or SCHONING (Ger- 
rard), a learned Norwegian, was born at Skatnass, in Nord- 
land, in 1722. He went in 1740 to the school ofDron- 
theim, the rector of which conceived so high an opinion of 
his talents, as to assist him in carrying on his studies at 

1 Eorop. Mag. for 1803.— Nicbols»g Bowyw— Minutet of Prooeediegi of the, 
Ri^yal ooUege of Phyiicians, relatiog to Dr. Iiaac Scbomberg, from Feb. 5,. 
1746, to Dec. «. 1753, Sto, 1754. . «h. * q -•• rv_ * 

t Martin's Biog. Phil.— Hutum't DicUonary.— Frtben Theatrom.— Stxii Ono- 

■laAticon. 

Vol. XXVII. S 

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358 8 C H Q N N I N G. 

Copenhagen, where in 1758, he was elected a member of 
tbMicademy of sciences at Copenhagen. In 1764 he was 
appointed profe9sor of history and eloquence at Sora, and 
receiTed literary lionours from various societies. In 17 7 3, 
1774, and 1775| he went on a tour, at the king's expence, 
through various parts of Norway, to examine the remains 
of antiquity, but was recalled to Copenhagen to be keeper 
of the archives, and in 1776 was appointed a member x>i 
the society formed for publisb'mg Icelandic works from the 
collection of Amas Magnsus. He died July 18, 1780. 
He is said to have passed his time and employed bia 
thoughts entirely on his peculiar studies, having an utter 
aversion to theological controversy, and being equally par- 
tial to men of merit of all persuasions. His works are nu« 
merous, but many of them are academical dissertations. 
Among those of a more permanent form are '^ An Essay 
towards the ancient Geography of the Northern Countries^ 
particularly Norway ;" " Observations c-n the old Northern 
Marriages and Weddings ;" <* De Anni Ratione apud ve- 
teres Septentrionales ;'^ *^ History of Norway from the 
foundation of the kingdom till the time of Harold Haar* 
fager," 1771 — 1781, 4 vols. 4to, the last volume edited 
by Suhm ; ^^ Travels through Norway,'' &c. He was also 
the contributor of many papers to- the Transactions of the 
Norwegian society, and of th^ academy of sciences at Co- 
penhagen, on subjects of antiquity, bearing some relation 
to the northern nations.^ 

SCHOOCKIUS (Martin), a learned and very laborious 
writer^ was bom April 1, 1614, at Utrecht, and was suc- 
cessively professor of languages, rhetoric, history, natural 
philosophy, logic, and experimental philosophy in that 
city, at l^eventer, Groningen, and lastly, at Francfort 
upon Oder, where he died in 1665, aged fifty-one. Schooc* 
kins delighted in singular subjects, and has left a prodi- 
gious number of works. Burman says he never knew a 
man who published so much and acquired so little fame in 
the learned world. Some of hiff works are critical, others 
on philosophy, divinity, history, and literature, chiefly in 
12mo or 8vo, &c. The most known are, tracts on turfs, 
« De Turffis, sen de cespitibus Bituminosis ;" ** On But- 
ter ;" « On Antipathy to Cheese ;*' " On Eggs and Chic- 
kens;'* " On Inundations ;" "De Harengis, seu Haleci- 

i Diet. Hbt. . 



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S C H O O C K I U S. 2i9 

bits ;'' «< De Stgnatnris foetus ;'' << De Ciooniis > '' De Ni- 
bilo ;'* << De SternoutioBe ;** << Defigmento legis Regias ;'* 
^^ De Bonis Ecclesiasucis et Canonicis," 4to ^ ^< De Statu 
ReipahNca foederati Belgii,'* &c« &c. He wrote also against 
lies Cartes, at the request of tbe fatnous Vo^tios, with 
whom be was much conuected. Some other pieces on sin- 
gukr subjects are in his *^ Exercitationes varieey*' 1663, 4to^ 
r^rinted under the title of ** Martini Theo^ts exercita- 
tiones," 1688, 4to, kc^ 

. SCHOOTEN (Francis), professor of mathematics at 
Leyden about the middle of the seventeeath century, was 
a very acute proficient in that sciesce. He published, in 
1649, an edition of Descartes's geonMtry, with learned 
and elaborate annotations on that work, as alao those of 
Beaume, Hudde, and Van Heauralt. Schooten published 
also two very useful and learned works of his own composi- 
tion; *< Principia Matheseos universalis," 1651, 4to; and 
** Exercitationes Mathematicss," 1657, 4to.* 

SCHOTT (Andrew), a very learned German, to whom 
tbe republic of letters has been considerably indebted^ was 
bom at Antwerp, Sept. 12, 1552 ; and educated at Lou- 
vain. Upon the taking and sacking of Antwerp in 1577, 
he retired to Douay ; and, after some stay there, went to 
Paris, where Busbequius received him into bis house, and 
made him partner of his studies. Two years after, he went 
into Spain, and was at first at Madrid ; then be removed 
to Alcala, and then in 1 580 to Toledo, where bis great 
reputation procured him a Greek professorship. The car-« 
dinal Gaspar Quiroga, abp. of Toledo, conceived al the 
same time such an esteem for him, that be lodged him in 
bis palace, and entertained him as long as be remained in 
that place* In 1584, he wasinvtied to Saragossa, to teach 
vbetoric and the Greek language; and^ two years after, 
entered into the society of Jesuits, and was called by the 
general of the order into Italy to teach rhetoric at Rome. 
He continued three years there, and then returned to bia 
own country, where he spent the remainder of a long life 
in study and writing books. Hfe was not only well skilled 
in Li^in and Greek learning, but bad also in him a candoiir 
and generosity seldom to be found among the men of his 
order. He bad an earnest desire to oblige all mankind, of 

.*.Kic«w, fol. XIL— Banaan tny. Briidit.-Nt<»lfti'» Vii» Pra«Mnr«fa 

* Hiiuoo'tDtct. new edit. 1S15.. 

S 2 



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260 s c H o T r. 

what religion or country soever ; and would freely xromintH 
nicate even with iieretics, if the cause of letters could be* 
served : hence protestant writers every where mention him 
with respect. He died at Antwerp Jan, 23» 1629, after 
having published a great number of books. Besides works 
more immediately connected with and relating to his own- 
profession, he gave editions of, and wrote notes upon, se* 
veral of ttie classics ; among which were Aurelius Victor, 
Pomponius Mela, Seneca Rhetor, Cornelius Nepos, Vale- 
rius Fiaccus^ &c. He wrote the life of Fraticis di Borgia^ 
and <* Hispania illustrata,^* 4 vols, folio, but there are rea- 
sons for doubting whether the ** Bibliotheca Hispana,** $• 
vols, in one, 4to, was a publication of his own ; it seem» 
rather to have been compiled from his MSS. He published, 
however, an edition of Basil's works, and is said to have 
translated Photius; but this has been thought to be so much 
.below the abilities and learning of Schott, 'that some have 
questioned his having been the author of it.^ 

SCHOTT (Caspar), a learned Jesuit, was born in 1608, 
in the diocese of Wurtzburg. His favourite studies were 
pfailosopbvand mathematics, which he taught till his deaths 
He passed several years at Palermo, whence he removed 
to Rome, where he contracted an intimacy with the cele- 
brated Kircher, who communicated to him several of bis 
observations on ||he arts and sciences. Schott was author 
of several works, of which the most remarkable are, 1,^ 
** Physica curiota ; sive MirabiKa Naturae et artis,'* 1667^ 
4ta a. «<Magia naturalis et artiiicialis," 1657—59, 4 vols. 
4to, reprinted in 1677. 3. •*Technica curiosa,** Norim* 
berg, 1664^ 4to, in which is found the first idea of the air* 
pump, 4. «« Anatomia Physico-hydrostatica Fontium et 
Flnminiffm.** 5. " Organum Mathematicum." In the va- 
riout writings of this Jesuit are to be met with the germs of 
the greater part of modern experiments in physics. Com* 
plete sett of them should consist of 20 vols* but they are 
not easily procured, as they were almost entirely foi^otten, 
tin brought to notice in 1785 by the abb6 Mercier, in his^ 
•* Notice des ouvrages de Caspar Schott*"* 

SCHREVELIUS (CoRNEues), a Dutch commenUtor, 
was the son of Theodore Schrevelius, first rector of the 
school at Haerlem, the history of which city he published^ 

^ IHn»iii.— Niceron, toL XXVL— Marcbmnd in I^aregfiDat.— Foppen'i Bibk 
B«lg — Saxii OnomMt. 
• Oi^ Hist.-.Bninei M Mael du Libwirc. 



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SCHREVELIUS. ^1 

and afterward^ rector of that of Leyden. He was born f»ro- 
1>ably at the foraier place, and removed to Leyden wttb bis 
fatber in 1625, wbo being then advanced in years resigned 
bis office in favour of Cornelius in 1642. Cornelius ap- 
pears before this to have studied and took his degrees in 
medicine, but his promotion to the school turned his at- 
tentiofi to classical pursuits, in the course of which he pub- 
lished editions variorum of Hesiod, Homer, Claudian, Vir- 
gil, Lucan, Martial, Juvenal and Pehius, Erasmus's col- 
loquies, &c. none of which have been so fortunate as to 
<>btain the approbation of modern critics. He applied, 
bowever, to lexicography with more success, and besides . 
a good edition of the Greek part of HesyclHns*s Lexicon, 

nMisbed himself a Greek and Latin Dictionary, wbicb has 
n found so useful f beginners, that perhaps few w^Mks 
of the kind have gone through so many -editions. Those of 
this country, where it still continues to be printed, have 
i>een enlarged and improved by Hill, Bowyer, aad others* 
Scbrevelius died in 1667.' 

SCHULTENS (Albert), a German dtvioe, w«s bom«t 
Grooingen, where he studied till 1706, and greatly distin- • 
finished himself by taste and' skill in .Arabic learning* He 
became a minister of Wassenar, and professor of the orien- 
tal tongues at Franeker. At length he was invite^ to Ley- 
den, where he taught Hebrew and the oriental langnagaa 
with repuutiou till bis death, wbicb happened in 175a 
There are many works of Schultens, which shew profound 
learning and just criticism ; as, << Commentaries upon Job 
and the Proverbs ;'' a book, entitled << Vetus et regia via 
Hebraizandi ;'' ** A Treatise of Hebrew Roots,'' &c. He 
bad a son John Jacob Schultens, who was professor of divU 
nity and oriental languages at Leyden, in his room. This 
John Jacob was father to the subject of the following ar-*- 
tide.* 

SCHULTENS ( Hekry Albert), was bom Feb. 15, 
1749, at Herbom (where his father was at that time divinity- 
professor), and was educated at the university at Leyden, 
where be applied himself with great diligence to the Ara- 
bic, under his father's instructions, and those of Scbei- 
dins, who then lodged in his house. By his father's ad- 
vice, be commenced his study of the eastern languages by 

1 Foppen Bibl. Belg.^BaiUct Jogemens^— Morcri. 



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308 9 C H U L T E N S. 

learning the Arabic, to which he applied during two years, 
before be began the Hebrew. This, among other reasons, 
may account for the preference which he always gave ^o 
the Arabic literature, and which was so great that he wfs 
often heard to wish that the duties of his station would al- 
low him to devote the whole of his time to it. He, however, 
studied the Greek and Latin classics with the utmost dili- 

fence under Hemsterhuis, Rhunkenius, and Valkenaar. 
[e also cultivated an acquaintance with the best modern 
writers, among whom he in general gave the preference to 
the English ; he was remarkably fond of Pope ; and of 

. Shakspeare be was an enthusiastic admirer. 

In 1771^, when only in his twenty*-third year, be pub- 
lisbed a work entitled ^^ Anthologia Sententiarom Arabica- 
rom," with a Latin translation and notes, of which sir Wil* 
Jiaoi Jones testified his approbation. Soon after this SchuU 
tens went to England, in order to examine the Arabic MSS. 
in the Bodleian library, and resided for some time at Ox- 
ford, as a gentleman commoner of Wadham college. Here 
in leak than three months during the short winter days, he 
transcribed Pocock^s ** Meidanius" with bis translation and 
notesi a work which took up no less than 646 folio pages. 
The late professor White, in a letter to the father of Schul- 
tens, sajs of him : ^^ It is impossible for any one to be 
more generally respected in this place, or in<;leed to be 
.more deserving of it. His abilities, his amiable disposition, 
and hb polite behaviour, recommend him strongly to all 
those among iis who know bim only by reputation, and en- 
dear him to all who are persqnally acquainted with him.*' 
The university testified its sense of his extraordinary merit, 
by conferring on him (in May 1773) the degree of M. A. 
by diploma. He also visited Cambridge, where he spent 

• a fortnight ; during which time he corrected several errors 
in the catalogue of Arabic manuscripts, and made several 
additions to it. In London he published a specimen of 
Pocock'^ " Meidanius.'' Dr. Morton offered to make him 
his assistant at the British Museum, and to secure to him 
the reversion of bis own place ; but the ambition of SchuU 
tens was to be a professor of Eastern languages ; and aa 
there was no probability of this appointment in England, 
he determined to return to Holland. Sir William Jones, 
whose friendship he assiduously cultivated, advised him to 
study the Persian, which he did with great diligence ; but 
h^ complained that this pursuit ww oft^a interrupted by 



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S C H U L T E N S. 26$ 

other avocations, and that he was not able to devote so 
macb time to it as he wished. 

S€k>n after tfis arrival in the United Province^ he was 
chosen professor of oriental languages in the academical 
school of Amsterdam, where he resided during five years, 
ami enjoyed the esteem and friendship of a numerous ac« 
quaintance. Besides Latin lectufes to the students, he de« 
livered some in Dutch, on the Jewish antiquities and ori*.* 
ental histor}', which were much frequented and gpreatly ad- 
mired. On the death of his father, in 1778, he was called 
to Leyden as his successor. In Nov. 1792, he was attack- 
ed by a malignant catarrhal fever that terminated in a con* 
sumption, of which he died in August 1793. Some time 
before his death, his physician found him reading the latter 
part of St. John's gospel, of which he expressed the warmest 
admiration, and added, ^ It is no small consolation to me, 
that, in the vigour of health, I never thought less highly of 
the character and religion of Christ, than I do tv>w, in the 
debility of sickness. Of the truth and excellence of Chris- 
tianity I have always been convinced, and have always, as 
far as human frailty would allow, endeavoured so to express 
this conviction that, in these my last hours, I might with 
confidence look forwards to a blessed immortality .*' Schul- 
tens, in his private character, was in every respect an 
amiable and worthy man. 

As a teacher, professor Schultens had the happy talent 
of rendering the driest subjects plain and interesting to his 
pupils. This was particularly the case with the principles 
of the Hebrew grammar, an intimate and accurate know- 
ledge of which be recommended as indispensably necessary 
to all who wished to understand the Old Testament in the 
original language. In translating and explaining the Bible, 
he preserved a judicious medium between those who 
thought the Hebrew text too sacred to be the subject of 
criticism ; and those who, like Houbigant, without a sufii* 
cient acquaintance with the genius of the language, ven* 
tured on needless alterations. Hence he was much dis- 
pleased with a work by professor Kocherus of Berne, en- 
titled " VindiciaB sacri textus Hebrsei Esaise vatis, adver^us 
It Lowthi criticam ;'' concerning which he said, in a letter 
to Dr. Findlay, of Glasgow, " It violates the bounds of 
moderation and decency by the assertion that the text of 
Isaiah could not gain any thing by Dr. Lowth's conjectures. 
I am of a very diflferent opinion. When at Oitford and 



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264 S C H U L T E N a 

London, I wis intimately acquainted with bishop Lowth, 
had an opportunity of knowing bis excellent disposition, 
and am therefore much vesed that Kocherus, from bis fiery 
zeal against innovation, should tiave been induced to treat 
him with severity, as if the bishop bad been a rash and pe- 
tulant critic.^' Schultens's sentimenu on this subject are 
more fully expressed in some articles which he wrote for 
tbe ^^ Bibliotheca Critica,'' published by Wyttenbach, par- 
ticularly in the review of Kenoicot's Bible. These judi*- 
, cious sentlftents, together with his extensive abilities and 
knowledge of tbe subject, bis eulogist observes, rendered 
him admirably qualified to have given a new version of the 
Old Testament This at one time he designed, and nearly 
finished a translation of the book of Job, which was pub- 
lished after his death by Herman Muntinge, 1794, 8vo, but 
his sentiments of this portion of sacred writ are so much at 
variance with those of the most able and popular commen- 
tators, that we question if it will meet witb general appro^ 
bation. 

Professor Schultens, though a very industrious student, 
published little besides the ^VAntbologia*' already mention- 
ed, and the following, ** Pars versionis Arabicas libri Co- 
laili Wa Dimnab, sive Fabularum Bilpai;'* a supplement 
to D'Herbelot's <* Bibliotheque Orientale;" a Dutch trans- 
lation of Eicbom on the literary merits of Micbaelis ; and ' 
three Latin orations. He at one time resumed his intended 
edition of Meidanius, the care of which he left to profes* 
sor Schroeder, who published a volume 4to, under the title 
" Meidani proverbiorum Arabicorum pars, Latine vertit et 
notis illustravit H. A. Scultens. Opus posthumum,'' 1795. 
It ought to consist of two more volumes, but we know not 
that they have appeared.' 

SCHULTETUS. See SCULTETUS. 

SCHURMAN (Anna Maru a), a most learned Gerroaa 
lady^ ^asthe daughter of parents who were both descended ' 
from noble Protestant families, and was born at Cologne, in 
1607. She discovered from her infancy an uncommon fa- 
cility in acquiring various accomplishments, as cutting witb 
her scissors upon paper all sorts of figures, without any 
model, designing flowers, embroidery, music vocal and in- 
strumental, painting, sculpture, and engraving; and is said ^ 
to have succeeded equally in all these arts. Mr. Evelyn^ 

? Kantt Iatr»j Eulogy, Amst. 1794, 8yo, in Montk, Be?. yoI. XV, N. S. 



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S C H U R M A M. «M 

in his " History of Chalcography/* has ot^senned, that <Uhe 
very knowing Anna Maria a Schurman is skilled in this art 
with innumerable others, even to a prodigy of her sex," 
Her hand-writing in all languages was inimitable ; and some 
eurious persons have preserved specimens of it in their 
cabinets. M. Joby, in his journey to Munster, relates, that 
he was an eye-witness lo the beauty of her writing, in 
French, Greek, Hebrew, Syriac, and Arabic; and of hev 
skill in drawing in miniature, and making portraits upon 
glass with the point of a diamond. She painted her own 
picture by means of a looking^-glass ; and made artificial 
pearls so like natural ones, that they could not be distinv 
guished but by pricking them with a needle. 

The powers of her understanding were not inferior to 
her skill in those arts : for ^t eleven, when her brothers 
were examined in Latin, she often whispered to them what 
they were to answer, though she was only a casual hearer 
of their lessons. Her father therefore began to instruct 
her more perfectly in that knowledge which made her so 
justly celebrated; ani very soon the Latin, Greek, and He-r 
brew languages became so familiar to her, that she not 
lonly wrote, but spoke them, in a manner which surprised 
the most learned men. She made a great progress also in 
the Syriac, Chaldee, Arabic, and Ethiopic; and of the 
living languages, she understood and spoke readily, the 
French, English, and Italian. She was competently versed 
in geography, astronomy, philosophy, and the sciences, 
so as to be able to judge of them with exactness : but all 
these accomplishments yielded at last to- divinity, and the 
study of the scriptures. * 

Her father, who bad settled at Utrecht while she was an 
infant, and afterwards removed to Franeker for the more 
x^onvenient education of his children, died there in 1623. 
His widow then returned to Utrecht, where Anna Maria 
continued her studies very intensely; which probably pre- 
vented her from marrying, as she might have done advan- 
tageously with Mr. Cats, pensionary of Holland, and a 
celebrated poet, who wrote verses in her praise when she 
was only fourteen. Her modesty, which was as great as 
her knowledge, would have kept her in obsturity, if Hive* 
jtus, Spanbeim, and Yossius^ had not made her merit known, 
Salmasius also, Beverovicius, and Huygens, maintained a 
literary correspondence with her; and, by shewing her 
letters, spread her fame into foreiga countries. This pro- 



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t€€ SOHURMAK. 

emted Im a correipOTidence with Balzac, Gassendi, Mer» 
•eDDUSy Bocbart, Conrait, and other emiuent men ; persons 
of the fint rank paid her visits, and cardinal Richelieu 
likewise shewed her marks of his esteem. About 1650, a 
great alteration took place in her religious system. She 
peirformed her devotions in private, without frequenting 
any church, upon which, it was reported that she was in- 
clined to popery; but she attached herself to the famous 
nysiic Labadie, and embracing his principles and practice, 
lived some time with him at Altena, in Holstein, and at- 
tended him at his death there m 1674. She afterwards 
retired to Wiewart, in Friseland, where the famous Penn, 
the Quaker, visited her in 1677 ; she died at this place in 
1€78, She took for her device these words of St. Ignatius : 
^ Amor meus crucifixus est.'* 

She wrote *<De vitsB humanse termino,'* Ultra). 1639; 
^* Dissertatio de ingenii muliebris ad doctrinam et meliores 
literas aptttudine,** L. Bat 1641, 12 mo. These two pieces^ 
with letters in French, Latin, Greek, and Hebrew, to her 
learned correspondents, were printed in 1648, undet the 
title of ** A* M, a Schurman Opuscula Hebraea, Grseca, 
Ijttina, Gallica; prosaica & metrica;*' enlarged in a 2d 
edition at Leyden, 1650, ]2mo. She wrote afterwards, 
** Eukleria, sen melioris partis electio.*' This is a defence 
of her attachment to Labadie, and was printed at Altena in 
1673, when she was with him.^ 

SCHURTZFLEISCH (Conrad Samuel), a learned 
German, was bom December 1641, at Corback, in the 
county of Waldeck. Having taken a -doctor's degree in 
philosophy at Wittemberg, in 1664, he returned to Corbac, 
where ke taught during some time instead of his father, 
and then returning to Wittemberg, published a learned 
piece, entitled " Judicium de novissimis prudentise civilis 
scriptoribus,'' &c. under the assumed name of << Eubulus 
Th^odatus Sarckmasius.*' In this little work, which con- 
sists but of a leaf and half, the author passes judgment very 
freely on fifteen German lawyers, or political writers, which 
raised htm many enemies, and engaged him in a literary 
war, which produced a great number of pieces collected 
by Crusius, 8vo, under the title of << Acta Sarckmasiana,'* 
and even occasioned bis being struck out from the list of 

■ Gen. Diet— Nioeroo, toI. XXXIIL— Ballaa's Academie det Scienoei.— 
Bamaii Traject Brudit. 



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SCHURTZFLEISCH. 

doctors by the univereity of Witt^anberg, He was, how- 
ever, not only restored to that title two years after, but 
appointed professor of history, then of poetry, and at 
length of Greek. In 1 700, Schurtzfleisch succeeded to the 
rhetorical chair, and became oounsellor and librarian to the 
dukeof Saxe-Weimar, and died July 7, 1708. He left a 
great nunaber of learned works on history, poetry, x:riticisio, 
literature, &c. the most celebrated of which are, *^ Dispti* 
tationes histories^ civiles,^* Leipsic^ 1699, Stoin. 4to. Henry 
Leonard Schurtzfleisch, his brother, was also author of 
some works, among which is, *^ Historia Ensiferorum ordi- 
nis Teutonici," Wittemberg, 1701, liZmo.' 

SCHWARTZ (Beutholet), who passes for being the 
discoverer of that fatal composition so well known by the 
name of gun-powder, was born at Friburg in Germany in 
the thirteenth century, and is said to havfi discovered this 
dangerous secret in prison, as he was making some chemi* 
cat experiments. Albertus Miagnus speaks of him as a 
Cordelier, and says that he invented some sorts of fire« 
arms. The discovery of t^ fatal secret has been attributed 
by some to the Chinese, and by others to our countryman, 
Roger Bacon : however, the use of artillery was introduced 
about the time of the battle of Crecy, . I346» and made an 
absolute change in the whole art of war ; whether a beneh* 
cial one, has not yet been decided.' 

SCIOPPIUS (Gaspar), a learned German writer, and 
one of the most arrogant and contentious critics of his time, 
was born about 1576 ; and studied 6rst at Amberg, then at 
Heidelberg, afterwards at Altdorf, at the charges ^ of the 
elector palatine. Having made a considerable stay at In-r 
golstadt,- he returned to AltdorfF, where he began to publish 
some of his works. Ottavia Ferrari, a celebrated professor 
at Padua, says, that he ^* published books when he was but , 
sixteep, which deserved to be admired by old men ;** some, 
however, of his early productions do not deserve this en* 
comium. He took a journey into Italy; and, after he had 
been some time at Verona, returned into Germany,- whence 
be went again into Italy, and published at Ferrara a pane- 
gyric upon the king of Spain and pope Clement VIII. lu 
1599, he embraced the Roman catholic religion, but had 
an extraordinary antipathy to the Jesuits ; against whom, 
Baillet tells us, he wrote about thirty treatises under ficti- 

» NiccfOD, rol. L-Moreri. t Bojlart'f Ac^dwa'^ ^«« Scieiiow.^Moreri. 

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«6« a c I o p p I u s; 

lioos namet . Nor was he more lenient to the Protestsnti» 
and iolicited the princes to extirpate them by the most 
bloody means, in a book which he published at Pavia in 
1619, under the title of *^ Gasp. ScioppiiConsiliariiilegii 
Classicum belli sacri, sive, Heldus Redivivus/* The fol- 
lowing is the title of another, printed at Mentz in 1612, 
against Ptiilip Mornay du Plessis; and which, as be telis 
us in the title-page, he sent to James I. of England, by 
way of new-year's gift : ** Alexipharmacum Regium felli 
ilraconum et veneno aspidum sub Philippi Mornsei de Pies* 
iiis nnper Papatus historic abdito appositum, et sereniss. 
Jacobo Magns Britannise Regi «trene Januaris loco mur 
•ner i missum.'* He had before attacked the king of England, 
by publishing in 1611, two books with these titles: **£c« 
clesiasticus auctoritati Sereniss. D. Jacobi, &c. oppositus," 
and *^ Collyrium Regium Britanniae Regi graviter ex oculia • 
laboranti rouneri missum f' that is, ** An Eye-salve for the 
use of his Britannia majesty.*' Jn the first of these pieces 
he ventured to attack Henry IV. of France in a most violent 
manner ; which occasioned hi&^book to be burnt at Paris* 
He gloried, however, in this disgrace ; and, according to 
bis own account, had the farther honour of being banged 
in effigy in a farce, which was acted before the king of 
England. He did not, however, always escape with impu«. 
nity ; for, in 1614, the servants of the English ambassador 
^re said to have beaten hipi with great severity at Madrid. 
Of the wounds he received in this conflict, he, as usual^ 
made his boasts, as he also did of having been the princi- 
pal contriver of the Catholic league, which proved so 
ruinous to the Protestants in Germany. In bis way through 
Venice in 1607, he bad a conference with father Paul^ 
whom he endeavoured by promises and threats to bring over 
to the pope's party; which, perhaps, with other circum^ 
stances, occasioned his being imprisoned there three or four 
days. After he had spent many years in literary contests, 
he applied himself to the prophecies of holy scripture, ai^d 
pattered himself that he had discovered the true key to 
them. He sent some of these prophetical discoveries tp 
cardinal Mazarine, who paid no attention to them, It has 
been said that he had thoughts at last of going back to the 
communion of Protestants; but this, resting upon the sin- 
gle testimony of Hornius, has not beea generally believed. 
He died in 1649, 
He was indisputably a very learoed man ; an8, had bis 



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S C I O P P 1 U S. 26§ 

moderation and probity been equal to his learning, migbt 
justly have been accounted an ornament to the reptiblic of 
letters : his application to study, his memory, the multitude 
of bis boo^s, and his quickness of parts, are surprising. 
Ferrarius tells us that he studied day and night ; that, dur- 
ing the last fourteen years of bis life, he kept himself shut 
up in a little rooni, and that his conversation with those 
who went to visit him ran only upon learning ; that, like 
another Ezra, he might have restored the holy scripture, if 
it had been tost, for that he could repeat it almost by heart; 
and that the number of his books exceeded the number ^f 
his years. He left behind him al.<%o several manuscripts, 
which, as MorhofF tells us, ^* remained in the hands o& 
Picruccius, professor at Padua, and are not yet published, 
to the no snaall indignation of the learned world." He was 
nevertheless a man of a malignant and contentious spirit, 
and lived in continual hostility with the learned of his time, 
nor did he spare the best writers of ancient Rome, even 
Cicero himself, whose language he censured for impropri-^ 
eties and barbarisms* Niceron enumerates upwards of an 
hundred different publications by Scioppius, all of which 
are now fallen into oblivion, or only occasionally consulted. 
They are mostly polemical, on subjects of criticism, reli- 
gious opinions, the Jesuits, Protestants, &c. many of them 
under the fictitious names of Nicodemus Macer, Oporinus 
Grubinius, Aspasius'Crosippus, Holofernes Krigsoederus, 
and other barbarous assumptions.* 

SCOPOLI (John Anthony), an eminent naturalist, wai 
born in 1725, at Cavalese, in the bishopric of Trent. He 
studied at Inspruck, and at twenty years old obtained tlie 
degree of licentiate in medicine, and afterwards was in- 
trusted with the care of the hospitals of Trent, and of his 
native town Cavalese ; but as this stage was too small for his 
ambition, he requested that his parents would permit him 
to go to Venice. In that city, under the auspices of Lo- 
taria Lotti, he extended his knowledge of medicine, and 
added to it a more intimate acquaintance with pharmacy, 
botany, and natural history. On his r>eturh he traversed 
the mountains of Tirol and Carniola, where he laid the 
foundation of his " Flora" and ** Entomologia Carniolica.'"^ 
In 1754 he accompanied count de Firmian, prince bishop, 
.ai)d afterwards cardinal, toGratz, from whence he went t^ 

^ Niccroo, ^al. XXXV.— Qeti. Diet. 



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170 s c o p o L r. 

Vienna to obtain a diploma to practice in the Austrian do* 
minions. His examination is said to have been rigorousi 
and tiis thesis on a new method of classing plants to have 
been received with great regard. The friendship of Yap 
Swieten, if in this instance it can be called friendship^ pro- 
cured him the office of first physician to the Austrian miners 
of Tirol. In this banishment he continued more than ten 
years ; for it was only in 1766, after repeated solicitations^ 
Uiat be obtained the post of counsellor in the mining de* 
partmenty and professor of mineralogy at Schemnitz ; but 
in this interval he produced his ** Anoi tres Hiatorico-na-^ 
turales/' 1769 to 1771, 8vo. In this new ofl&ce be was 
indefatigable in teaching, exploring new mines, composing 
different works on fossils, and improving the method of 
treating minerals ; but after ten years^ labour, he was not 
able to obtain the newly^establisbed chair of natural his- 
tory at Vienna; yet soon after his attempt, about the end 
of 1776, be was appointed professor of chemistry and bo- 
tany at Pavia. In this situation he published some pharma- 
ceutical essays, translated and greatly augmented Macquer's 
Pictionary, and explained the contents of the cabinet of 
natural history belonging to the university, under the title 
of ^^ DelicisB Florae et Faunse Insubricse,'' the last part of 
which he did not live to complete. The president of the 
Unniean society, who dedicated the Scopoliato bis memory, 
informs us that, after some domestic chagrin, and much 
public persecution, be died at Pavia, May 8, 178S. He 
had been concerned with all the most eminent men of that 
university, Volta, Fontana, and others, in detecting thsr 
misconduct of their colleague, the celebrated Spaltanzani, 
who bad robbed the public museum. But the emperor, 
loth to dismiss so able a professor, contented himself with 
a personal rebuke at Vienna to the culprit, and his accusers 
were silenced, in a manner which was supposed to have 
caused the death of Scopoli. The survivors told theie 
story, as explicitly as they durst, in a circular letter to the 
learned of Europe.^ 

SCOTT (David), was born near Haddington, in East 
Lothian, 1675, and brought up to the law in Edinburgh; 
but never made any figure at the bar. Attached to the royal 
family of Stewart, he refused to uke the oaths .to the revo- 
lution-settlement, which brought him into many difficulties^ 

' Crit. Rty. v«u LXVU.«4U«t^ Cj^lqpadis aii. ScopoUs. 



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SCOTT. 371 

and sometimes loiprisoBmeDt. He bad no great knowledge 
of history; but an opinion of, his owh abilities indnced him 
to write that of Scotland, which was published ib 1727, in 
one volume folio. It is a performance of not much value. 
He died at Haddington, 1742, aged sixty-seveu.^ 

SCOTT (Daniel), a dtsseiuiog minister,^ was the son of 
a merchant in London, and was educated with Butler and 
Seeker, afterwards eminent prelates in the church of £ng« 
land, under the learned Mr. Jones, ^ at Tewkesbury, in 
Gloucestershire, from whose seminary he removed to 
Utrecht, in Holland, pursued his studies with indefatigable 
seal, and took his degree of doctor of laws. While he waa 
in this city, he changed hie opinion concerning the mode 
of baptism, and became a baptist, but occasionally joined 
in communion with other denominations. On his return to 
England, he settled in* Loudon or Colchester, and devoted 
his time to various learned and usefiil treatises. In 1725' 
appeared his ^^ Essay towards a Demonstration of the Scrip- 
ture Trinity,*' without bis name, which was for some time 
ascribed to Mr. Jamyes Pierce, of Exeter. In 1738, a se-^ 
cond edition, with some enlargements, was sent out from 
the press, and in both editions the autbor'^s iriends have 
laboured to prove that dishonourable methods were taken to 
prevent the spread of it< A new edition of this Essay, freed 
from the learned quotations with which it abounded, was 
printed, some years back, in 4to, and, without any disho* 
nourable means, added very little to the So^inian cause, 
in 1741, he appeared to more advantage in '' A New Ver-^ 
aioo of St. Matthew^s Gospel, with Critical Notes ; and an 
Examination of Dr. Mill's Various Readings ;'' a very learn* 
ed and accurate performance. At the persuasion of his 
digniBed friends, Seeker and Butler, to whom he dedicated 
his work, he published, in 1745, in two volumes, folio, an 
'' Appendix to H. Stepben*8 Greek Lexicon ;^' a monument 
of bis amazing diligence, critical skill, and precision. He 
lost several hundred pounds by this publication, and, by 
his close application to it for many years, broke his health 
and spirits. He was never married, and died suddenly i^ in 
a retirement near London, March 29, 1759. 

His father, by his first wife, had a son, Thomas Scott, a 
dissenting minister at Norwich, who published several oc- 
«a,ftional tennons, and died in 1746, leaving two sons, one 

I Freceding ediliQn of tirii Diet. 



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272 SCOTT. 

Thomas Stott^ a dissentiiig minifter at Ipswich, aathor of 
a poetical version of the Book of Job, a second edition of 
which was printed in 1774. This has been thought more 
valuable as a commentary than as a translation. His other 
son was Dr. JogcPU NicoL Scott^ who was first a dissenting 
Iniiiister, and published 2 vols, of sermons ** preached in 
defence of all religion, whether natural or revealed." He 
was a strenuous opponent of the doctrine of eternal punish- 
ments. He afterwards practised physic in London, and 
died about 1774.^ 

SCOTl^ (George Lewis), a learned member of the 
royal society, and of the board of longitude, was the eldest 
son of Mr. Scott, of Bristow, in Scotland, who married 
Miss Stewart, daughter of sir James Stewart, lord advo- 
cate of Scotland in the reigns of William III. and queen 
Anne. That lady was also his consin-german, their mo* 
thers being sisters, and both daughters of Mr. Robert 
Trail, one of the ministers of Edinburgh, of the same fa- 
mily as the rev. Dr. William Trail, the learned author of 
the <^ Life of Dr. Robert Simson^ professor of mathematics 
at Glasgow." 

Mr. Scott, the father, with his family, lived many years 
abroad, in a public character ; and he had three sons born 
while residing at the court of Hanover. The eldest of these 
was our author, George Lewis, named, in both these names^ 
after his god-father,itbe elector, who was afterwards George 
J. George Lewis Scott was a gentleman of considerable 
talents and general learning ; he was well-skilled also in the 
mathematical sciences *, for which he manifested at times 
a critical taste, as may be particularly seen in some letters 
which, in 1764, passed between him and and Dr* Simson, 
of Glasgow, and are inserted in Dr. Trail's account of " The 
Life and Writings of Dr. Simson." Mr. Scott was also the 
author of the " Supplement to Chambers's Dictionary," in 
2 large folio volumes, which was niuch esteemed, and for 
which he received 1,500/. from the booksellers, a consi* 
derable price at the time of that publication. Mr^ 
Scott was sub-preceptor, for the Latin language, to his 
present majesty when prince of Wales. After that he waa 

* From the preface to a new edition of " An Essay towards a demonstration 
of Uie Trinity," teprinted in 1778 or 1779. 

* Dr. Bumty, in tbe Cydo|Media, speaks of Dr. Scott as an excellent mo^ 
sician, and tbe author of some valuable articles on that voMect, in the Supple- 
ftitnt to Chaokbett^ Dictionary, 



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SCOTT. 273 

tt{>pointed a commissioner of excise ; a situation which his 
friends considered as not adequate to his past deserts^ and 
inferior to what he probably would have had, but for the 
freedom of his political opinions. From some correspond-* 
ence with Gibbon, to whom, in particular, he wrote an 
excellent letter of directions for mathematical studies, we 
may infer that he did not differ much from that gentleman 
in matters of religious belief. Mr. Scott died Dec. 1780. 
He was elected F. S. A. in 1T36, and F. R. S. in 1737. 

Mrs, Scott, his widow, survived him about fifteen years, 
and died at Catton, near Norwich, in Nov. 1795. She was 
sister to the late celebrated Mrs. Montagu, of Portman- 
square. From the pen of a very intelligent and equally 
candid writer, we have the following account of this lady : 
** She was an excellent historian, of great acquirements, 
extraordinary memory, and strong sense; and constantly 
employed in literary labours; yef careless of fame, and 
free from vanity and ostentation. Owing to a disagreement 
of tempers, she ^oon separated from her husband ; but in 
every other /elation of life she was, with some peculiarities, 
a woman of exemplary conduct, of sound principles, en- 
livened by the warmest sense of religion, and of a charity 
so unbounded, so totally regardless of herself, as to be 
almost excessive and indiscriminate. Her talents were not 
so brilliant, nor her genius so predominant, as those of her 
sister, Mrs. Montagu : but in some departments of litera« 
tare she was by no means her inferior. When she left her 
husband she united her. income with that of her intimate 
friend, lady Bab Montagu, the sister of lord Halifax, and 
they continued to live together to the death of the latter. 
From that period Mrs. Scott continually changed her ha* 
biiation, for restlessness was one of her foibles. Her in- 
tercourse with the world was various and extensive ; and 
there were few literary people of her day with whom she 
bad not either an acquaintance or a correspondence. Yet 
when she died, not one of her contemporaries who knew 
her literary habits came forward to preserve the slightest 
memorial of her ; and she went to her grave as unnoticed 
as the most obscure of those who have done nothing worthy 
of remembrance. Under these circumstances, the writer 
of this article trusts to a candid reception of this imperfect 
memoir, while be laments that Mrs. Scott herself shut out 
some of the best materials, by ordering all her papers and 
voluminous correspondence, which came into the bands of 

Vol. XXVII. T 

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274 SCOTT. 

her eicecutrix, to be burnt i an order much to be lameoted,- 
because there is reason to believe, from the fragments- 
which remain in other hands, that her letters abound^ with 
literary anecdote, and acute observations on character and 
life. Her style was easy, unaffected, and perspicuous; 
her remarks sound, and her sagacity striking. Though her 
fancy was npt sufficiently powerful to give the highest at- 
traction to a novel, she excelled in ethical remarks, and 
the annaU of the actual scenes of human nature. In dra- 
matic effect, in high- wrought passion, and splendid imagery^ 
perhaps she was deficient." 

The following b given on the same authority, as an im- 
perfect list of Mrs. Scott's works, all published at London, 
without her name, and one with a fictitious name, 1. **The 
History of Cornelia," a novel, 1750, l2mo. 2. " A Jour- 
ney through every stage of Life," 1754^ 2 vols. 12mo. 3. 
" Agreeable Ugliness; or, the triumph of the graces," &c. 
1754, 12mo. 4. " The History of Gustavus Ericson, king 
of Sweden, with an introductory history of Sweden, from 
the middle of the twelfth century. By Henry Augustas 
Raymond, esq." 1761, 8vo. 5. " The History of Meek- 
lenburgh," 1762, 8vo. 6. " A Description of Millenium 
Hall," second edition, 1764, 12mo. 7. "The History of 
sir George Ellison," 1776, 2 vols. 12mo. 8. ** The test of 
Filial Duty," 1772, 2 vols. 12mo. 9. " Life of Theodore 
Agrippa D'Aubigne," 1772, 8vo. ' 

SCOTT (Dr. John), a learned English divine, was sod 
of Mr. Thomas Scott, a substantial grazier, and was born 
in the parish of Chippingham, in Wiltshire, in 1638. Not 
being intended for a literary profession, he served an ap- 
prentic^hip in London, much against his will, for about 
three years; but, having an inclination as well as talents 
for learning, he quitted bis trade and went to Oxford* 
He was admitted a commoner of New Inn in 1657, and 
made a great progress in logic and philosophy ; but left 
the university without taking a degree, and being ordained, 
came to London, where he officiated in the perpetual cu- 
racy of Trinity in the Minories, and as minister of St. 
Thomases in Soutbwark. In 1677 he was presented to the 
rectory of St. Peter Le Poor ; and was collated to a prebend 
in St Paul's cathedral in 1684. In 1685 he accumulated 
the degrees of bachelor and doctor in divinity, having be- 

I nnt*on*s Dictionary, new edit. — Ccnsura LiUraria, vols. I. and II — Sbef- 
fH-kl't I/ife of Grf>boit.— Gent. Ma;. ?ol. LXYIII. and LXXV. where are some of 
Mrs. Scolftf leitera. 



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SCOTT, 275 

fore laken no degree in any other faculty. In 1691 be 
succeeded Sharp, afterwards arcbbtshop of York, iu the 
rectory of Su Giles in the Fields ; and the same year was 
made canon of Windsor. Wood says that " he naight soon 
have been a bishop, had not some scruples hindered him )'' 
and Hickes has told us that he .refused the bishopric of 
Cljestery because he could not take tlie oath of homage ; 
and afterwards another bishopric, the deaiiery of Wor- 
cester, and a prebend of the church of Windsor, because 
they were all places of deprived men. This, however, , 
Dr, Ifham attributes entirely to his growing infirmities. 
He died in 1694, and was buried in St. Giles's church : his 
funeral sermon was preached by Dr. Isbam, and aftjerwa^ds 
printed in 1695. In this sermon we are told that << he had 
many virtues in him of no ordinary growth : piety towards^ 
God ; kindness, friendship, afifability, sincerity, towards 
men ^ zeal and constancy in the discbarge of the pastoral 
office; and, in a word, all those graces and virtues which 
tnake the good Christian and the good man." When po- 
pery was encroaching under Charles II. and James II. he was 
one of those champions who opposed it with great warmth 
and courage, particularly in the dedication of^ a sermoa 
preached at Guildhall chapel, Nov. 5, 1683, to sir WiU 
liam Hooker, lord-mayor of London, where he declares 
that ^' Domitian and Dioclesian were but puny persecu- 
tors and bunglers in cruelty, compared with the infal- 
lible cut-throats of the apostolical chair." 

This divine wrote an excellent work, called " The Chris* 
tian Life," which has been often printed, and much read. 
The first part was published 1681, in 8vo, with this titie, 
** The Christian Life, from its beginning to its consumma- 
tion in glory, together with the several means and instru-. 
ments of Christianity conducing thereunto, with directions 
for private devotion and forms of prayer, fitted to the se- 
veral states of Christians;" in 1685, another part, *< wherein 
the fundisimentat principles of Christian duty are assigned, 
explained, and proved ;" in 1686, another part, " wherein 
the doctrine of our Saviour's mediation is explained and 
proved." To these volumes of the " Christian Life" the* 
pious author intended a continuation, had not long infir- 
mity, and afterwards death, prevented hio^ This work i« 
not now much read, although the ninth edition was pub- 
lished in 1729. Mr. Orton, in his *«^ Letters to young Mi- 
nisters," seems to recommend the first volume only. 

T 2 



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276 SCOTT. 

Dt. Scott published two pieces against the papists : t^ 
*• Examination of Bellarmine's eighth note concerning sane* 
tity of doctrine." 2. " The texts examined, which papisU 
cite out of the Bible concerning prayer in an unknown 
tongue." Both these pieces were printed together, Oct. 
1688, while king James was upon the throne. He wrote 
also '^Ceruin Cases of Conscience resolved, concerning the 
lawfulness of joining with forms of prayer in public wor- 
ship,*^ 1683, in two parts; which were both reprinted, and 
inserted in the second volume of a work entitled *< A col- 
lection of Cases and other Discourses lately written to re- 
cover Dissenters to the Communion of the Church of Eng- 
land,** 1685, 4to. His whole works, including sermons^ 
&c. were published in 2 vols. fol. 1704. ^ 

SCOTT (John), a poet of considerable genius, and a 
very amiable man, was the youngest son of Samuel and 
Martha Scott, and was born January 9, 1730, in the Grange- 
Walk, in Che parish of St. Mary Magdalen, Bermondsey. 
His father was a draper and citizen of London, a man of 
plain and irreproachable manners, and one of the society 
of the people called quakers, in which persuasion our poet 
was educated, and continued during the whole of his life, 
although not with the strictest attention to all the pecu- 
liarities of that sect. In the seventh year of his age be was 
put under the tuition of one John Clarke, a native of Scot- 
land, who kept a school in Bermondsey-street, attended 
young Scott at his father's house, and instructed him in the 
rudiments of the Latin tongue. In his tenth year his father 
retired with his family, consisting of Mrs. Scott and two 
sons, to the village of Amwell in Hertfordshire, where, for 
some time, he carried on the malting trade. Here our 
poet was sent to a private day-school, in which he is said 
to have had few opportunities of polite literature, and those 
fei/ were declined by his father from a dread of the small- 
pox, which neither he nor his son had yet caught. This 
terror, perpetually recurrijig as the disorder made its ap- 
pearance in one quarter or another, occasioned such fre- 
quent removals as prevented his son from the advantages 
of regular education. The youth, however, did not neg- 
lect to cultivate bis mind by such means as were in his 
power. About the age of seventeen he dis(covered an iti-- 
clination to the study of poetry, with which he combined a 

1 Biog. BriU— Atb. Ox. vol. II. 



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SCOTT. 277 

4eHglit in viewing the appearances of rnral nature. At 
this time be derived much assistance from the conversation 
and opinions of one Charles Frogley, a person in the bum- 
ble station of a bricklayer, but who had improved a natural 
taste for poetry, and arrived at a considerable degree of 
critical discernment^. This Mr. Scott thankfully acknotv. 
ledged when he bad himself attained a rank among the wri- 
ters of his age, and could return with interest the praise 
by which Frogley had cheered his youthful attempts. The 
only other adviser of his studies, in this sequestered spot, 
was a Mr. John Turner, afterwards a dissenting preacher. 
To him he was introduced in 1753 or 1754, and, on the 
removal of Mr. Turner to London, and afterwards to CoU 
leton in Devonshire, they carried on a friendly corre- 
spondence on matters of general taste. 

Mr. Scott's first poetical essays were published in the 
Gentleman's Magazine, '' the great receptacle for the ebul- 
litions of youthful genius." Mr. Hoole, his biographer, 
has not been able to discover all the pieces inserted by 
bim in that work, but has reprinted three of them, which 
are added to his works in the late edition of the English 
poets* With the taste jof the public during his retirement 
at Amwell he could have little acquaintance. He had 
lived here about twenty years, at a distance from any lite- 
rary society or information. His reading was chieBy con- 
fined to books of taste and criticism ; but the latter at that 
time were not many nor very valuable. In the ancient or 
modern languages it does not appear that be made any 
progress. Mr. Hoole thinks he knew very little of Latiu» 
and had no knowledge of either French or Italian. Those 
who know of what importance it is to in^prove genius by 
study, will regret that such a man was left^ in the pliable 
days of youth, without any acquaintance with the noble 
models on which fnglish poets have been formed, l^ey 
will yet uAore regret, that the cause of this distance from 
'literary society^ the source of all generous and qsefiil 
emulation, was a superstitious dread of the small-pox, 
already mentioned as obstructing his early studies, and 
which continued to prevail with bis parents to such a de- 
gree, that although at the distance of only twenty miles, 
tbeir son had been permitted to visit London but once in 
twenty years. His chief occupation, when not in a humour 
to study, was in cultivating a garden, for which be had 



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17S SCOTT. 

a particular fondness^ and at length rendered one of the 
most attraotire objects to the visitors of Amwell. 

About the year 1760, he began to make occasional) 
though cautious and short visits to London ; and in the 
spring of this year, published his *' Four Elegies, Dcscrip* 
tive and Moral," epithets which may be applied to almost 
all his poetry. These were very favourably received, and 
not only praised by the public critics, but received the va- 
luable commendations of Dr. Young, Mrs. Talbot, and 
Mrs. Carter, who loved poetry, and loved it most when in 
conjunction with piety. But for many years he abstained 
from farther publication, determined to put in no claims 
that were not strengthened by the utmost industry and fre- 
quept and careful revisal. This, probably, in some cases 
checked bis enthusiasm, and gave to his longer poems an 
appearance of labour. 

In 1761, during the prevalence of the small-pox at 
Ware, he removed to St. Margaret^s, a small hamlet about 
two miles distant from Amwell, where, Mr. Hoole informs 
us, be became first acquainted with him, and saw the first 
sketch of his poem of Amwell, to which be then gave the 
title of ** A Prospect of Ware and the Country a^acent." 
In 1766, he became sensible of the many disadvantages be 
laboured under by living in continual dread of the smalU 
pox, and had the courage to submit to the operation of 
inoculation, which was successfully performed by the late 
baron Dimsdale. He now visited London more frequently, 
and Mr. Hoole had the satisfaction to introduce him, among 
others, to Dr. Johnson. " Notwithstanding the great dif- 
ference of iheir political principles,' Scott had too much 
love for goodness and genius, not to be highly gratified in 
the opportunity of cultivating a friendship with that great 
exemplar of human virtues, and that great veteran of hu- 
man learning ; while the doctor, with a mind superior to 
the distinction of party, delighted with equal complacency 
in the amiable qualities of Scott, of whom he always spoke 
wkh feeling regard."*' 

In 1767, he married Sarah Frogley, the daughter of his 
early friend and adviser Charles Frogley. The bride was, 
previous to her nuptials, admitted a member of the society 
of quakers. For her father he ever preserved the highest 
respect, and seems to have written his Eleventh Ode with 
a view to relieve the mind of that worthy man from the 



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SCOTT. 279 

apprehension of being neglected by him. The connec- 
tion he bad formed in bis family, however, was not of long 
duration. His wife died in childbed in 1768, and the same 
year he lost his father and his infant-child. For some time 
be was inconsolable, and i^moved from Amwell, where so 
many objects excited the bitter remembrance of all he held 
dear, to the house of a friend at Upton. Here, when time 
and reflection had mellowed bis grief, he honoured the 
memory of his wife by an elegy in which tenderness and 
love are expressed in the genuine language of nature. As 
he did not wish to make aparade^of his private feelings, a 
few copies only of this elegy were given to his friends, nor 
would he ever suffer it to be published for sale. It pro- 
cured him the praise of Dr. Hawkesworth, and the friend- 
ship of Dr. Langbome, who, about this time, bad been 
visited by a similar calamity. His mother, it ought to have 
been mentioned, died in 1766 ; and, in 1769, he lost his 
friend and correspondent Mr. Turner. 

In November 1770, he married his second wife, Mary d6 
'Home, daughter of the late Abraham de Home : '^ a Isuly 
whose amiable qualities promised him many years of un- 
interrupted happiness.'* During his visit in London, he 
increased his literary circle of friends by an introduction 
to Mrs. Montagu's parties. Among those who principally 
noticed him with respect, were lord Lyttelton, sir William 
Jones, Mr. Potter, Mr. Mickle, and Dr. Beattie, who paid 
him a cordial visit at Amwell in 1773, and again in 1781, 
and became one of His correspondents. 

Although we have hitherto contemplated our author as a 
student and occasional poet, be rendered himself more 
conspicuous as one of those reflectors on public afiairs 
who employ much of their time in endeavouring to be use- 
ful. Amotig other subjects, his attention had often been 
called to that glaring defect in human polity, the state of 
the poor ; and having revolved the subject in his mind, 
with the assistance of man}' personal inquiries, he published 
in 1773 ** Observations on the present state of the paro- 
chial and vagrant Poor." It is needless to add, that his 
advice in this matter was rather approved than followed. 
Some of his propositions, indeed, were incorporated in 
Mr. Gilbert's Bill, in 1782 ; but the whole was lost for want 
of parliamentary support. 

In 1776 be published his "Amwell," a descriptive poem, 
which he bad long been preparing, and in which he fondly 



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2%0 SCOTT, 

hoped to immortalize bis favourite village. His biogra-> 
pber, however, has amply demonstrated the impossibility 
of communicating local enthusiasm by any attempt of this 
kind. The reflections occasionally introduced, and the 
historical or encomiastic digressions, are generally selected 
as the most pleasing passages in descriptive poetry ; but all 
that is really descripuve, all that would remove us from 
the closet to the scene, is a hopeless attempt to do that by 
(be pen which can only be done by the pencil. 

At such intervals as our author could spare, he wrote 
various anonymous pamphlets aud essays, on miscellaneous 
subjects, and is said to have appeared among the enemies 
of the measures of government who answered Dr. Johnson^s 
** Patriot," " False Alarm," and ** Taxation no Tyranny." 
On the commencement of the Kowleian controversy, he 
took the part of Chatterton, a^nd was^ among the first who 
questioned the authenticity of the poems ascribed to Row-p 
ley. This he discussed in some letters inserted in the Gen- 
tleman's Magazine. Of course he was led to admire the 
wonderful powers of the young impostor, and in his XXIst 
ode pays a poetical tribute to his memory, in which, with 
others of bis brethren at that time, be censures the unfeel- 
ing rich for depriving their country of a new Shakspeare 
or Milton. 

These, however, were bis amusements ; the more valu* 
able part of his time was devoted to such public business as 
is ever best conducted by men of his pure and independent 
character. He gave regular attendance at tumpike-meetr 
ings, navigation trusts, and commissions of land tax*, and 
proposed and carried various schemes of local improvement, 
particularly the fine road between Ware and Hertford, and 
some useful alterations in the streets of Ware. Among his 
neighbours he frequently, by a judicious interference or 
arbitration, checked that spirit of litigation which destroys 
the felicity of a country life. During the meritorious em- 
ploym);nts of bis public and political life, it can only be 
imputed to him that in his zeal for the principles he es- 
poused, he sometimes betrayed too great warmth ; and in 

* When once asked whether he wos that an oath and an affirmative are sub- 
in the commisiion of the peace, he stanlially the same, and thai the mode 
answered without hesitation that his of appeal to the Searcher of hearts is 
principal objection to Ukingr the oath, of little consequence, thbugh he cer- 
was the offence which it would give to tainly preferred the latter. Monthly 
ik£ SocUty, His own opinion was, Re?icit TOl. VII. N. S. p. 257. 



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SCOTT. 281 

answering Dr. Johnson^s pamphlets, it has been allowed 
that he made use of expressions which would better become 
those who did not know the worth of that excellent cha<« 
racter. 

In 1778, he published a work of great labour and uti- 
lity, entitled *' A Digest of the Highway and general Turn- 
pike laws.'' In this compilation, Mr. Hoole informs us, 
all the acts of parliament in force are collected together, 
and placed in one point of view; their contents are ar-r 
ranged under di^^tinct heads, with the addition of many 
notes, and an appendix on the construction and preserva- 
tion of public roads, probably the only scientific treatise on 
the subject. ^ A part of this work appeared in 1773, under 
the title of a '" Digest of the Highway Laws." In the 
spring of 1782, he published what he had long projected, a 
volume of poetry, including his elegies, Amwell, and a 
great variety of hitherto unpublished pieces. On this vo« 
lume it ^s evident he bad bestowed great pains, and added 
the decorations of some beautiful engravings. A very fa^ 
Tourable account was given of the whole of its contents in 
the Monthly Review; but the Critical having taken some 
personal liberties with the authx}r, hinting that the orna-> 
ments were not quite suitable to the plainness and simpli- 
city of a quaker, Mr. Scott thought proper to publish a let- 
ter addressed to the authors of that journal, in which he 
expostulated with them on their conduct, and defended his 
poetry. Every friend, however, must wish he had passed 
pver their strictures in silence. His defence of bis poetry 
betrays bim into the error of which he complained, and we 
see far more of the conceited egotist than could have been 
supposed to belong to his simple and humble character. 

After this contest, he began to prepare a work of the 
critical kind. He had been dissatisfied with some of Dr. 
Johnson's Lives of the Poets, and had amassed in the course 
of his own reading and reflection, a number of observations 
on Denham, Milton, Pope, Dyer, Goldsmith, and Thom- 
son, which he sent to the press, under the title of " Cri- 
tical Essays," but did not live to publish them. On the 
25tb of October 1783, he accompanied Mrs. Scott to Lon- 
don for the benefit of medical advice for a complaint under 
which she laboured at that time ; but on the 1st of Decem- 
ber, while at his house at RadclifF, he was attacked by a 
putrid fever, which proved fatal on the 12th of that month, 
and he was interred on the I8ih in the Quaker burying- 



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t«2 ^ SCOTT. 

ground at RadcUff. He had arrived at his fifty-foarth year, 
ind left behind a widow and a daughter, their only child, 
then about six years old. His death was the more lament- 
ed as he was in the vigour of life, and had the prospect of 
many years of usefulness. *' In his person he was tall and 
slender, but his limbs were remarkably strong kuA muscu- 
lar : he was very active, and delighted much in the exer- 
cise of walking ; his countenance was cheerful and ani- 
mated." The portrait prefixed to his works is not a very 
correct! likeness, nor was he himself satisfied with it. 

His public and private character appears to have been in 
every respect worthy of imitation, but what his religious 
opinions were, except that he cherished a general reve- 
rence for piety, is somewhat doubtful. Professedly, he 
was one of the society called Quakers, but the paper which 
that society, or some of his relations, thought it necessary 
to publish after his death, seems to intimate that in their 
opinion, and finally in his own, his practice had not in all 
respects been consistent. 

His •* Critical Essays" were published in 1785 by Mr. 
Hoole, who prefixed a life written with much affection, yet 
with impartiality. As a poet, Mr. Scott seems to rank 
among those who possess genius in a moderate degree, who 
please by short eflPorts and limited inspirations, but whose 
talents are better displayed in moral reflection and pathetic 
sentiment than flights of fancy. His " Elegies,'* as they 
were the first, are among the best of his performances. 
Simplicity appears to have been his general aim, and be 
was of opinion that it was too little studied by modern 
writers. In the " Mexican prophecy,'* however, and in " 
•* Serim," there is a fire and spirit worthy of the hig^st 
school. His " Amwell" will ever deserve a distinguished 
place among descriptive poems, but it is liable to all the 
objections attached to descriptive poetry. His feeblest 
eftbrt is the *^ Essay on Painting," a hasty sketch, in which 
he professed himself, and that not in very humble terms, 
lo be the rival of Hayley. Upon the whole, however, the 
vein of pious and moral reflection, and the benevolence 
and philanthropy which pervade all his poems, will con- 
tinue to make them acceptable to those who read to be im- 
proved, and are of opinion that pleasure is not the sole end 
of poetry.' 

* Ltfe.by Btr. HooIe.--£iisIuh Pottt, IBIO, new edit, 31 Tolf. Sto. 



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8 C O T. SIS 

SCOT (Michael), of Balwirie, a learned Scotch author 
of the fifteenth century, made the tour of France and Ger* 
many, and was received with some di^tini^tion at the court 
^of the emperor Frederick II. Having travelled enough to 
gratify his curiosity, he returned to Scotland, and gave 
himself up to study and contemplation. He was skilled in 
languages; and, considering the age in which he livedo 
was no mean proficient in philosophy, mathematics, and 
medicine. He translated into Latin from the Arabic^ the 
history of animals by the celebrated physician Aricenna. 
He published the whole works of Aristotle, with notes, and 
affected much to reason on the principles of that great phi- 
losopher. He wrote a book concerning *^ The Secrets of 
Nature," and a tract on ^The nature of the Sun and Moon,'* 
in which he shews his belief in the philosopher's stone. 
He likewise published what he called ^<Mensa Philoso- 
phica,^* a treatise replete with astrology and chiromancy. 
He was much admired in his day, and was CTen suspected 
of magic, and had Roger Bacon and Cornelius Agrippa 
for his panegyrists.' 

SCOT (RfiYNOLDE), a learned English gentleman, vras 
a younger son of sir John Scot, of Scot*s-hall, near Smeeth 
in Kent, where he was probably born ; and, at about seyen- 
teen, sent to Hart-ball, in Oxford. He retired to his native 
country without taking a degree, and settled at Smeeth ; 
and, marrying soon after, gave himself up solely to read- 
ing, to the perusing of obscure authors, which had by*the 
generality of scholars been neglected, and at times of lei- 
sure to husbandry and gardening. In 1576, he published 
a second edition, for we know nothing of the first, of ^^ A 
perfect platform of a Hop-garden,'' ke, in 4to ; and, in 
i584, another work, which shewed the great depth of hit 
researches, and the uncommon extent of his learning, en- 
titled ** The Discoverie of Witchcraft," &c. reprinted in 
1651, 4to, with this title: •* Scot's Discovery of Witch- 
craft ; proving the common opinion of witches contracting 
with devils, spirits, familiars, and their power to kill, tor- 
roent, and consume, the bodies of men, women, and chil- 
dren, or other creatures, by diseases or otherwise, their 
flying in the air, &c. to be but imaginary erroneous concep- 
tions and novelties. Wherein also the practices of witch- 
mongers, conjurors, inchanters, soothsayers, also the de« 

1 Encycl. Britoimicaw^Madieasie'f Lives. 

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28* SCOT.. 

lusiont of astrology, alchemy, legerdemain, and many other 
tbings, are opened, that have long lain hidden, though 
very necessary to be known for the undeceiving of judges, 
justices, and juries, and for the preservation of poor peo- 
ple, &c. With a treatise upon the nature of spirits and 
devils,'* &c. In the preface to the reader he declares, that 
bis design in this undertaking, was ^^ first, that the glory 
of God be not so abridged and abased, as to be thrust into 
the hand or lip of a lewd old woman, whereby the work of 
the Creator should be attributed to the power of a crea- 
ture : secondly, that the religion of the gospel may be seen 
to stand without such peevish trumpery : thirdly, that fa- 
vour and Christian compassion be rather used, towards 
these poor souls, than rigour and extremity,** &c. 

A doctrine of this nature, advanced, in an age when the 
reality of witches was so universally believed, that even 
the great bishop Jewel, touching upon the subject in a 
sermqn before queen Elizabeth, could ^* pray God they 
might never practise farther than upon the subject,*' 'ex- 
posed the author to every species of obloquy and persecu- 
tion ; and accordingly Voetius, a foreign divine, informs 
us in his ♦* Disput. Theolog.*' vol. III. p. 564, though Wood 
says nothing of it, that his book was actually burnt It 
was also opposed, and, as it should seem, by great autho- 
rity too : for, James I. in the preface to his ** Demono- 
logie," printed first at Edinburgh in 1597, and afterwards 
at London in 1603, observes, that he *< wrote that book 
chiefly against the damnable opinions of Wierus and Scott; 
the latter of whom is not ashamed," the king says, ** in 
public iH'int to deny, that there can be such a thing as 
witchcraft, and so maintains the old error t)f the Sadducees 
in the denying of spirits,** an inference which by no means 
follows from Scot's premises. Dr. John Raynolds, in his 
" Prselectiones upon the Apocrypha,** animadverts on se- 
veral passages in Scot's " Discovery ;" Meric Casaubou 
treats \him as an illiterate person; and Mr. Joseph Glanvil, 
one of the greatest advocates for witchcraft, affirms, that 
" Mr. Scot doth little but tell odd tales and silly legends, 
nvbich he confutes and laughs at, and pretends this to be a 
coiifutation of the being of v^ itches and apparitions; in all 
which bis reasonings are trifling and childish ; and, when 
be ventures at philosophy, he is little better than absurd." 
Scot did not live to see the full effects of his endeavours to 
abate the prejudices of the times^ nor could this indeed be 



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SCOT. 2S6 

the work of a single band, contending against the king on 
the throne^ many very learned men, almost the whole body 
of the people, and what was the last to yield, the statute* 
law of the land. His work, however, was reprinted in 1651, 
4to, and in 1665, folio, with additions, and was translated 
into German. 

This sensible, learned, upright, and pious man (for we 
know that he possessed the two first of these qualities, and 
be is universally allowed to have had also the two last) died 
in 1599, and was buried among his ancestors in the 
church at Smeeth. ' 

SCOT, alias ROTHERAM (Thomas), a munificent 
benefactor to Lincoln college, Oxford, was born at Rother- 
am, in Yorkshire, from whence he took bis name, but that 
of his family appears to have been Scot. He rose by his 
talents and learning to the highest ranks in church and 
state, having been successively fellow of King's college, 
Cambridge, master of Pembroke Hall, chancellor of that 
university, prebendary of Sarnm, chaplain to king Edward 
IV. provost of Beverley, keeper of the Privy Seal, secre- 
tary to four kings, bishop of Rochester and Lincoln, arch- 
bishop of York, and lord chancellor. His buildings at 
Cambridge, Whitehall, Southwell, and Thorp, are eminent 
proofs of his magnificent taste and spirit 

He was promoted to the see of Lincoln in 1471, and we 
learn from his preface to his bodv of statutes, that a visit 
through his diocese, in which Ox/ord then was, proved the 
occasion of his liberality to Lincoln college. On his ar- 
rival there, in 1474, John Tristroppe, the third rector of 
that society, preached the visitation sermon from Psalm 
Ixxx. 14, 15. <^ Behold and visit this vine, and the vine- 
yard which thy right hand baih planted, &c." In this 
discourse, which, as usual, was delivered in Latin, the 
preacher addressed his particular requests to the bishop, 
exhorting him to complete his college, now imperfect and 
defective both in btiildij^gs and government. Rotheram is 
said to have been so well pleased with the application of 
the text and subject, tlKtt he stood up and declared that he 
would do what was desired. Accordingly, besides what he 
contributed to the buildings, he increased the number of 
fellows from seven to twelve, and gave them the livings of 
of Twyford in Buckinghamshire, and Long Combe in 

» Ath. t>M. Tol. I.— Oldy9»s Librafiao, p. «13.— See his epitaph oo JSir Tb6m«t 
Scot, ia Peck'i Cromwell CoJleclions, p. 28.— Geu. Diet. 

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d66 SCOT. 

Oifordtfaijre. He formed also 10,1479, a body of statutes^ 
io which, after noticing with an apparent degree of dis- 
pleasure, that although Oxford was in the diocese of Lin- 
coln, no college had yet made provision for the natives of 
that diocese, be enjoined that the rector should be of the 
diocese of Lincoln or York, and the fellows or scholars 
should be persons born in the dioceses of Lincoln and 
York, and one of Wells, with a preference, as to those 
from the diocese of York, to his native parish of Rotheraqa. 
This prelate died in 1500 at Cawood, and was buried in 
the Chapel of St Mary, under a marble tomb which he 
bad built. ^ 

SCOUGAL (Henry), an eminent Scotch divinej and 
second son of Patrick Scougal, bishop of Aberdeen, wa» 
born June 1650, at Salton, in l!)ast Lothian, where bis 
father, the immediate predecessor of Bishop Burnet, waa 
rector. His father, designing him for the sacred ministry, 
watched over his infant mind with peculiar care, and soon 
bad the satisfaction of perceiving the most amiable dispo- 
sitions bnfold themselves, and his understanding rise at 
once into the vigour of manhood. Relinquishing tbe 
amusemients of youth, young Scougal applied to his studies 
with ardour: and, agreeably to bis father's wish, at an 
early period directed his thoughts to sacred literature. 
He perused the historical parts of the bible with peculiar 
pleasure, and then began to examine its contents more 
minutely. He was struck with the peculiarities of the 
Jewish dispensation, and felt an anxiety to understand why 
its rites and ceremonies were abolished. Tbe nature and 
evidences of the Christian religion also occupied bis mind. 
He perused sermons with much attention, committed to 
writing those passages which most affected him, and cbuld 
comprehend and remember their whole scope. Nor was be 
inattentive to polite literature. He read the Roman claa- 
»ics, and made considerable proficiency iii the Greek, 
Hebrew, and other oriental lai^gi^ges. He was also well 
versed in history and mathematics. His diversions were of 
a manly kind. After becoming acquainted with Roman 
bistory, he formed, in concert witb some of his companions, 
a little senate, where orations of their own composition were 
delivered. 

At the age of fifteen be entered the university, where 

> Wooa'a Coltegef and HaHs.*— Chalmen's Uitt. orOtford^ 



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& C O U' G A L. 281 , 

he behsved with great modesty; •obriety, and diligence* 
He disliked the philosophy then taught, and applied him- 
self to the study of natural philosophy : and ia conse* 
quence of this, when he was only about eighteen years of 
age, he wroie the reflections and short essays since pub* 
lisbed : which, though written in his youth, and some of 
them left unfinished, breathe a derotioti, which shows 
that his mind was early impressed with the most important 
concerns of human life. In all the public meetings of the 
students he was unanimously chosen president, and bad a 
singular deference paid to bis judgment. No sooner had 
be flnished his courses, than be was promoted to a profes* 
sorship in the university of Aberdeen, where he conscien- 
tiously performed his duty in training up the youth under 
bis care in such principles of religion and learning as might ' 
render them ornaments to cbarcb and state. When any 
divisions and animosities happened in the society, be was 
yery instrumental in reconciling and bringing them to « 
good understanding. He maintained his authority among 
the students in such a way as to keep them in awe, and at 
the same time to gain their love and esteem. Sunday 
evenings were spent with his scholars in discoursing of, 
and encouraging religion in principle and practice. He 
allotted a considerable part of his yearly income for the 
poor ; and many indigent families of different persuasions^ 
^ere relieved in their di6icu)ties by his bounty, althougb 
so secretly that they knew not whence their supply came. 

Having been a professor of philosophy for four years, 
he was at the age of twenty-three admitted into holy orders, 
and settled at Anchterless, a small village about twenty 
miles from Aberdeen. Here bis zeal and aliility in his 
great Master's service were eminently displayed. He. 
catechised with great pliunness and affection, and used the 
Biost endearing methods to recommend religion to his 
bearers. He endeavoured to bring them to a close attend- 
ance on public worship, aiul joined with them himself at 
the beginning of it. He revived the use of lectures, look- 
ing upon it as very edifying to comment upon and expound 
kkrge portions of scripture. In the tvventy--fifth year of his 
age, he was appointed professor of divinity in the King^ 
college, Aberdeen, which be at first declined, but whet* 
induced to accept it, be applied himself with zeal and dili- 
gence to the exercise of this oflSce. After he had guarded 
his pupils against the common artifices of the Romish mis- 



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St8 9 C O U G A L. 

sionaries in making proselytes, be proposed tvro sutijeets 
for public exercise : tbe one^ of tbe pastoral care, the 
otber, of casuistical divinity. 

Tbe inward dispositions of this excellent mati are best 
seen in bis writings, to which bis pious and biareeless life 
was wholly conformable. His days, however, were soon 
numbered : in tbe twenty-seventh year of his age, be fell 
into a consumption, which wasted him by slow degrees : 
but during tbe whole time of his sickness he behaved with 
the utmost resignation, nor did he ever shew tbe least im- 
patience. He died June 20, 1678, in the twenty ^-eighth 
year of bis age, and was buried in King's college church, 
in Old Aberdeen. His principal work is entitled <^ Tbe 
l4fe of God in tbe Soul of Mao,** which has undergone 
many editions, and has been thought alike valuable for tbe 
sublime spirit of piety which it breathes, and for tbe purity 
and elegance of its style. He left bis books to the library 
of bis college, and 6ve thousand marks to the office of pro- 
fessor of divinity. He composed a form of morning and 
evening service for the cathedral church of Aberdeen, 
which may be seen in Orem's ** Description of the Cha- 
nonry of Old Aberdeen," printed in No. 3 of tbe " Biblio- 
theca. Topograpbica Britannica.** His treatise on the 
*' Life of God,*' &c. was first printed in his life-time by 
bishop Burnet about 1677, without a name, which the 
author's modesty studiously concealed. It went through- 
several subsequent editions, and was patronised by the 
society for promoting Christian knowledge, and was re- 
printed in 1726 with the addition of '< Nine discourses on 
important subjects," by the same author, and his funeral 
sermon, by Dr. G. G. * 

SCRIBONIUS (l^aous), a Roman physician, lived in 
tbe reigo of Claudius, and is said to have accompanied this 
emperor in bis campaign in Britain. He wrote a treatise 
" De Compositione Medicamentorum," which is very often 
quoted by Galen, but was pillaged by Marcellus tbe em- 
piric, according to Dr: Freind. At a time when it was the 
practice gf many physicians to keep their compositions 
secret, Scribonius published his, and expressed great con- 
fidence in their efficacy ; but many of them are trifling, 
and founded in superstition, apd bis language is so inferior 
to that of his age, that some have supposed be wrote bis 

' Bibl. Topog. Britan. — and Encyclop. Britannica. 



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U* R 1 6 O K I V fi. fi8» 

irotk in Greeks and that it was translated into Latin by 
•ome l^cr band : but Freind and others seem of a 
different opinion. The treatise of Scribonius has been 
•eveial times reprinted, and stands among the ^<^ Medica 
Artis Principes" of Henry Stephens, 1567.* 
• SCRIMZEOR (H£NRY>, one of the most learned men 
of the sixteenth century, was born at Dubdee in Scotland^ 
in 1506, and after, making great progress in the Greek and 
Latin languages at the grammar school of that place, studied 

* philosophy at St. Andrew*d university with equal success^ 
He afterwards studied civil law at Paris and Bourges. At 
this latter city be became acquainted with the Greek pro^ 
feMor, James Amiot, who recommended him to be tutor to 
two young gentlemen; and this served also to introduce hint 
to Bernard Bornetel, bishop of Rennes, a celebrated politi- 
cal character, who invited Mr. Scrimzeorto accompany 
bim to Italy. There he became acquainted with the most 

^ distinguished scholars of the country. The death of the 
noted Francis Spira* happened during his visit at Padua, 
and as the character and conduct of this remarkable person 
at that time engaged the attention of the world, Mr. 
Scrimzeor is said to have collected memoirs of him, whicb^ 
however, does not appear in the catalogue of his works. 

After he had stored his mind with the literature of foreign 
countries,^ and siLtisBed his curiosity as a traveller, it was 
bis intention to have revisited Scotland ; but, on bis jour* 
ney homeward, through Geneva, the syndics and other 
Magistrates requested him to set up the profession of phi- 
losophy in that city ; promising a suitable compensation. 
He accepted the proposal, and established the philosophical 

* Francis Spin was a lawyer of great plied. Shortly after be fell into a 
reputation at Cittadelta in the Venetian deep melancholy, lost his healthy and 
StatOyat the beginning of the sixteenth was remoTed to Padua for the ad- 
century. He |wd imbibed the prin- vice of physioiaas aad diriBOs; but 
ciples of the Reformation, and was ac« his disorders augmented. The re* 
cused before John de la Casa, arch* cantation, which he said he had mada 
bbhop of BeneventOy tha pope's nua- from cowardice and interest. Oiled bis 
cio at Venice. He made some con- mind with continual horror and ronoraa^ 
cessions, and asked pardon of the pa- and no means being found to restora 
pal miaister for bis errors. But the either bis bealtli or peace of mind, ba 
nuncio insisted upoa a public recanta- fell a victim to bis miserable sitoatioa 
lion. Spira was exceedingly averse to in 1548.— Collier's Diet. art. Spinu 
Ihiajaeasure; but at the pressing in- There have been many editions of a 
ataocet of bis wifo and his friends, who « Life of Spira'' published in fingUa4 
represented to bim, that be most loae and Scotlaad, ai a •* waraing to apofr> 
Ms practice and ruin his affairs by utes." 
parsistiag against it, bo at last com- 

» Prmad*s Biit. of Physic.— Hoy l>iot Hiit 

Vol. XXVII. U 



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190 SCRIMZEOIt 

chair ; but after he had taught for some tia)e at GenetSi a 
fire broke out in his neighbourhoodi by which his boim 
was ^consumedy and he himself reduced to great distress^ 
At this time flourished at Augsburg that famooft mercantile 
family, the Fuggers. Ulric Fugger» iu.then representa- 
tive, a man possessed of prodigious wealdi, and a munifl* 
cent patron of learned men, having heard of the misfor^ 
tune which had befallen Mr. Scrimzeor^ immediately sent 
him a pressing invitation to accept an asylum beneath his 
roof till his affairs could be re-established. Mr. Scrimzeor, 
gladly availing himself of such a hospitable kindness^ lost no 
time in going to Germany. 

Whilst residing at Augsburg with Mr. Fugger, be was 
much employed in augmenting his patron*s library by vast 
collections, purchased from every comer of Europe, par-* 
ticularly manuscripts of the Greek and Latin authors. He 
also composed many works of great learning and ingenuity, 
whilst he continued in a situation so peculiarly agreeable 
to the views apd habits of a scholar ; and when he was de-* 
sirous of returning to Geneva to print them, Fugger re* 
commended him, for this purpose, to the- very learned 
Henry Stephens, one of his pensioners* 

Immediately on bis arrival at Geneva, 1563,. he was 
earnestly solicited by the magistrates to resume the chair 
of philosophy. With this he complied, and notwithstand-* 
ing the dedication of much of his time to the study of phy-» 
sics, he, two years afterwards, instituted a course of lectures 
in the civil law, and had the honour of being its first pro^ 
fessor at Geneva. Being now settled here, he intended 
to have printed his various works, but a suspicion which 
Henry Stephens entertained, that it was his intention to 
set up a rival press at Geneva, occasioned great dissentions 
between them. The result of the dispute was, that almost 
all Scrinizeor's publications were posthumous. Among 
them are critical and explanatory notes upon Athenaeus's 
<* Deipnosophists," published by Isaac Casaobon at Ley- 
den in 1600, but without distinguishing his own notes from 
those of Scrimzeor ; also a commentary and emendation9 
of Strabo, which were published in Casaubon's edition of 
that geographer, 1G20, but likewise without acknowledging 
the Assistance he derived from Scrimzeor, Scrimzeor col* 
lated different manuscripts of all the works of Plutarch| 
probably with a view to an edition of that author, and also 
the ten books of Diogenes Laertius on'^the livai of the phi-^ 



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S C K I M 2 E O IL 891 

losophers. His corrected text of this author, witt) notes 
full of erudition, came into Casaubon's possession, and is 
supposed to have contributed much to the value of bis 
Addition of Laertius, printed at Paris in 1593. The works 
of Pbomutus and Palaepbatus were also among the colla- 
tions of Mr. Scrimzeot. To the latter of these authors he 
made such considerable additions that the work became 
partly his own. The manuscripts of both these were for 
tome time preserved in the library of sir Peter Youngs after 
that of his uncle Scrimzeor, which was brought into Scot- 
land in 1573, had been added to it What became of this 
valuable bequest at the death of the former, is not known. 
Our learned philologer left also behind him, in manuscript, 
the orations of Demosthenes^ ^schines, and Cicero, and the 
Ecclesiastical History of Eusebius^ all carefully collated ; 
and among his literary remains was a collection of his 
Latin epistles. But of the many performances which had 
exercised his pen, it does not appear that any were pub- 
lished by himself but his translation of <^ Justinian's Novels'* 
into Greek. This was printed at Paris in 1558, and again 
with Holoander's Latin version at Antwerp in 1575. This 
work has been highly extolled both for the purity of . its 
language and the accuracy of its execution. He wrotd 
also a Latin translation of " The Basilica,'' or Basilics, a 
collection of Roman Laws, which the Eastern emperors 
. Basil and Leo, who reigned in the fifth century, com-^ 
manded to be translated into Greek, and which preserved 
their authority till the dissolution of the Eastern empire. 

Almost the whole of his life, although he arrived at old 
)Sge, was spent in his library. The time of his death is 
uncertain ; but it appears most likely, from a comparison 
of different accounts,' that it happened very near the ex- 
piration of 1571, or at the beginning of the succeeding 
year, about the sixty-sixth yearof his age. He died in the 
city of Geneva^ 

SCRIVERIUS, or SCHRYVER (Peter), a consider- 
able philologer and poet, was bom at Harlem in 1576. 
He was educated at Harlem and at Leyden, where he read 
law in his early days, but devoted himself afterwards to a 
private and studious life, which ended April 30, 1660, in 
the eighty.fonrth year of his age. His works are : <« Ba-" 

* MaokMiiet Scolck WrtUri, ? ol. lI.^Lif« bj Mr. Lcttiot^ la Bmp. Magi 
Ibr 1795. 

% 



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IM S C R I V E R I U 8. 

tavia illustratt.** ^< Btta?is comituoiq. omnium Histbria.'* 
<* MiscelUaea Pbilologica.'* " Carmina Latina & Belgica.*' 
<< Populare HoUandias Cbronicon/' << CoUecUnea Vete* 
ram Trtgicorum.'* He likewise corrected the copy of 
<^ Vegetius/' and enlarged and wrote notes upon Aquilius's 
*' Cfaronicon Geldricum ;*' and was tbe author or editor of 
various other works, classical and historical.* 

SCUDERr (George de), a French writer of eminence 
in bis day, was descended from an ancient and noUe 
family of Apt in Provence, and born at Havre-de-Grace 
in 1603. He spent part of his jTouth at Apt, and after<* 
wards came and settled at Paris, where at first be subsisted 
by the efforts of bis pen,' particularly in poetry, and dra* 
matic pieces, none of which are jiow in any ^timation, 
and we may, therefore, be spared the trouble of giving 
their titles* In 1627 be published observations upon tbe 
^* CidV of Comeille, with a view of making his court to 
cardinal Richelieu, who was absurdly envious of that great 
poet, and did every thing he could to oppose tbe vast re- 
putation and success of the ^< Cid :^' and by his influence 
alone enabled even such .a man as Scuderi <' to balance,^* 
aa Voltaire says, ^^ for some time, tbe reputation of Cor* 
Beille.*^ Scuderi was received a member of the academy 
ill 1650. He had before been made governor of the castle 
of Notre- Dame de la Garde, in Provence; and although 
this was a situation of very little profit, Scuderi, who waa 
still more vain than indigent, gave a pompous description * 
of it in a poem, which drew upon bim tbe raillery of Cha- 
pelle and Bachaumont. Scuderi died at Paris, May 14, 
1667, leaving a name now better known than bis works.* 

SCUDERI (Magdeleine de), sister of the preceding, 
and his superior in talents, was born at Havre-de-Grace iu 
1607, and became very eminent for her wit and her wri-' 
tings. She went early to Paris, whe^re she gained admis- 
sion into the assemblies of learning and fashion. Having 
recourse, like her brother, to the pen, she gratified tbe taste 
of tbe age for romances, by various- productions of thkt 
kind, which were very eagerly read, and even procured 
her literary honours. The celebrated academy of the 
Ricovrati at Padua complimented her with a place in their 
society ; and some great personages showed their regard 

i Foppen Bibl Bdg.^Sasii OoomMt 

» Mowi — Diet. Hiit— Nictron, vol. XV.^Voltairt'i Sieclt de XxwiiXlY. 



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8CUDERI. * .9as 

fhj preteBts, and other iDarks of etteem. Th« prince of 
Paderboni) .bishop of Monsteri sent her his works and a 
medal ; and Christina of Sweden often wrote to her, set- 
tled on her a pension, and sent her her picture. Cardinal 
Mazarin left her an annuity by hb will : and Lewis XIV. 
in 1683, at the solicitation of M. de Maintenon, settled 
a good pension upon her^ which was punctually paid. 
His majesty also appointed her a special audience to receive 
her acknowledgments, and paid her some very flattering 
compliments. She had an extensive correspondence with 
men of learning and wit : and her house at Paris was the 
rendezvous of all who would be thought to patronize ge* 
nius. She died in 1701, aged 94; and two churches con- 
tended for the honour of possessing her remains, which 
was thought a point of so much consequence, that nothing 
less than the authority of the cardinal de Noailles, to whom 
the affiur was referred, was sufficient to decide it. She 
was a very voluminous writer as well as her brother, but of 
more merit ; and it is remarkable of this lady, that she ob- 
tained the first prize of eloquence founded by the acade- 
my. There i^ much common-place panegyric upon her 
in the ^^ Menagiana,** from the personal regard Menage 
had for her : but her merits are better settled by Boileau, 
in the ** Discours^* prefixed to his dialogue entitled ** Lea 
Hero des Roman.** Her principal works are, ^^ Artamene, 
ou le Grand Cyrus," 1650, 10 vols. 8 vo; « Clelie,'* 1660, 
10 vols. 8vo; *< Celanire, ou la Promenade de Versailles,'* 
1698, 12mo; <^ Ibrahim, ou Plllustre Bassa," 1641, 4 vols. 
8vo; ^^ Almahide, ou TEsclave Reine,*' 1660, 8 vols. 8 vo; 
** Celine," 1661, 8 vo; «* Mathilde d'Aguilar,** 1667, 8vo; 
'^ Conversations et Entretiens," 10 vols. &c. These last 
conversations are thought the best of Mad. Scuderi's works^ 
but there was a time when English translations of her prdix 
romances were read. What recommended them to the 
French public was the traits of living characters which she 
occasionally introduced^ ' 

SCULTETUS (Abraham), an eminent protestant di- 
vine, was born at Grumb^rg in Silesia, Aug. 24, 1556, and 
after having studied there till 1582, was sent to Breslaw to 
continue his progress in the sciences. He was recalled 
soon after, his &Uier, who had lost all his fortune in the 
fire o^ Grunberg, being no longer able to maintain him at 

* NicffOP, f «l. XV.--Dict. Bin. 



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i94 S C U L T E T U 8. 

the coUegdi and therefore intending to bring him np Iq 
some trade. The young man was not at all pleased with 
such a proposal ; and looked out for th|e place of a tutor, 
which he feund in the family of a burgomaster of Freistad, 
and this gave him an opportunity of hearing the sermons of 
Melancthon and of Abraham Bucholtzer. In 1584 be 
took a journey into Poland, and went to Gorlitz in Lusatia 
the year following, and resided there above two fesLrSf 
constantly attending the public lectures, and reading pri** 
vate lectures to others. He employed himself in the same 
manner in the university of Wittemberg in 1588 and 1589, 
and afterwards in that of Heidelberg till he was admitted 
into the church in 1594. He officiated in a village of the 
palatinate for some months ; after which he was sent for 
by the elector palatine to be one of bis preachers. In 
1598 he was appointed pastor of the church of St. Fraucist 
at Heidelberg, an4 two years after was made a member of 
the ecclesiastical senate. He was employed several times^ 
in visiting the churches and schools of the palatinate, 
and among these avocations wrote some works, which re- 
quired great labour. He attended the prince of Anhalt to 
the war at Juliers in 1610, and applied himself with great 
prudence and vigilance tb the re-settlement of the affiiirs of 
'the reformed church in those parts. He attended Fre- 
deric V. prince palatine into England in 1612, and con- 
tracted an acquaintance with the most learned men of that 
kingdom, but Wood speaks of his having icesided some 
time at Oxford in 1598. He took a journey to Branden-. 
burg in 1614, the elector John Sigismond, who was about 
renouncing Lutheranism, being desirous of concerting 
measures with him with respect to that change ; and on his 
.return to Heidelberg he accepted the place of court- 
preacher, which he relinquished when appointed pro- 
fessor of divinity in 1618. He was deputed soon after to 
the synod of Dort, wfiere he endeavoured at first to pro- 
cure a reconciliation of the contending parties ; but finding 
nothing of that kind was to be expected, he opposed vi- 
gorously the doctrines of the Arminians. He preached at 
Francfort the year following during the electoral diet held 
there, his master having appointed him preacher to the 
deputies whom he sent thither. He also attended that 
prince in his journey into Bohemia ; and retiring into Sile- 
sia after the fatal battle of Prague, resolved to return to 
^eidelberg in order to discbarge the functions of his pro- 



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S C U L T E T U S. 395 

fessoirriup there ; but the fury of the war having dispersed 
the students, he went to Bretten, and afterwards to Schorn- 
dorf in the country of Wirtemberg, whence be removed to 
Embden in Angast IB22. The king of Bohemia bis mas- 
ter had consented that the city of Embden should offer 
Scuhetus the place of preacher, but be did mot enjoy it 
very long; for he died October the 24'tb, 1625. 

The principal works of this learned divine, who,. as Fre« 
her says, was reckoned another Chrysostom, are, 1. ^ Con- 
futatio disputationis Baronii de baptismo Constantini,^ 
vNeost. 1607, 4to« 2. ^^ Annates Evangelii per Europam 
15 Seculi renovati, Decad. I et 2,** Heidelberg, 1618, 8vo, 
In these annals of the reformation he hi^s shown himself a 
very candid and credible historian. 3. ^^ Aziomata con- 
cionandi/' Han. 1619, 8vo. 4. <^ bbservationes in Pauli 
Epistolas ad Timotheum, Titum, et Philemonem.*' 5. *^ Me- 
dulla Patrum," 1634, 4to. So indefatigable was bis ap- 
plication, that he wrote the following lines over his study 
door : 

Amice: quisquis hue venis^ ^ 

Aut agito paucis> aut abi: 

Aut me laborantem adjuva.^ 

SCULTETU8, or SCULTZ (John)^ a distinguished 
surgeon, was born in 1595, at Ulm, and studied medicine 
at Padua, where he took his degrees in that faculty iti 1621. 
On bis return to his native city, he practised with great 
reputation for twenty years, until being called to Stutgard 
to a patient, he was there attacked with a fit of apoplexy, 
which terminated his life Dec^ipber 1, 1645. He appears 
to have practised surgery extensively, ^nd with great bold- 
. ness in the operations of bronchotomy, of the trephine, and 
for empyema. His principal work is entitled ** Armamen- 
tarium Chirurgicum, 43 tabulis sere incisis ornatum ;" and 
was published after his deathj at Ulm, in 1653. It subse- 
quently passed through many editions, and was translated 
into most of the European languages.' 

SCYLAX, an ancient mathematician and geographer, 
, was a native of Caryanda, in Caria, and is noticed by He- 
rodotus, and by Suidas, who, however, has evidently con- 
founded different persons of the same name. There is a 
Periplus which still remains, bearing the name of Scylax, 
and which is a brief survey of the countries along the. shores 

> Freheri Thtatriiia,*-6to. Diet. « Eloy !>«*• HUt. de Mtdibuie. 

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99$ 8, C Y L A X 

of the MediterraDean tnd Euxine seas^ together with pert 
of the western coast of Africa surveyed by Hanno ; but it 
seems doubtful to what Scylax it belongs. This Periplui 
has come down to us in a corrupted state : it was first pub^ 
lished from a palatine MS by Hoeschelius and others in 
1600. It was afterwards edited by Isaac Vossius in 1639; 
by Hudson in 1698^ and by Gronovius in 1700.' 

SCYLITZA, orSCYLITZES (John), called also Cu- 
ROPALATES, from an oflSce be held in the household of the 
emperor of that name, was a Greek historian, known fof 
his abridgment of history from the death of Nicephorus 
Logothetes, in 811, to the deposition of Nicephorus Bote- 
niates, in 1081. This history, from 1067, is the same as 
that of Cedrenus, which has raised a doubt whether Cedre- 
nus or Scylitza was the original author. Scylitza is thought 
to have been auative qf Lesser Asia, and a prefect of the 
guards before be attained the dignity of curopalates. A 
Latin translation of his history entire, was published at Ve-f 
nice in 1570; and the part concerning which there is no 
dbpute was printed in Gr^ek and Latin conjointly with that 
author, at Paris, in 1647.* 

. SEBA (Albert), an apothecary of Amsterdam, who died 
in 1736, prepared a splendid description, with plates, of 
his own museum, in four large folio volumes, which came 
out between 1734 and 1765. His three latter volumes were 
jposthumous publications. Many Cape plants are here en- 
graved, and amongst them one of tlie genus Sebea, so called 
in honour of him. Yet Seba does not deserve to rank as a 
scientific botanist ; nor did Linnceus, who knew him, and 
by whose recommendation he employed Artedi to arrange 
his fishes, ever think him worthy to be commemorated in 4 
genus. If, however, we compare him with numbers who 
have been so commemorated, he will not appear to so much 
disadvantage ; for as a collector he stands rather high.* 

SEBASTIAN. See PIOMBO. 

SECKENDORF (Vitus Louis de), a very learned Ger^ 
man, was descended from ancient and noble families ; and 
born at Aurach, a town of Franconia, Dec 20, 1626. He 
made good use of a liberal education, and was not only a 
master of the French, Latin, Greek, and Hebrew languages, 
Ibut bad also some skill in mathematics and the sciences* 

"• Mr. I^whnrit in Athencain, vol. IV. 

• Voftiai de Hist Grsc-OiTe^ foK a— Fabric. Bibl. GiUC 

^ Rect's Cydopadia, 



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8 E C K E N D O R p. 291 

The great progress he made in his yontfa coming to the ears 
of Ernest the pious, duke of Saxe-Gotha, this prince sent 
for him from Cobourg, where he then was, to be educated 
with bis children. After remaining two years at Gotha, he 
went, in 1642, to Strasburg; but returned to Gotha in 
1646, and was made honorary librarian to the duke. In 
1651, he was made aulic and ecclesiastical counsellor; 
and, in 1663, a counsellor of state, first minister, and 
•OTereign director of the consistory. The year after, he 
went into the service of Maurice, dnke of Saxe-Zeist, as 
counsellor of state and chancellor ; and was no less regarded 
by this new master than he had been by the duke of Saxe- 
Gotha. He continued with him till his death, which hap^ 
pened in 168}; and then preferred a life of retirement, 
daring which he composed a great many works ; but Fre- 
deric III. elector of Brandenburg, again brought him into 
public life, and made him a counsellor of state and chancellor 
of the university of Halle, dignities which he did not enjoy 
long, for he died at Halle Dec. 18, 1692, in the sixty-sixth 
year of bis age. He was twice married, but had only one 
son, who survived him. Besides his knowledge of languages, 
he was learned in law, history, divinity; and is also said to 
have been a tolerable painter and engraver. Of his nume- 
rous writings, that in most estimation for its utility, was 
published at Francfort, 1692, 2 vols, folio, usnally bound 
up in one, with the tide, <* Commentarius Historicus & 
ApologeticHs de Lutheranismo, sive de Reformatione Reli- 
gionis ductu D. Martini Lutheri in magna Germania, aliis- 
que regionibus, & speciatini in Saxonia, recepta & stabi* 
lita,'' &c. This work, which is very valuable on many ac<^ 
counts, and particularly curious for several singular pieces 
and extracts that are to be found in it, still holds ito repu^ 
tation, and is referred to by all writers on the reformation.' 
SECKER (Thomas), an eminent English prelate, was 
born in 1693, at a small village called Sibthorpe^ in the 
vale of Belvoir, Nottinghamshire. His father was a Protes- 
tant dissenter, a pious, virtuous, and sensible man, who, 
having a small paternal fortune, followed no profession. 
His mother was the daughter of Mr. George Brough,, of 
Sbelton, in the county of Nottingham, a substantial gen- 
tleman farmer. He received his education at several pri- 
vate schools in the country, being obliged by various acci* 

» Nictron, voU XXlX^Moreri,«-Saxu Osonufc. 



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29S 8 E C K E IL 

dents to change bis masters frequently ; yet ai the age of 
nineteen he bad not only made a considerable progress in 
Greek and Latin, and read the best and most diflk:alt 
writers in both languages, but bad acquired a knowledge 
of French, Hebrew, Chaldee, and Syriac, had learned 
geography, logic, algebra, geometry, conic sections, and 
gone through a course of lectures on Jewish antiquities, 
and other points preparatory to the study of the Bible. At 
the same time, ill one or other of these academies, he had 
an opportunity of forming an acquaintance with several 
persons of great abilities. Among the rest, in the academy 
of Mr. Jones at Tewkesbury, he laid the foundation of a 
strict friendship with Mr. Joseph Butler, afterwards bishop 
of Durham. 

. Mr, Seeker had been designed by his father for orders 
among the dissenters. With this view, his studies were 
directed chiefly, and very assiduously, to divinity, but not 
being able to. decide lipon certain doctrines, or determine 
absolutely what communion he should embrace, he resolved 
to pursue soi^e profession, which should leave him at liberty 
to weigh these things more maturely in his thoughts, and 
therefore, about the end of 1716, he applied himself to 
the study of physic, both at London and Paris. During 
his stay at Paris, he kept up a constant correspondence 
with Mr. Butler, who was now preagber at the Rolls. Mr. 
Butler took occasion to mention his friend Mr. Seeker, 
without his knowledge, to Mr. Edward Talbot, who pro- 
mised, in case he chose to take orders in the church of 
England, to engage the bishop, his father, to provide for 
him. This was communicated to Mr. Seeker, iu a letter, 
about the beginning of May 17.20. He had not at that 
time com6 to any resolution of quitting the study of physic, 
bilt he began to foresee many obstaole&.to his pursuing that 
profession : and having never discontinued bis application 
to theology, his former difficulties, both with regard to con- 
formity, and some other doubtful points, bad gradually 
lessened, as bis judgment became stronger, and his reading 
and knowledge more extensive. It appears also from two 
of his letters from Paris, both of them prior to the date of 
Mr. Butler's communication above mentioned, that he was 
greatly dissatisfied with the divisions and disturbances which 
at that particular period prevailed among the dissenters. 
In tbis sute of mind Mr. Butler's unexpected proposal 
found him, and after deliberating carefully on the subject 



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S E C K E R. SM 

et such a change for upwards of two months, he resolved 
to embrace the offer, and for that purpose quitted France 
about July 1720. 

Mr. Talbot died a few months after his arrival in England^ 
but not without recommending Mr. Seeker^ Mr. Benson, 
and Mr. Butler, to his father's notice. Mr. Seeker having, 
notwithstanding* this loss, determined to persevere in his 
new plan, and it being judged necessary by his friends that 
be should have a dei^ree at Oxford, and he being informed 
that if he should previously take the degree of doctor in 
physic at Leyden, it would prpbably help him in obtaining 
the other, he went thither for that purpose, and took his 
degree at Leyden, March 7, 1721, and as a thesis wrote 
and printed a dissertation de viedicina statica. On his re- 
turn, be entered himself, April 1, a gentleman commoner 
of Exeter college, Oxford, about a year after which he 
obtained the degree of B. A. without any difficulty, in con«* 
sequence of a recommendatory letter from the chancellor. 
In Dec. 1722, bishop Talbot ordained him deacon, and not 
Jong after priest in St. James's church, where he preached 
his first sermon, March 28, 1723. In 1724, the bishop 
gave him the rectory of Houghton le Spring, and this va- 
luable living enabling him to settle in the world, in a man- 
ner agreeably to his inclinations, he married Oct. 2S, 1725, 
Miss Catherine Benson, sister to bishop Benson. At the 
earnest desire of both, Mrs. Talbot, widow to his friend 
Mr. Edward Talbot, and her daughter, consented to live 
with them, and the two families from that time became 
one. ' 

At Houghton Mr. Seeker applied himself with alacrity to 
all the duties of a country clergyman, omitting nothing 
which he thought could be of use to his flock. He brougl^ 
down his conversation and his sermons to the level of their 
understandings; visited them in private, catechised the 
' youirg and ignorant, received his country neighbours and 
tenanu kindly and hospitably, and was of great service to 
the poorer sort by his skill in physic, which was the only 
use he ever made of it. Though this place was in a very 
remote part of the world, yet the solitude of it perfectly 
suited his studious disposition, and the income arising from 
it bounded his ambition. Here he would have belen con- 
tent to live and die : here, as he has often been beard to 
declare, he spent some of the happiest hours of his life : 
and it was no thought or choice of his own that removed 



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.900 S E C K E R. 

bim to a higher add more public sphere. But Mrt« SeckerV 
health, which was thought to 'have been injured by the 
dampness of the situation, obUged him to-think of ezcbaag- 
ing it for a more healthy one. On this account he procured 
an exchange of Houghton for a prebend of Durham, and 
the rectory of Ry ton, in 1727 ; and for the two following 
years he lired chiefly at Durham, going over every week 
to oflBciate at Ryton, and spending there two or three 
Vionths together in the summer. In July 17S2, the duke 
of Grafton, then lord chamberlatn, appointed him chap- 
lain to the king. For this favour be was indebted to bishop 
Sherlock, who having heard him preach at Bath, thotight 
his abilities worthy of being brought forward into public 
notice. From that time an intimacy commenced betwixt 
them, and he received from that prelate many solid proofs 
of esteem and friendship. This preferment produced him 
also the honour of a conversation with queen Caroline. Mr. 
Seeker's character was now so well established, that on the 
resignation of Dr. Tyrwhit, be was instituted to the rectory 
of St. James's, May 18, 1733, and in the beginning of July 
Mrent to Oxford to uke his degree of doctor of laws, not 
being of sufficient standing for that of divinity. On this 
occasion he preached his celebrated Act sermon, on the 
advantages and duties of atademical education, which was 
printed at the desire of the heads of houses, and quickly 
passed through several editions. The queen, in a subse- 
quent interview, expressed her high opinion of this sermon, 
which was also thought to have contributed not a little to 
his promotion to the bishopric of Bristol, to which he was 
-consecrated Jan. 19, 1735. 

Dr. Seeker immediately set about the visitation of bis dio* 
cese, confirmed in a great many places, preached in several 
churches, sometimes twice a day, and from the information 
received in his progress, laid the foundation of a parochial 
account of bis diocese, for the benefit of his . successors. 
Finding at the same time, the affitirs of his parish of St. 
James's in great disorder, be took the trouble^ in concert 
with a few others, to put the accounts of the several officers 
into a regular method. He also drew up for the use of hia 
parishioners that course of ^^ Lectures on the Church Cate- 
chism," which have since been so often reprinted. ** The 
sermons," says bishop Porteus, " which he set himself to 
compose were truly excellent and original. His faculties 
were now in their full vigour^ and be had an audience to 



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E C K E R. 101 

fipeak before that rendered the utmost exertioD of them ne- 
pessary. He did not, however, seek to gratifj the higher 
part by amusing them with refined specalations or ingeni- 
ous essays, unintelligible to the lower part, and unprofita^ 
ble to both ; but he laid before them all, with equal freedom 
and plainness, the great Christian duties belonging to their 
respectire stations, and reproved the follies and vices of 
every rank amongst them without distinction or palliation.'* 
He was certainly one of the most popular preachers of .his 
time, and though, as his biographer observes, his sermons 
may not now afford the same pleasure, or produce the same 
effects in the closet, as they did from the pulpit, accompa* 
nied as they then were with all the advantages of his deli- 
very,, yet it will plainly appear th^ the applause they met 
with was founded no less on the matter they contained, 
than the manner in which they were spoken. 

On the translation of Dr. Potter to the archbishopric of 
Canterbury, Dr. Seeker was translated to the bishopric of 
Oxford, in May 1737. When the unfortunate breach hap- 
pened between the late king and the prince of Wales, bit 
highness having removed to Norfolk-house, in the parish 
of St James's, attended divine service constantly at that 
church. Two stories are told of this matter, which, al- 
though without much foundation, served to amuse the pub- 
lic for a while. The one was, that the first time the prince 
made his appearance at church, the clerk in orders, Mr/ 
Bonney, began the service with the sentence, ^^ I will arise 
and go to my father,'' &c. — The other, that Dr. Seeker 
preached from the text, <^ I^onour thy father and thy mo^ 
ther," &c. — Dr. Seeker bad the honour of baptizing all hia 
highness's children except two, and though he did not at- 
tend his court, which was forbidden to those who went to 
the king's, yet on every proper occasion he behaved with 
all the submission and respect due to his illustrious rahk. 
In consequence of this, bis influence with the prince being 
supposed much gneater than it really was, he was sent, by 
the king's direction, with a message to his royal highness ; 
which not producing the effects expected from it, he had 
the misfortune to incur his majesty's displeasure, who had 
been unhappily persuaded to think that he might have done 
more with the prince than he did, though indeed he could 
not. For this reason, and because he sometimes acted 
with those who opposed the court, the king did not speak 
^o him for a great number of years. The whole of Dn 



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Seeker's parliamentary conduct appears to have been ldyal> 
manly, and independent. His circular letter to his clergy^ 
and bis sermon on the subject of the rebellion in 1 745, rank 
• among the best and most efficacious documents of the kind 
which that melancholy event produced. In the spring of 
1748 his wife died, to whom he had now beeu marrjed up- 
wards of twenty years. 

In December 1750, he was promoted to the deanery of 
St. Paul% in exchange for the rectory' of St. Jameses and 
the prebend of Durham. Having now more leisure both to 
prosecute his own studies, and to encourage those of others^ 
he gave Dr. Church considerable assistance in his '^ first 
and second Vindication of the Miraculous powers,*' against 
Dr. Middleton, and in his ** Analysis of Lord Bolingbroke's 
Works,'* which appeared a few years afterwards. He likej 
wise assisted archdeacon Sharpe in his controversy with the 
Hutchinsonians, which was carried on to the end of the 
year 1755. 

During the whole time that he was dean of St. PauPs, he 
attended divine service consUntly in that catheJral twice 
every day, whether in residence or not ; and in concert 
with the three other residentiaries, established the custom 
of always preaching their own turns in the afternoon, or 
exchanging with each other only, which, excepting the case 
of illness, or extraordinary accidents, was very punctually 
observed. He also introduced many saluury regulations in 
the financial concerns of the church, the keeping of the re-' 
gisters, &c. &c. In the summer months he resided con- 
stantly at his episcopal house at Cuddesden, the vicinity of 
which to Oxford rendered it very pleasing to a man of his 
literary turn. His house was the resort of those who were 
nost distinguished for academical merit, and his conversa* 
lion such as was worthy of his guests, who always left him 
with a high esteem of his understanding and learning. And 
though in the warm contest in 1754, for representatives of 
' the county (in which it was scarce possible for any person 
of eminence to remain neuter), he openly espoused that side 
which was thought most favourable to the principles of the 
revolution ; yet it was without bitterness or vehemencei 
without ever departing from the decency of his profession^ 
the dignity of liis station, or the charity prescribed by his 
religion. 

His conduct as a prelate was in the strictest sense of the 
wordy exemplary. In his charges, he enjoined no ddty, 



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knd imposed no burtbeO) on those under his jtirisdictioiiy 
which be had not formerly andergone, or was not still ready, 
as far as became him^ to undergo. He preached constant- 
ly in his church at Cuddesden every Sunday morning, and 
read a lecture on the catechism in the evening ; (both which 
he continued to do in Lambeth chapel after he became 
archbishop) and in every other respect, within his own pro-^ 
per department, was himself' that devout, discreet, disin- 
terested, laborious, conscientious pastor, which he wished . 
and exhorted ev^ry clergyman in his diocese to 4>ecome. 
At length such distinguished merit prevailed over all the 
political obstacles to his advancement ; and on the death of 
archbishop Huttot), he was appointed by the king to suc- 
ceed him in the diocese of Canterbury, and was accordingly 
confirmed at Bow- church on April 21, 1758. The use. he 
made of this dignity very clearly shewed that rank, and 
wealth, and power, had in no other light any charms foe 
him, than as they enlarged the sphere of his active and 
industrious benevolence. . 

In little more than two years after his grace's promotion 
to the see of Canterbury, died the late George II. Of 
what passed on that occasion, and of the form observed ia 
proclaiming our present sovereign (in which the archbishop 
of course took the' lead), his grace has. left an account in 
writing. He did the same with regard to the subsequent cere- 
monials of marrying and crowning their present majesties, 
which in consequence of his station he bad the honour to 
solemnize, and in which be found, a great want of ptopec 
precedents and directions. He had before, when rector of 
St. Jameses, baptized the new king (who was born in Nor- 
folk-house, in that parish) and he was afterwards called 
upon to perform the same office for the greatest part of his 
majesty's children ; a remarkable, and perha^ps unexampled 
concurrence of such incidents in the life of one man. 

As archbishop of Canterbury, Dr. Seeker considered 
himself as the natural guardian, not only of that church 
over which he presided, but of learning, virtue, and reli- 
gion at large; and, from the. eminence on which he was 
placed, looked round with a watchful eye on every thing 
that concerned them, embracing readily all opportunities 
to promote their interests, and opposing, as far as he was 
ftble, all attempts to injure them. Men of real genius oc 
•xtensive knowledge, he sought.out and encouraged. Evea 
those of humbler ulents, provided their industry was great^ 



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Md tbeir iDteBtionB good, be treated with kindness and 
eondescension. Both soru be would frequently employ in 
undertakings suited to tbeir respective abilities, and re* 
ivarded tbem iu ways suited to tbeir respective wants. He 
assisted tbem witb books, promoted subscriptions to tbeir 
works, contributed largely to tbem bimself, talked witb 
them on tbeir private concerns, entered warmly into tbeir 
interests, used bis credit for tbem witb the great, and gave 
them preferments of his own. He expended upwards of 
300/. in arranging and improving the MS library at Lam<» 
betb. And having observed with concern, that the library 
of printed books in that palace bad receii^edno accessions 
since the time of arcbbtshop Tenison, be made it his bu- 
siness to collect books in all languages from most parts of 
Europe, at a very great expence, with a view of supplying 
that ohasm ; which be accordingly did, by leaving them to 
the library at his death. 

All designs and institutions that tended to advance good 
morals and true religion he patronized with zeal and 
generosity. He contributed largely to the maintenance of 
schools for the poor, to rebuilding or repairing parsonage* 
houses and places of worship, and gave at one time no less 
than SOOL towards erecting a chapel in the parish of Lambeth, 
U> which be afterwards added near 100/. more. To the so* 
eiety for promoting Christian kjnowledge he was a liberal 
benefactor ; and to that for propagating the gospel in fo* 
reign parts, of which he was the president, be paid much 
attention, was constant at the meetings of its members, and 
superintended tbeir deliberations with consummate pru-« 
dence and temper. He was sincerely desirous to improve 
to the utmost that excellent institution, and to diffuse the 
knowledge and belief of Christianity as wide as the revenues 
•f the society, and the extreme difficulty of establishing 
schools and missions amongst the Indians, and of making 
any effectual and durable impressions of religion on their 
vncivilized minds, would admit. But Dr. May hew, of 
Boston in New England, having in an angry pamphlet ac- 
cused the society of not sufficiently answering these good, 
purposes, and of departing widely from the spirit of their 
charter, with many injurious reflections interspersed on the 
eburch of England, and the design of appointing bishops 
in America, bis grace on all these accounts thought himself 
oalled upon to confute bis invectives, which be did in a 
abort ^nony^oos piece, entitled ** An Answer to On May-^ 



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bewU ObierVations on the charter and conduct of CheSo^ 
ciety for propagating the Gospel/' London^ 1764, reprinted 
in America. The strength of argument, as well as fairness 
and good temper^ with which this answer was written, had 
a considerable effect on all impartial men ; aad even on tlie 
doctor himself, who plainly perceived that he had no com- 
mon adversary to deal with; and coold not help acknow-* 
ledging him to be '* a person of excellent sense, and of a 
happy talent at writing ; apparently free from the sordid 
i!Kberal spirit of bigotry; one of a cool temper, w^o often 
shewed mach candour, was' well acquainted witti the affiiirs 
of the society, and in general a fair reasoner.^* He waa 
therefore so fttr wrought upon by his " worthy answerer,** 
as to abate much in bis reply of his former warmth and 
acrimony. Bat as he still would not allow himself to be 
** wrong in any material point,** nor forbear giving way too 
much to reproachful language and ludicrous mtsrepresenta*' 
tions, lie was again animadverted upon by tt^e late Mn 
Apthorpe, in a sensible tract, entitled, *^ A Review of Dr/ 
Maybew*s Remarks,** &c. 1765. This put an end to the 
dispute. The doctor, on reading it, declared he should not 
answer it, and the following year he died. 

It appeared evidently in the course of this controversy' 
that Dr. May hew, and probably many other worthy ' men 
amongst the Dissenters, both at home and abroad, bad 
conceived very unreasonable and groundless jealoasies ol 
die cbureh of England, and its governors; and <had, in 
particular, greatly misunderstood the proposal for appoint-^ 
ing bishops in some of the colonies. The nature' of thi^ 
plan is fully explained in bishop Porteus's life of our 
archbishop, to which we refer. The question is now oi 
less importance, for notwithstanding the violent opposition 
to the measure, when Dr. Seeker espoused it, no sooner 
did the American provinces become independent states^ 
thati application was made to the English bishops by some 
of those states to consecrate bishops for them according to 
the rites of the church of England, and three bishops were 
actually consecrated in London some years ago : one for 
Pennsylvania, another for New York, and a third for Vit* 
ginis. 

Whenever any publications' came to the archbishop^f 
knowledge that were manifestly calculated to corrupt good 
morals, or subvert the fdundations of Christianity, he did 
bis utmost to stop the circulation of them i yet the wretched 

Vol. XXVII. X 

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authors themselves he was so far from wishing to Ireat wftb 
any uodue rigour, that he has more than eoce extendad 
his bounty to them in distress. And. when their writiaga 
«ouid not properly be suppressed (as waatoo often the 
case) by lawful authority, he engaged men of abiliUes to 
answer them, and rewacded them for their trouble. Hia 
attention was everywhere. Even the falsehoods and mis* 
Pepresentations of writers in the newspapers, on religioua 
or eocleaiastical sobjeeu, he generally took care to have 
Qootradicied : and when they seemed likely to injure, in 
any material degree, the cause of virtue and religion, er 
ibe Fepuutioo of eminent and worthy men, he would' 
sometiiaes take the trouble of answering them himself. 
One instaAae of this kind, which does him hoaoor, and 
deserves mention^ was his defence of Bishop Butler, who, 
in a (NMnphlet, published in 1767, waa acctisedof having 
died a papist. 

The conduct which he observed towards the several di« 
Ttsbns and denominations of Christians in this kingdom^ 
was Msch as shewed his way of thinking to be truly liberal 
aod catholic* The dangerous spirit of popery, indeed, he 
thought should always be kept under proper legal re* 
ssraints, on account of its natural opposition, net only ta 
the reti^ious, but the civil rights of mankind. He there-^ 
fom observed iu mevemests with care^ and exhorted hia 
ekigy to do the saasie, especially those who were situated 
isi the msdtft pf Reaan caiholic families : against whose 
iafliienoe they were charged to be upon their guard, and 
SHere funniabed with proper books or itistructiona for the 
purpose. He took all opportUDities of combating the er*^ 
Tors of the church of Some, in Us osm writtegs ; and the 
best answers that were published to some bold apologiea^ 
ibr popery were written at his iMtanee, aod under hia di* 
leolson. 

With the dissenters his grace was sincerely desirous ef 
cullivatiiig a good understanding. He considered them^ 
in general, as a conscientious and valuable class of mm. 
Wi3i some of the most eminent of theao. Watts, Dod- 
dridge .^» Lefamd^ Chandler, and Lardoer, he etatntained ap 

* The hiofraphen'of emifient dit- dridge*s Letters," in bis zeal, has pro- 

s«»ters, with ^1 tbeir prejudices against duced two letters from archhisbop Seckr 

thts trieraiTrtiy» semi nevtr to ctuK ertaUiat divi»«»{bfsftttttig that btva» 

more than wh«n tbey pa« produce uot archbishop imUi levcuU ycsf* sftf^ 

the correspondence of a distinguished Poddridge's death. 
pr«l«ta, BiitUM«dHor«f «<0r. Ded- 



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tRtercoorte of friendstiip or civility. By the most candid 
apd cooaiderate part of tbem be was higliiy reverenced and 
esteemed : and to such among tbem as needed belp he 
shewed no less kindness and liberality than to those of bis 
own communion. 

Nor was bis concern for the Protestant cause coi^ned to 
his own country ; he was welt known as the great patron 
and protector of it in various parts of Europe: firom 
whence be had frequent applications £Dr assistance, which 
never failed of being favourably received. To several 
foreign Protestants he allowed pensions, to others he gave • 
occasional relief, and to some of their universities was an 
annual benefactor. 

In public afiairs, Ub grace acted die part of an honest « 
citizen, and a worthy member of the British legislatore. 
From his ^traQce into the House of Peers, his pmrlia* 
mentary conduct was uniformly upright and noble. He 
kept equally clear from the extremes of £Mstious petulance 
and servile dependence : never wantonly thwarting admi* 
nistratiou from motives of party zeal or private pique, or 
personal f ttacfament, or a passion for popularity : nor yet 
going every length with every minister, from views of 
interest or ambition. He seldom, however, spoke in 
parliament, except where the interests of religion abd vir- 
tue seemed Xo require it : Ixit whenever he did, he spoke 
with proprie^ and strength, and was heard with attention 
and deference. Though be never attached himself blindij 
to any eet of men, yet his chief political connections Wete 
with the late dujie of Newcastle, and lord chancellor 
Hardwicke. To these he owed principally his advance- 
ment : and he lived long enough to shew bis gratitude to 
them or their descendants; 

Daring more than ten years that Dr. Seeker enjoyed 
the see of Canterbury, he resided constaody at his archie- 
piscopal bouse a| Lambeth. A few months before bis 
death, the dreadful pains he felt had compdled hiip to 
tbiok of trying the Bath waters : but that design was 
ftq>ped by the fatal aocident which put an end to his life. 
His grace had hieee for many years subject to the j^ut^ 
which, in the latter part of his life, returned with more 
frequency and violence, and did not go off in a regular 
Biaoner, but left tfee paru aiected for a long time very 
weak, and was succeeded by pains in different pans of the 
lK>dy. About a year and a half before be died, after a fit 

X s 



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of the gouty he was attacked with a pain in the arm, near 
tbe shoulder, which having continued about twelve months^ 
a similar pain seized the upper and outer part of the oppo* ' 
site thigh, and jhe arm soon became easier. This was 
much more grievous than the former, as it quickly disabled* 
bim from walking, and kept him in almost continual tor- 
ment, except when be was iu a reclining position. During 
tbia time he had two or three fits of the gout : but neither 
the gout nor the medicines alleviated these pains, which, 
with the want of exercise, brought him into* a j^neral bad 
habit of body. 

On Saturday July 30, 1769, be was seized, as he sat at 
dinner, with a sickness at his stomach. He recovered be- 
» fere night : but the next evening, while bis physicians were 
aitendifig, his servantt raisi>ng him on his ce»uch, he sud- 
denly cried out that his thigh-bone was broken. He ky 
ibr some time in great agonies, but when the surgeons 
arrived, and discovered with certainty that the bone was 
l>rokeo, he was perfectly resigned, and never afterwards 
asked a question about the event. A fever soon ensued : 
on Tuesday he became lethargic, and continued so till 
abqut five o'clock on Wednesday afternoon, when he ex- 
pired with great calmness, in the seventy-firth year of his 
age. On examination, the thigh-bone was found to be 
earious about four inches in length, and at nearly the same* 
distance from its head. He was buried, pursuant to his 
own directions, in a covered passage, leading from a pri- 
vate door of the palace to the north door of Lambeth- 
ehurch : and he forbade any monumeiit or epitaph to be 
placed over him. 

Iji person, Dr. ^cker was tall and comely :. in tbe early 
part of his life slender, and rather consumptive : but as he 
advanced in years, his size increased, yet never to a degree 
of corpulency that was disproportionate or troublesome. 
His countenance was open, ingenuous, and expressive. 

By his will, he appointed Dr. Daniel Burton, and Mrs; 
Catherine Talbcft (daughter of the Rev. Mr. Edward TaU 
hot), his executors ; and left thirteen thousand pounds in 
tbe three per cent, annuities to Dr. Porteus and Dr. Scinton 
bis chaplains, in trust, to pay the interest thereof to Mrs. 
Talbot and her daughter during their joint lives, or the life 
ef the survivor; and, after the decease of both those 
ladies, eleven thousand to bo transferred to tbe following 
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. To tbe society for propagation of the gospel in fcKeign 
parts^ for the general uses of the society , 1000/. ; to the 
same society, towards tbe establishment of a bishop or 
bishops in the king*s dominions in America, lOOOZ.; to the 
society for pr^omoting Christian knowledge, 500/. ; to the 
Irish protestant working schools, 500/. ; to tbe corporatioa 
of the widows and children of the poor clergy, 500/.; to 
the society of the stewards of the said charity, 200/.; 
to Bromley college in Kent, 500/. ; to the hospiuls of the 
•rchbishop of CanterbiMry, at Croydon, St. John at Canter- 
bury, and St- Nicholas Harbledown, 500/. each; to St. 
George's .aad London hospitals, and the Jying-iin-Jiospital 
in Browolow-street, 5Q0/« eaqb; to the Asylum in t^e 
parish of Lambeth, 400/. ; to the Magdalen-hospital, jJid 
Lock-hospital, ihe SmalUpo^c and Inoculation-ii )spital, to 
each of which his grace was a subscriber, 300/. each i 
to tbe incurables at St. Luke's hospital, 500/. ; tOivards tha 
repairing or rebuilding of houses belougipg to poor livioga 
in the diocese of Canterbury, 2000/. 

Besides these donations, he left i:QOO/. to ,be distributed 
amongst bis seryants ; 200/. to such poor persons %s be 
assisted in his life-time; 5000/. to the two daugbtera 
of his nephew Mr. Frost ; 500^. to Mrs. Seeker, the 
widow of his nephew Pr. George Seeker, and 200/. to Dr^i, 
Daniel Burton. After the payment of those and some other 
smaller legacies, be left his real and the residue of bis 
personal estate to Mr^ Thomas Frost of Nottingham.. The 
greatest part of his yery noble collection ^f books heber 
queathed to the -Arcbiepiscopal library at Ljambetby the 
rest betwixt his twp chaplains and two other friends^ To 
$be iQanuscript library in the same palace, he left a large 
number of very learned and valuable MSS. written by him- 
self on a great variety of subjects, critical and theological* 
His well-known catechetical lectures, and his MS sermons 
he left to be revised by his two chaplains, Dr. Stintoo and 
Dr. Forteus, by whom they were published in 1770. His 
options he gave to the archbishop of Canterbury, the 
btahpp of London, and the bishop of Winchester Cor tbe 
time being, in trust, to l^e disposed of by them (as thej^ 
became vacant) to such persons as they should in their 
consciences think it would have been most reasonable for 
him to have given them, bad he been living. 

The liife prefixed to his works was written by Dr. ?or- 
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London, jiiid reprinted separately by bis lordship in 1797, 
in consequence of bisbop Hurd's having, in bis life of 
Warburton, *^ judged it expedient to introduce into bis life 
of bishop Warburton, such obserrations ou the talents, 
learning, and writings of archbishop Seeker, as appeared, 
both te Dr. Porteos and to many other of bis grace^s 
friends extremely injurious to his literary character, and 
the credit of his numerous and useful publications ; and 
therefore highlv deserving of some notice from those who 
loved him in life, and revered him after death." These 
observations are indeed fully refuted in this excellent piece 
of biography, as well as the other slanders which the steady 
and upright conduct of archbishop Seeker drew upon him 
from persons notoriously disaffected to religion and the 
church ; arid time, which never fails to do ample justice to 
such characters as his, has almost effaced the remembranx^e 
of them. Yet, as some have lately attempted to revive the 
calumny, and suppress the refutation, we have given some 
references in the note on this subjeict, not without confi* 
dence that archbishop Seeker's character will suffer little 
while he has a Porteus for his defender, and a Hollis, a 
Walpole, a Blackburn, and a Wakefield f6r his accusers. ^ 

SECOUSSE (Denis Francis), a French historian, was 
born January 8, 1691, at Paris. He began to study the 
law in obedience to his father^s desire, who was an able ad- 
vocate ; but losing both his parents shortly after, he quitted 
the bar, for which he had not the least taste, and devoted 
himself wholly to the belles lettres, and French history. 
His unwearied application to books, which no other passion 
interrupted, soon made him known among the learned ; and 
he was admitted into the academy of inscriptions in 1723^ 
and chosen by chancellor d^Aguesseau five years after, to 
continue the great collection of statutes, made by the 
French kings, which M. de Laurier had begun. As Se« 
Pousse possessed every talent necessary for such an impor* 
tant undertaking, the volumes which he published were 
received with universal approbation. He died at Paris, 
March 15, 1754, aged sixty-three, leaving a library, the 
largest and most curious, in French history, that any pri-- 
Vate person had hitherto possessed. His works are, the 
continuation of the collection of staCiktes before mentioned, 

" Life by Porteo*.— Gent. Mig. Tolt. LVIIL LXVIII See also Index.— 

Many of bii Leuert are -n Kiupit*t Life of Lafdner, Bntier't life of BUIiqp 
Hitdetley, DoiirUlfe^i Letttrt, V ^ 



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to^ the ninth vottsme iiiclusiirely, ivhich wm priBttd under 
the inspection of M. de Villevaulty counsellor to ehe cotirt 
of aids, who succeeded M. Secousse, and pfubUshed « table, 
forming a tenth volume, and since, an eleventh and twelfth. 
Secousse also wrote many dissertations in the memoirs of 
the academy of inscriptions ; editions of several works, and 
of several carious pieces ; " Memoirs for the History of 
Charles the Bad,*' 2 vols. 4ta' 

SECUNDUS, John. See EVERARD. 

SEDAINE (Michael John), a French dravattc writer^ 
was born at Paris, June 4, 1719. Abandoned by hi^ friends, 
he was, at the age of thirteen, obliged to quit hn studies, 
in which he was liuie advanced, and to practise a trade for 
his subsistence. He was first a journeyman, and then % 
master mason, and architect; which businesses he con* 
ducted with uncommon probity. Natural inclination led 
him to cultivate literature, and particularly the drama, for 
which he wrote various small pieces and comic operas, the 
most popular of which were, ** Le D^serteur ;'* and ^'Eicbard 
Cceur de Lion." All ef them met with great success, and 
•till continue to be performed, but the French critic?s think 
that his poetry is not written in the purest and most correct 
style, and that his pieces appear to more advantage on the 
stage than in the closet. He possessed, however, a quality 
of greater consequence to a dramatic writer-^tbe talent of 

Sroducing stage effect. He was elected Wo the fVeneh 
cademy, in consequence of the success of his ** Richard 
Cceur de Lion,'* and was intimately connected with all the 
men of letters, and all the artists of his time. He died in 
May 1797, aged seventy -eight.* 

SEDGWICK (Obadiah), a nonconformist divine, was 
bom at Marlborough in Wiltshire, in 1600, and educated 
first at Queen's college, and then at Magdalen^all, Ox- 
ford. After taking his degrees in arts, he was ordained, 
aad became chaplain to lord Horatio Vere, whom he ac^ 
tempanied into the Netherlands. After his return, he 
went again to Oxford, and waes admitted to the reading of 
the sentences in 1629. Going then to London he preached 
at St. Mildred's, Bread-street, until interrupted by the 
bishop, and in 16^9 became vicar of Coggeshall in Essex, 
where he continued three er four years. The commence- 
ment of the rebellion allowing men of his sentiments un- 

* Diet. Hist, 



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• conttraloeil liberty, be returned to Londoo, and preached 
frequently before the parliament, inveighing with extreme 
violence against the church and state : to the overthrow of 
both, his biographers cannot deny that he contributed his 
full share, in the various characters of one of the assembly 
of divines, a chaplain in the army, one of the triers, and 
one of the ejectors of those who were called *^ ignorant and 
scandalous ministers.'* — In 1646 he became preacher at 
St. PauPs, Covent-garden, where he appears to have con- 
tinued until the decay of his health, when he retired to 

.Marlborough, ,and died there in January 1658. As a di- 
vine, he was much admired in his day, and his printed 
works had considerable popularity. The principal of them 
are, ^* The Fountain opened,*' 1657; ''An exposition of 
Psalm xxiii." 1658, 4to; "The Anatomy of Secret Sins,** 
1660; " Thf Parable of the Prodigal," 1660 ; " Synopsis 
of Christianity,** &c. &c. — He had a brother, John, an ad- 
herent to the parliamentary cause, and a preacher, but of 

.less note; and another brother Joseph, who became batler 
in Magdalen college in 1634, and B, A. in 1637, and then 
went to Cambridge, where he took his master's degree, and 
was elected fellow of Christ's college. After the restorai- 
tion he conformed, and was beneficed in the church ; in 
167S be was made prebendary of Lincoln, and was also' 
rector of Fisherton, where be died SepL 22, 1702, in the 
seventy-fourth year of his age, leaving a son John Sedg- 
wick, who succeeded him in the prebend, and was vicar of 
Purton Pedwardine in Lincolnshire, where he died in 1717*^ 
S£DLEY, or SIDLEY (Sir Charles), a dramatic and. 
miscellaneous writer, was the son of sir John Sedley, of 
Aylesford in Kent, by a daughter of sir Henry Savile, and 
was born about 1639. At seventeen, be became a fellow- 
i;ommoner of Wadham college in Oxford ; but, taking no 
degree, retired to his own country, without either travel- 
ing, or going to the inns of court. At the restoration he 
came to London, and commenced wit, courtier, poet, and 
man of gallantry. As a critic, he was so much admired, 
^hat he became a kind of oracle among the poets ; and no 
performance was approved or condemned, till sir Charles 
Sediey had given judgment This made king Charles jest- 
ingly say to him, that Nature had given him a patent to be 

1 Aih. Ox. Tol. II.-^Brooki's PuriUnt.— Wood'i IIS papers in Bibl. Aihmol.' 
— Wilht'i Cathedrals. 



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Apollo^s viceroy; md lord Rochester placed bim in the 
.first rank of poetici^l critics. With these accomplishments, 
be impaired bis estate by profligate pleasures, and was one 
of that party of debauchees whom we have already men* 
tioned in our account of Sackville lord Buckhurst, who 
having insulted public decency, were indicted for a riot, 
and all severely fined ; sir Charles in 500/. The day for 
payment being appointed, sir Charles desired Mr. Henry , 
Killigrew aqd another gentleman, both his/riendSf to apply 
to the king to get it remitted ; which they undertook to do; 
but at the san>e time varied the application so fiar as to beg 
it for themselves, and they made Sedley pay the full sum. 
After this affair, his mind took a more serious turn ; and 
he began to apply himself to politics. He had been chosen 
to serve for Romney in Kent, in the parliament which be- 
gun May 8, 1661, and continued to sit for several parlia« 
ments after. He was extremely active for the revolution, 
which was at first thought extraordinary, as he had receiv- 
. ed favours frqm James II. but those were cancelled by that 
prince's having taken his daughter into keeping, whom he 
created countess of Dorchester. , This 'honour by no 
means satisfied sir Charles, who, libertine as he had 
been, <:onsidered his daughter's disgrace as being thereby 
made more conspicuous. Still his wit prevailed over hit 
resentment, at least in speaking on the subject; for, being 
asked, why he appeared so warm for the revolution, he it 
said to have answered, ^^ From a principle of gratitude ; 
for, since his majesty has made my daughter a countess, 
jt is fit I should do all I can to make his daughter a queen.** 
He died Aug. 20, 1701. 

His works were printed in 1719, 2 vols. 8vo ; and consist 
0^ plays, translations, songs, prologues, epilogues, and small 
pccasional pieces. His poems are generally of the licen- 
tious kind, and do not afford great marks of genius, and 
his dramas are quite forgotten. Pope, according to Spence^ 
thought him very insipid, except in some of his little love- 
verses. Malone thinks he was the Lisideiiis of Dryden^a 
** Essay on dramatic poetry," and Dryden certainly shewed 
|iis respect for him by dedicating to him his "Assignation.*'* 
SEDULIUS (CiEUUS, or Cjecilius), a priest and poet, 
either Irish or Scotch, of the fifth century, is recorded as 

i Ath. Ox. vol. IL^Biog. Brit.-^diloiie»i Dry^^* ▼<>*• I. p. •♦ > II. p. 34» 
d11.*--SpeQoe'sAaeQdvlti, MS, 



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314 S E D U L I U S. 

ihe writer of an heroic poem, called *' Carmen Paschale," 
divided into five books. Tbe first begins with the creation 
of the world, and comprehends the more remarkable pas- 
sages of the Old Testament. The next three describe tbe 
life of Jesus Christ. This performance has been highly 
commended by Cassiodorus, Gregoriiis Turrinensis, and 
others. Sedulius afterwards wrote a piece on the same 
subjects in prose. The poem was printed by Aldus in the 
collection of sacred poets, in 1502. It is also in Maittaire*s 
*' Corp. Poet.'* and has since been published by itseif, with 
learned notes, by Arntzenius, 1761, 8vo, and by Arerale 
at Rome, 1794, 4to.^ 

SEED (Jeremiah), an English divine, who was bom at 
Clifton, near Penrith, in Cumberland, of which place his 
father was factor, had his school-education at Lowther, and 
bis academical at Queen's college, in Oxford., Of this so* 
ciety he was chosen fellow in 1732. The greatest part of 
his life was spent at Twickenham, where he was assistant ox 
curate to Dr. Waterland. In 1741, he was presented by 
his college to the living of Enham in Hampshire, at which 

J lace be died in 1747, without ever having obtained any • 
igher preferment, which he amply deserved. He was 
exemplary in his morals, orthodox iti his opinions, had an 
able head, and a most amiable heart. A late romantic 
writer against the Athanasian doctrines, whose testimony 
we choose to give, as it is truth extorted from an adversary, 
speaks of him in the following terms : " Notwithstanding 
this gentleman*s being a contender for the Trinity, yet he 
was a benevolent man, an upright Christian, and a beauti- 
ful writer ; exclusive of his zeal for the Trinity, he was in 
every thing else an excellent clergyman, and an admirable 
scholar. 1 knew him well, and on account of his amiable 
qualities very highly honour his memory ; though, no two 
evet differed more in religious sentiments.*-- He published 
in his life- time, ^< Discourses on several important Sub- 
jects,*' 2 vols. 8vo ; and his *^ Posthumous Works, consist- 
ing of sermons, letters, essays, &c.** in 2 vols. 8vo, were 
fiublished from his original manuscripts by Jos. Hall, M. A. 
ellow of Queen^s college, Oxford, 1750. They are all 
very ingenious, and full of good matter, but abound too 
much in antithesis and point.* 

I Toffiot ae Po6t. Lat.«— Cave, tol. I.— Mtckefizie^ Scoteb writers, vol. I. 
« Sappltamit to the fint «<lUiQii •i tbb Diet, pubtithed hi 1767. 



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S E G E R S. $1$ 

SEGERS, or SEGHCRS (Gbrard)^ an emmeni pdfa- 
ter, was born at Antwerp in 1 589. Under the inatructioM 
of Henry van Balen, and Abratiam JadasenB, he bad made 
considerable progress in tbe an before b^ went to Italy. Oa , 
bis arrival at Rome, he became tbe disciple of Bartolooiiaco 
Manfred! ; and frooi him adopted a taste for the vigorous 
atyle of Michael Arigelo Caravaggio, to wliicb be added 
somewhat of the tone and colour be had brought with him 
from his native country ; producing the powerful effect of 
candle-light^ though often falsely applied in subjects which 
appertain to the milder illumination of the day. He at 
length accepted the invitation of cardinal Zapara, the 
Spanish ambassador at Rome, to accompany him to Ma- 
drid, where he was presented to the king, and was engaged 
in his service, with a considerable pension. After some 
years he returned to Flanders, and his fellow-citizens were 
impatient to possess some of his productions ; but they who 
bad been accustomed to the style of Rubens and Vandyke, 
wdre unable to' yield him that praise to which he had been 
accustomed, and he was obliged to clmnge his manner, 
which he appears to have done with facility and a^lvanta^e, 
at many of his latter pictures bear evident testimony. His 
Most esteemed productions are, the principal altar-piece in 
the church of the Carmelites at Antwerp, the Bubject of 
which is the marriage of the virgin ; and the adoration of 
the magi, the altar-piece in the cathedral of Bruges. Tht 
former is much after the manner of Rubens. Vandyke 
painted his portrait among tbe eminent artists of bis coun- 
try, whieh is engraved by Pontius. He died in 1651, aged 
sixty^'two. — His son Daniel, who was born at Antwerp in 
1590, was a painter of fruit and flowers, which he, being 
a Jesuit, executed at his conrent at Rome. He appears, 
indeed, to have painted more for the beue6t of the society 
to which he had attached himself, than for his private ad- 
vantage : and when he had produced bis most celebrated 
picture, at the command of the prince of Orange, it was 
presented to that monarch in the name of die society, 
which was munificently recompensed in return. He fre- 
quently painted garlands of flowers, as borders for pictures, 
wbioh were filled up witli historical subjects by tbe first 
painters. He died at Antwerp in 1660, aged seventy.^ 

» ArgcnriUe, vol. IIL^Pilkington.— Sir J. Rcyiwldi»» Works.— Roct*t Cjr- 
dop^dia. 



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$15 S E G N I. 

SEGNI (Bernard), an early Italian writer, was born 
at Florence about the close of the fifteenth century. He 
-was educated at Padua, where he became an accomplished 
classical scholar, but appears afterwards to have gone into 
public life, and was employed in various embassies and 
negopiations by duke Cosmo, of Florence. He wrote an 
excellent history of Florence from 1527 to 1555, which, 
however, remained in MS. until 1723, when it appeared, 
together with a life of Niccolo Cappoui, gonfalonier of 
Florence, Segni's uncle. He likewise translated Aristotle's 
Ethics. !* L*£tica d'Aristotele, tradotta in volga Fioren- 
tino," Florence, 15S0, 4to, a very elegant book; and 
<< Deir Anima d'Aristotele,'' 1583, also the Rhetoric and 
Poetics of the same author, &c. He died in 1559.' 
' SEGRAIS (John Renaud de), a French poet, was born 
at Caen in 1624, and &rst stu()ied in the college of the 
Jesuiu there. As he grew up, . he applied himself to 
French poetry, and was so successful as to be enabled to 
rescue himself, four brothers, and two sisters, from the 
unhappy circumstances in which the extravagance of a 
&tber had left them. In his twentieth year he met with a 
patron who introduced him to Mad. de Montpensier, and 
this lady appointed him her gentleman in ordinary, is 
which station he remained many years, until obliged to 
quit her service, for opposing her marriage with cotfnt de 
Lauzun. He immediately found a new patroness in Mad. 
de la Fayette, who admitted him into her house, and asr 
signed him apartments. Her he assisted in her two ro^ 
nuances, ** The princess of Cleves'* and " Zaida.** After 
seven years, he retired to his own country, with a resolu- 
tion to spend the rest of his days in solitude ; and there 
married liis cousin, a rich heiress, about 1679. Alad. de 
Maintenon invited him to court, as tutor to the duke of 
Maine: buthedid not choose to exchangetheindependenceof 
a retired life for the precarious favours of a court, and there- 
fore continued where he was. He was admitted of the 
French academy in 1662; and was the means of re-esta- 
blishing that of Caen. He died at this place, of a dropsy, 
in 1701. He was very deaf in the last years of his life, but 
was much courted for the sake of his conversation, which 
was replete with such anecdotes as the polite world bad , 
furnished him with. A great number of these are to hp 

« Tir^boschi.— Haym Bibt d'lttj. 



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S E G R A I S. sit' 

foand in the '^ Segraisiana ;** which was published many 
years after his death, with a preface by Mr. de ia Moa- 
noye; the best edition of it is that of Amsterdam, 1723, 
r2mo. 

The prose writings of Segprais, though for the most part 
frivolous enough, yet have great merit as to their style, 
which may be considered as a standard. Of this kind are 
his " Nouvelles Frangoises ;" but he was chiefly admired 
for his poems, which consist of ** Diverses Poesies,*' printed 
at Paris in 1658, 4to; <' Athis,'* a pastoral ; and a transla- 
tiQn of Virgirs Georgics and £neid. Of his eclogues, 
and particularly of his translation of Virgil, Boileau and 
D*Alembert speak very highly, but his Virgil is no longer 
read.* 

SEJOUR. See DIONIS. 

SELDEN (John), one of the most learned men of th^ 
seventeenth century, was the son of John Selden, a yeo* 
man, by Margaret his wife, only daughter of Mr. Thomas 
Baker of Rusbington, descended from the family of the 
Bakers in Kent. He was born Dec. 16, 1584, at a house 
called the Lacies at Salvinton, near Terring in Sussex, and 
educated at the free-school at Chichester, where he made a 
very early progress in learning. In 1598, at fourteen years 
of age, as some say, but according to Wood, in 1600, he 
was entered of Hart-hall, Oxford, where under the tuition 
" of Mr. Anthony Barker (brother to his schoolmaster at Chi-, 
chestei') 4nd Mr. John Young, both of that hall, he studied 
about three years, and then removed to Clifford's Inn^. 
London, for the study of the law, and about two years 
afterwards exchanged that situation for the Inner Temple. 
Here he soon attained a great reputation for learning, and 
acquired the friendship of sir Robert Cotton, sir Henry 
Spelman, Camden, and Usher. In 1606, when only twenty- 
two years of age, he wrote a treatise on the civil govern- 
ment of Britain, before the coming in of the Normans, 
which was esteemed a very extraordinary performance for 
his years. It was not printed, however, until 1615, and 
then very incorrectly, at Francfort, under the title " Ana- 
lectow Anglo-BritannicMv libri duo, de civile administration* 
BritannisB MagnsB usque ad Normanni adventum, 4to.. 
Nicolson is of opinion that these " Analecta" do not sa 

I NioeroD, vol. XVI.— Segrai^m*,— iyAi«inb«rt»t HUU of UwMwabera •£ 
tk€ French Afiadtiny. 



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•18 S £ L D E N. 

cl«arly account for the religion, goyernment, and revolu- 
tiooa of state among ouc Saxon ancestors,, as they arq re^ 
parted to do. It was an excellent specimen, however, of 
what nnight be expected from a youth of such talents and 
application. 

In 1610 he printed ai London, his <' Jani Angloninn fa-* 
cies altera,*' 8vo, reprinted in 1681, and likewise trans* 
lated into English by Dr. Adam Littleton, under his family 
name of Redman Westcot, 1683, fol. It consists of all 
that is met with in history copcerning the common and 
statute law of English Britany tQ the death of Henry JL 
Selden bad laid the foundation in a discourse which he 
published the same year and in th^ same form, entitled 
** England's Epinomis ;" and this is also in Dr. Littleton's 
volume, along with two other tracts, ** The Original of Ec- 
clesiastical Jurisdiction of Testaments," and ^' The Dispo* 
sition or administration of Intfstate goods," both afterwards 
the production of Selden's pen. In the same year, 1 610, 
be published bis << Duello, or single combat;," and in 1612, 
notes and illustrations on Drayton's ^* Pply-Olbion," folio. 
He seems to have been esteemed for his karning by the 
poets of that time; and although he had no great poetical 
turn himself, yet in 1613 he wrote Greek, Latin, and En- 
glish verses on Browne's ^^ Britannia's Pastorals," and con- 
tributed other efforts of the kind to the works of several 
authors, which appear to have induced Suckling to intro- 
duce him in bis ** Session of the Poeu," as sitting *^ close 
by the chair of Apollo." 

In 1614 he published a work which has always been 
praised for utility, his " Titles of Honour," Load. 4to, with 
an encomiastic poem by his friend Ben Jonson. It was re* 
printed with additions in 1631, fol. and again in 1671, and 
translated into Latin by Simon John Arnold, Francfort, 
1696. Nicolson remarks that ^'^ as to what concerns our 
nobility and gentry, all that come within either of those 
Hsts will allow, that Mr. Selden's Titles of Honour ought 
first to be perused, for the gaining of a general notion of 
the distinction of a degree from an emperor down to a 
country gentleman." In 1616 appeared his notes on fir 
John Fortescue's work *^ De laudibus legum Anglias," and 
air Ralph's Hengham's " Sums," Lond. 8vo. In 1617 ha 
drew up a dissertation upon the state of the Jews formerly 
living in England, for the use of Purchas, who printed itj 
although, as Selden complained, very defectively, in his 



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S E L D E N. J19 

*• PUgrimage.'' la the same year be published bis very 
learned work, '* De Diis Syriis syntagoiata duo.'* This is 
not ODiy a treatise on the idolatry of the ancient Syrians^ 
but affords a commentary on all the passages in the Old 
Tesument, where mention is made of any of the heathen 
deities. This first edition (Lond. 8vo,) being out of prints 
Ludovicus de Dieu printed an edition at Leyden in 1629^ 
which was revised and enlarged by Selden. Andrew Beyer 
afterwards published two editions at Leipsic, in 1668 and 
1672^ with some additions, but, according to Le Clerc, of 
little importance. Le Clerc offers also some objections to 
the work itself, which, if just, imply that Selden had ooi 
always been judicious in his choice of his authorities, not 
in the mode of treating the subject It contributed, how- 
ever, to enlarge the reputation which he already enjoyed 
both at home and abroad. 

In bis next^ and one of his most memorable perform* 
aoces, he did not earn the fame of it without some dan- 
ger. This was his ^< Treatise of Tythes,*' the object of 
which was to prove that tithes were not due by divine 
right under Christianity, although the clergy are entitled 
lo them by the laws of the land. This book was attacked 
by sir James Sempill in the Appendix to his treatise en* 
tilled ** Sacrilege sacredly handled/' London, 1619, and 
by Dr. Richard Tillesley, archdeacon of Rochester, in his 
<< Animadversions upon Mr. Selden's History of Tithes," 
London, 1621, 4to. Selden wrote' an answer to Dr. Til* 
lesley, which being dispersed in manuscript, the doctor 
pubUfllied it with remarks in the second editfion of his 
<< Animadversions," London, 1621, ^to, under tKis titles 
^ Afiia»adversions upon Mr. Selden's History of Tithes, and 
bis Review thereof. Before wbicli (in lieu of the two first 
chapters purposely pnetermitted) is premised a eataiogue of 
72 authors before the yeare 1215, maintaining the Jus di* 
vinum of Tytbes, or more, to be paid to tl^ Priesthood 
vnder the Gospell." Seldeo's book was likewise answered 
by Dr. Richard Montague in his << Diatribe,*' London, 
16^1, 4to; by Stephen Nettles, B.D. in his "Answer to 
the Jewish Part of Mr. Selden's History of Tytbes," Ox^ 
ford, 162$; and by Williaffi Sclater in his " Argumeoto 
^ut Tithes,'' London, 1623, in Uq. Selden's work bav- 
sog been leprioted in I680, 4ta, with the old date put to 
it» Dr. Thomas Comber answered it in a tpeatise entitled, 
« An Historical Vindication of the Divine Right of Tithes^ 
&c.'' London, 1681, in ito. 



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320 S E L B E N. . 

This work also excUed the displeasure of tfief cfourt, and* 
the author was called before some of the lords of the higb 
commissfon, Jan. 28, 1618, and obliged to make a public 
submission, which he did in these words : << My good Lords^ 
I most hunobly acknowledge my errour, which 1 hare com-* 
mitted in publishing the < History of Tithes/ and especially 
in that I have at all, by shewing any interpretation of Holy 
Scriptures, by meddling with Qouncils, Fathers, or Canons, 
or by what else soever occures in it, offered any occasion 
of argument against any right of maintenance * Jure divine^ 
of the Ministers of the Gospell ; beseeching your Lord- 
ships to receive this ingenuous and humble acknowledg- 
ment, together with the unfeined protestation of my griefe, 
for that through it I have so incurred both his Majestie's 
and your Lordships* displeasure conceived against mee iit 
behalfe of the Church of Englaud." We give this literally, 
because some of Mr. Selden^s admirers have asserted that 
he never recanted any thing in his book. The above is at 
least the language of recantation; yet he says himself in 
bis answer to Dr. l^llesley, << I confesse, that I did most 
willingly acknowledge, not only before some Lords of the 
High Commission (not in the High Commission Court) bnt 
also to the Lords of his Majesty^s Privy Council, that I * 
was most sorry, for the publishing of that History, because 
it had offended. And his Majesty's most gracious favour 
towards me received that satisfaction of the fault in so un- 
timely printing it ; and I profess still to all the world, that 
I am sorry for it. And so should I have been, if I had 
published a most orthodox Catechism, that had offended. 
But what is that to the doctrinal consequences of it, which 
the Doctor talks of? Is there a syllable of it of less truth^ 
because I was sorry for the publishing of it? Indeed, 
perhaps by the Doctor^s logic there is; and just so might 
he prove, that there is the more truth in his animadversions, 
because he was so glad of the printing them. And be- 
cause he hopes, as he says, that my submission bath cleared 
my judgment touching the right of tithes : what dream 
made him hope so? There is not a word of tithes in that 
submission more than in mentioning the title ; neither was 
my judgment at all in question, but my publishing it; and 
this the Doctor knows too, as I am assured.*' Selden, 
therefore, if this means any thing, was not sorry for what 
he had writteA, but because he had published it, and be 
was sorry he had published it, because it gave offence to 
the court and to the clergy. 

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S E L D E Nj 



3^1 



in 1621/ king James having, Id bis speech to the par« 
tiameot, asserted that their privileges were originally granu 
from the crown, Selden was consulted by tbe House of 
Lords on that question, and gave his opinion in favour of 
parliament; which being dissolved soon after, he was com- 
mitted to the custody of the sheriff of London> as a princi- 
pal promoter of the famous protest of the House of Gom- 
xnons, previous to its dissolution. From this conSnenlent, 
which lasted only five weeks, he was released by the in- 
terest of Dr. Andrews, bishop of Winchester, and returned 
to his studies, the first fruits of which were, a learned epis- 
tle prefixed to Vincent's " Discovery of errors in two edi- 
tions of the Catalogue of Nobility by Ralph Brooke,'* 
Lond. 1622, and tbe year following his '^ Spicilegium in 
Eadmeri sex libros Historiarum," foi. 

Although he had already been consulted by parliament 
on account of his knowledge of constitutional antiquities, 
he had not yet obtained a seat in- that assembly; but in 
1623 he was chosen a member for Lancaster, and in tbe 
parliament called in 1625, on the accession- of Chariest, 
he was chosen for Great Bedwin in Wiltshire, and now 
took an active part in opposition to the measures of the 
court '^. In 1626 he was chosen of the committee for 



^ Id Trioiiy tenn, 1624, he was 
choteD reader of Lyon*s-Inii, bat re- 
futed to perform that office. Id tbe 
register of the looer Temple is the fol- 
lowing liassage: ** Wberieas ao ordtr 
Was made attheBeodi-Table this term, 
sioce the last parliameot, and entered 
ioto the buttery-book in iheie words ; 
Jovis 21 die Oetobrit 1624. Memorafi' 
dum, that whereas Joho SeldeD, esq. 
one of the utter barristers of this house, 
%as ill Trinity term last, choien reader 
of Lyon's Ion by the ifentlemen of the 
same house, according to the order of 
iheir house, which he then refused to 
teke upon him, and perform the same, 
whhoui some sufficient cause or good 
reason, notwithstanding many coune- 
oos and fair persuasions and admoni- 
tiona by the masters of the bench made 
to him ; I >r which cause he having been 
twice conveated before the Ousters of 
the bench, it was then ordered, that 
there should he a ne re^iaiur entered 
upon his name, which wa» done accurd- 
iogly; and m respect the b^neh was 
Bot then full, the farther proceediop 

y«i..xxviL 



conceirning him were respited until this 
term- Now this day being called again 
to the table, he doth absolutely refuse 
to read. The masters of the bench, 
taking ioto consideration his contempt 
and offence, and for that it is without 
precedent, that any man elected to 
read in chancery has been discharged 
in like case, much less has with such 
wilfulness. refused the same, have or- 
dered, that he shall presently pay to 
the use of this house tbe ium of 201. 
for his fine, and that he stand and be 
disabled ever to be called to the beneb, 
or to be a reader of this house. Now 
at thu parliament the said order is con- 
firmed; and it is further ordered, that 
if any of this house, which hereafter 
shall be chused to read in chaiioery, 
shall refuse to read, every such offender 
shall be ftned, and be disablt d to bt 
called to the bench, or to be a read« 
of this bouse.*' However, in MichaeU 
ma« term 1632 it was «>rdere4l, t|utt 
Mr« SeideoJ' ahall stan4 eiiabltd and 
be capable ot any preferment in tho 
Oonse, in aiich a manntr as other 

ntter 
Y 



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322 S E L D E N. 

drawing up iirticleSv of inapeiichment against the dnke of 
Buckingham, and was afterwards appointed one of the ma« 
Dagers for the House of Cominons on his trial. In 1627 
he opposed the loan which the king endeavoured to raise^ 
and although be seldom made his appearance at the bar, 
pleaded in the court of King's Bench for Hampden, who 
had been imprisoned for refusing to pay his quota of that 
loan. After the third parliament of Charles I. in which be 
sat for Lancaster, bad been prorogued, he retired to Wrest 
in Bedfordshire, a seat belonging to the earl of Kent, where 
he finished his edition of the " Marmora Arundelliana,** 
Lond. 1629, 4to, reprinted by Prideaux, with additions at 
Oxford, in 1676, folio, and by Maittaire, at London, 1732, 
in folio. 

In the next session of parliament he continued his ac- 
tivity against the measures of the court, to which he had 
made himself so obnoxious, that after that parliament was 
dissolved, Lq was committed to the Tower by an order of 
the Privy-conncil, where he remained about eight months, 
and as he then refused to give security for his good be- 
haviour, he was removed to the King's Bench prison, but 
was allowed the rules. It was about this time that he wrote 
his piece " De successionibus in bona defuncti, secundum 
leges Hebraeorum,'' Lond. 1634, 4to; and another, " De 
successione in ponlificatum Hebr«orum libri duo," re- 
printed at Leyden, 1638, 8vo, and Francfort, by Beckman, 
1673, 4to, with some additions by the author. In May 
1630 he was removed to the Gate-house at Westminster ; 
and iu consequence of this removal, he found means to 
obtain so much indulgence, as to pass the long vacation in 
Bedfordshire; but when his habeas corpus was brought, as 
usual, in Michaelmas term ensuing, it was refused by the 
court, and the judges complaining of the illegality of his 
removal to the Gate-house, he was remanded to the King's^ 
bench, where he -continued till May 1631, when he was 
admitted to bail, and bailed from term to term, until he 
petitioned the king, in July 1634, and was finally released 
by the favour of archbishop Laud and the lord treasurer* 
During his confinement, having been always much attached 
to the study of Jt-wish antiquities, he wrote his treatises, "De 
Jure naturali et gentium, juxta disciplinam Hebraorum," 

vttiT bafristters of tbis House are to al) liand'mg^; aDd acoordingly he was calleji 
intents and purposes, any former act td the bcoch Michicloaai followinj." 
of parhaaeat to th« contrary notwit^- 



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S E L D E N. 523 

^nd his *^ Uxor Hebndca/* on the marriages, divorces, &o. 
of the ancient Hebrews. In 16:53 be was one of the com-* 
mittee appointed for preparing the mask exhibited by the 
gentlemen of the Inhs of Court, before the king and queen 
on Candlemas night, in order to show their disapprobation 
of Prynne^s book against stage-plays, called *^ Histriomas- 
tix:" so various were Seiden^s pursuits, that he could even 
superintend mummery of this kind, while apparently under 
the displeasure of the court. His next publication, faow« 
ever, effectually reconciled the court and ministers. 

During king James's reign, Selden had been or- 
dered by his .majesty to make such collections as 
might shew the right of the crown of England to the 
dominion of the> sea, and he had undertaken the work, 
but, in resentment for being imprisoned by James, de^ 
dined the publication. An occasion offered now iu which 
it might appear to advantage. In 1634, a dispute having 
arisen between the English and Dutch concerning the 
herring'fishery upon the British coast, to which the Dutch 
laid claim, and had their claims supported by Grotius, 
who, in his ** Mare liberum" contended that fishing on the 
seas was a matter of common right, Selden now published 
his celebrated treatise of " Mare Clausum," Lond. 1635, foK 
In this he effectually demonstrated, from the law of nature 
and nations, that a dominion over the sea may be ac- 
quired : and from the most authentic histories, that such a 
dominion has been claimed and enjoyed by several nations, 
and submitted to by others, for their common benefit: 
that this in fact was the case of the inhabitants of this 
island, who, at all times, and under every kind of govern- 
ment, bad claimed, exercised, and constantly enjoyed such 
a dominion, which had been confessed by. their neighbours 
frequently, and in the most solemn manner. This treatise, 
iu the publication of which Selden is said to have been en- 
couraged by archbishopi Laud, greatly recommended him 
to the court, and was considered as so decisive on the 
question, that a copy of it was placed among the records of 
the crown, in the exchequer, and in the court of admiralty- 
This work was reprinted in 1636, 8vo. An edition alio 
appeared in Holland, 12mo, with the title of London, but 
was prohibited by the king, because of some additions, . 
And a prefoce by Boxhornius. It was translated 'into 
Efigiisb, by the noted Marchamont Needbam, 1652, fol. 
wi&8om« additional evidence and discourses, by special 

Y Z 

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324 .S E L D E N. 

command, and a dedication of eighteen pages^ addressed 
to '^ The supreme authoritie of the nation and parliament 
of the Commonwealth of England/* which is of course not 
prefixed to the translation by J. H. Gent published after 
the restoration in 1663. Nicolson observes, that whea 
Selden wrote this book, he was not such an inveterate 
enemy to the prerogative doctrine of ship-money, as after- 
wards : for he professedly asserts, that in the defence of 
their sovereignty at sea, our kings constantly practised the 
levying great sums on their subjects without the concur- 
rence of their parliaments. The work having been attacked 
by Peter Baptista Burgus, Selden published in 1653, 4tOj 
a treatise in its defence, with rather a harsh title, *VVin- 
dicisB secundum integritatem existiroationis suce per cou- 
vitium de scriptione Maris clausi petulantissimum et 
mendacissimum Maris liberi, &c.'' 

In 1640j Selden published another of those works 
which were the fruit of his researches into Jewish antiqui- 
ties, already noticed under the title *^ De Jure Naturali et 
Gentium ju)cta discipltnam Hebrseorum," folio. PufFendorfF 
applauds this work highly ; but his translator Barbeyrac ob- 
served, that ^* besides the extreme disorder and obscurity 
which are justly to be censured in his manner of writing, he 
does not derive his principles of nature from the pure light of 
reason, but merely from the seven precepts given to Noah ; 
and frequently contents himself with cithig the decisions 
of the Rabbins, without giving himself the trouble to 
examine whether they be just or not.'' * Le Clerc says^ 
that in this book Selden '^ has only copied the Rabbins, 
and scarcely ever reasons at all. His rabbinical principles 
are foupded upon an uncertain Jewish tradition, namely, 
that God gave to Noah seven precepts, to be observed by 
all mankind; which, if it should be denied, the Jews 
would find a difficulty to prove : besides, his ideas are 
very imperfect and embarrassed.'* There is certainly somei 
foundation for this ; and what is said of his style may b^ 
more or less applied to all he wrote. He had a vast 
memory and prodigious learning ; which impeded the use 
of his reasoning faculty, perplexed and embarrassed big 
ideas, and crowded his writings with citations and authori- 
ties, to supply the place of argument. 

In this same year, 1640, Selden was chosen member for 
the university of Oxford, and that year and the following, 
continued to oppose the measures of the court, but bis Qon* 



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S E L D E N. 3«5 

tluct may to some appear unsteady. In truth, be attempted 
wbat in those days was impossible, to steer a middle course. 
He supported the republican party in the measures pre- 
paratory to the sacrifice of the pari of Strafford, but was not 
one of their Committee for managing the impeachment, 
^nd his name was even inserted in a list of member?, posted 
up in Old Palace Yard by some party zealots, and branded 
with tbe appellation of ^* enemies of justice." On the 
subject of church-government, although he seems to have 
entertained some predilection for the establishment, yet 
he made no effort to prevent its fall, at all commensurate 
to his Jknowledge and credit In the debates on the 
question whether bishops sat in parliament as barons and 
peers of the realm, or as prelates, he gave it as his opinion 
that they sat as neither, but as representatives of the clergy ; 
and this led to the expulsion of them from parliament. 
Afterwards we find him concurring with other members of 
the Housip of Commons in a protestation that they would 
maintain the protestant religion according to the doctrine 
of the church of England, and would defend the person apd 
authority of the king, the privileges of parliament, and 
the rights of the subject. In the prosecution of arch- 
bishop Laud, Selden was among those who were appointed 
to draw up articles of impeachment against him, an office 
which must have produced a severe contest between his 
private feelings and his public duties. 

Notwit;hstanding all this, the royalists were unwilling to 
believe that a man so learned and so well informed as 
Selden could be seriously hostile, and there were even 
some thoughts of taking the great seal from the lord 
keeper Littleton, and giving it to him. Clarendon tells us, 
that lord Falkland and himself, to whom his majesty re- 
ferred the consideration of this measure, ^' did not doubt 
of Mr. Selden's affection tp the king; but withal they 
knew hini so well, that they concluded be would absolutely 
refuse the place, if it were offered to him. He was in 
years, and of a tender constitution : he • had for many 
years enjoyed his ease, which he loved ; was rich, and 
would not have made a journey to York, or have lain out 
of his own bed, for any preferment, which he had never 
affected." But in all probability his majesty's advisers saw 
that his want of firmness, and his love of safety, were the 
real impediments. When the king found him opposing in 
parliament the commission of array, he desired lord Falk- 



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925 S E L D E N. 

land to write to Selden on the subject, who tiodicated 
his conduct on that point, but declared bis intention to be 
equally hostile to the ordinance for the militia, which was 
moved by the factious party, and which be justly declared 
to be without any shadow of law, or pretence of precedent, 
and most destructive to the government of the kingdom. 
Accordingly he performed his promise, but this remarkable 
difference attended his efforts, that his opposition to the 
conamission of array did the king great injury among 
many of his subjects, while the ordinance which armed the 
parliamentary leaders against the crown was carried : and, 
according to Whitelocke, Seldei\ himself was made a 
deputy-lieutenant under it. There was an equally re- 
markable difference in the treatment he received for this 
double opposition. The king and his friends, convinced 
that he acted honestly, bore no cesentment against him ; 
but the popular leaders, most characteristically ,"^ inferred 
from this, that he must be hostile to their cause, and made 
vain endeavours to induce Waller to implicate him in the 
plot which he disclosed in 1643. Nor was his exculpation 
sufficient : for be was obliged, by an oath, to testify his 
hostility against the traitorous and horrible plot for the sub- 
version of the parKament and state. 

In 16^3, he was appointed one of the lay-members to 
sit in the assembly of divines at Westminster, in which, his 
admirers tell us, he frequently perplexed those divines 
with his vast learning ; and, as Whitelocke relates, 
^* sometimes when they had cited a text of scripture to 

}>rove their assertion, he would tell them, * perhaps in your 
. ittle pocket-bibles with gilt leaves,' which they would 
often pull out and read, ' the translation may be thus f but 
the Greek and the Hebrew signify thus and thus ; and so 
would totally silence them." This anecdote, which has 
often been repealed to Selden's praise, may afford a proof 
of his wit, such as it was ; but as a reflection on the d^ines 
of that assembly, it can do him no credit, many of theni 
certainly understanding the original languages of the Bible 
as well as himself. It was in truth, as an able critic has 
obt>erved, a piece of wanton insolence. 

It is riow necessary to revert to his publications, which 
were seldoin long interrupted by his political engagements. 
In 1642, he published " A brief discourse concerning the 
power of peers and commons in parliament in point of 
judicature," 4to, which some have, however^ ascribed to. 



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5 EL DEN. 527 

»ir Simonds D'Ewe«« It was followed by << A ditcourse 
concerning the rights and privileges of the subjects, in a 
conference desired by the lords in 1628," Lond. 1642, 4to: 
** Privileges of the Baronage of England, when they sit in 
parliament,'' ibid. 1642, and 1681, 8vo; and an edition of 
Eutychius's ^^ Origioes," with a translation and notes, 
Lond. 4to, under this title, ^'Eutychii iEgyptii, Partiarch» 
orthadoxorum Alexandrini, £k;clesise sues origines ex ejus-' 
dem Arabico, nunc primum edidit ac versione et commen*- 
tario auxit Joannes Seldenus.*' Pocock (see Ppcocx, 
Vol. XXV. p. 91) inserted t*his work in his edition of the 
annals of Eutychius, which he translated at the desire of 
Mr. Selden, at whose expence they were printed at Oxford, 
in 1656, 4to. Mr. Selden's book has been animadverted 
upon by several writers, particularly Abrahcun Ecchellensis, 
John Morin, and Eusebius Kenaudot. 

In 1 643, he afforded every proof of his adherence to the 
republican party, by taking the covenant ; and the sane 
year, was by the parliament appointed keeper of the re-* 
cords in the Tower. In 1644, he was elected one of the 
twelve commissioners of the admiralty ; and nominated to 
the mastership of Trinity- college, in Cambridge, which he 
did not think proper to accept. In this year, be published 
bis treatise ^^ De Anno civili et Cale^dario Judaico,*' 4to.' 
In 1646, the parliament was so sensible of his services that 
they voted him the sum of 5000/. in consideration of his 
sufferings. What these were we have already related. In 
1647, he published bis learned ^^ Dissertation annexed to 
(a book called) Fleta,'' which he discovered in the Cot- 
tonian library. A second edition was published in 1685, 
but in both are said to be many typographical errors. In 
1771, R. Kelham Esq. published a translation with notes. 
This work contains many curious particulars relating to 
those ancient authors on the laws of England, Bracton, 
Britton, Fieta, and Thornton, and shews what use was 
made of the imperial law in England, whilst the Romans 
governed here, at what time it was introduced into this 
nation, what use our ancestors made of it, how long it con- 
tinued, and when the use of it tolally ceased in the king*s 
courts at Westminster. 

Selden continued to sit in Parliament after the mur- 
der of the king, and was the means of doing some good to 
learning, by his own reputation and inBuence in that re- 
spect. He preserved archbishop Usher's library from 



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598 8 E L D E N. 

being sold^ and rendered considerable services to tbe nniveiw 
sity of Oxford, uking all occasions, as in the cases of Pocock 
aad Greaves, to moderate the tyranny of the parliamentary 
visitors, and often affording a generous protection to 
other eminent men who were about to be ejected for their 
adherence to tbe king. He also was instrumental in pre- 
serving the books and medals at St James's, by persuad- 
ing his friend Whitelocke to accept the charge of them; 
Of his conduct while the death of the king was pending, 
we have no account ; at that critical period, he retired, it i| 
said, as far as he could : and it is ceruin that he refused 
to gratify Cromwell by writing an answer to the Eikon 
Basilike. In 1650, he published his 6rst book, << De 
Synedriis et prsefecturis Hebrasorum,*' 4to ; the second ap- 
peared in 1653, and the third after his death, in 1655^ 
Many passages in this work have been animadverted upon 
by several eminent writers, especially what relates to ex- 
vcommunication. Dr. Hammond, in particular, has ex- 
amined Selden's notion concerning the power of binding 
and loosing, in his treatise concerning <^ The power of the 
Keys." Ill 1652, he contributed a preface to the " De- 
cem Soriptores Historic ^^s'i^^"^/' printed at London 
that year, in folio. 

In the beginning of 1654 his health began to decline, 
and he began to see the, emptiness of all human learning ; 
and owned, that out of the numberless volumes he had 
read and digested, nothing stuck so close to his heart, or 
gave him such solid satisfaction as a single passage out of 
St. Paul's Epistle to Titus, ii. 11, 12, 13, 14. On Nov. 
10 of that year, he sent to bis friend BulstVode Whitelocke, 
in order to make some alterations in his will, but when he 
came he found Selden's weakness to be so much increased, 
that he was not able to perform his intention ^. He died 
Nov. 30, in the seventieth year of bis age, in White Friars, 
at the house of Elizabeth, countess of Kent, with whom he 
had lived some years in such intimacy, that they were re- 

* Hit letter may be tubjoioed, as . << Most bqmble Servant, 

tbe last memorial of this great man. " J. Selden. 

** My Lord. '• WbiteFriert, Not. 10, 1654." 

'* lama most bumble suitor to your ** I went to bim," says Mr. Wbite- 

Lordship, that you will be pleiised, looke, ** and was advised with about 

that I might have your presence for a settling bis estate, and altering bis will, 

liule time tomorrow or next day. and to be one of bit oxecvtors ; butbtk 

Thus much wearie* the most weak hand weakoets so iacreased, that bis if|^ll- 

aadbodyof Your Lordship's tiQQs were prevented.'* 

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S E L D E N. 32r 

ported to be man and wife*, and Dr. Wilkins suppo$e8> thai 
die wealth, which he left at bis death, was chiefly owing to 
the generosity of that countess : but there is no good reason 
for either of these surmises, fie was buried in the Temple 
churcb, where a monument was erected to him ; and abp. 
Usher preached his funeral sermon. He left a most valua^ 
ble and curious library to his executors, Matthew Hale^ 
John Vaughan, and Rowland Jewks, esqs. which they gene- 
rously would have bestowed on the society of the Inner 
Temple, if a proper place should be provided to receiTe it: 
but, this being neglected, they gave it to the university of 
Oxford. Selden, himself, had originally intended it for 
Oxford, and had left it so in his will fy but was offended 
because when he applied for a manuscript in the Bodleian 
library, they asked, according to usual custom, a bond of 
1000/ for its restitution. This made him declare, with some 
passion, that they should never have his collection. The 
executors, however, considered that they were executors 
of bis will and not of his passion, and therefore destined 
tbe books, amounting to 8000 volumes, for Oxford, where 
a noble room was added to the library for their reception* 
Burnet says, this collection was valued at some thousands 
of pounds, and was believed to be one of tbe most curious 
in Europe. It is supposed that sir Matthew Hale gave some 
of Selden's MSS respecting law to Li ncoln's-Inn library, as 
there is nothing of that kind among what were sent to tbe 
Bodleian ; and a few Mr. Selden gave to the library of tbe 
college of physieiaos. 

Seidell was a man of extensive learning, and had as much 
skill in tbe Hebrew and Oriental languages as perhaps any 
man of his time, Pocock excepted. Grotius, over whom 
he triumphed in his '^Mare clausum," styles him '^ tbe glorj 

* Aobrey lays be nbarried the coan- whole to Oxford.^ We kpow not on 

tett wbeu a widow, but we know of no what authority this report is giTea, bat 

Other auiboritv for this. Aabrey says it is contradictory to every other evi- 

alto that be nerer would own the raarv dence. The account in the text ap- 

riage until after her death, and then pearft to be the true one. See the term^ 

up6n tome law account. on which Selden's library was sent to 

t in Mr. Nichols's ** Literary Anec- Oxford in a i^ote on A. Wood's Life» 

dotes," it is »aid that «' Selden had sent 177S, p. 131. Wood and Barlow as- 

ills library to Oxford in bis life-time, sisi«'d in ranging the books, in openinf 

bat bearing that they had lent out a some of which, Wood tells os, they 

book without a sufficient caution, he found several pai rs of spectacles, "an4 

sent for it back again. After his death, Mr. Themas Barlow gave A. W. a pair, 

it conunued s<»ine time at tbe Temple, which he kept ii^mcmorie off S«lde« to 

%heriB it sufered some diminotioo : at his last day." 
]«st tbie exeeat«ra, &c« fcc» sent tli* 



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3S0 , * S E L D E N.' 

of the English nation.** He was knowing in all laws, hiwiaii 
and divine, yet did not oreatly irouble himself with the 
practice of law: he seldom appeared at the bar, butsoiiie<« 
times gave counsel in his chamber. " His mind also,** says 
Whitelocke, ^* was as great as his learning ; he was as bos-* 
pitable and generous as any man, and as good company to 
those he liked." Wilkins relates, that lie was a man of 
uncommon gravity and greatness of soul, averse to flattery^ 
liberal to scbolaro, charitable to the poor ; and that, though 
he had a great latitude in his principles with regard to eccle- 
siastical power, yet he had a sincere regard for the church 
of England. Baxter remarks, that " he was a resolved se* 
rious Christian, a great adversary, particularly, to Hot>bes*s 
errors ;'* and that sir Matthew Hale alErmed, " how he had 
seen Selden openly oppose Hobbes so earnestly, as either 
to depart from him, or drive him out of the room." But 
the noblest testimony in his favour is that of his intimate 
friend the earl of Clarendon, who thus describes him in all 
parts of his character : " Mr. Selden was a person," says 
be, *' whom no character can flatter, or transmit in any 
expressions equal to his merit and virtue. He was of such 
stupendous learning in all kinds and in all languages, as 
may appear from hi9 excellent and transcendant writings, 
that a man would have thought he had been entirely con* 
Tersant among books, and had never spent an hour but in 
reading or writing ; yet his humanity, courtesy, and affa* 
bility, was such, that he would have been thought to have 
been bred in the best courts, but that his good-nature, cha- 
rity, and delight in doing good, and in communicating all 
he knew, exceeded 'that breeding. His style in all his 
writings seems harsh, and sometimes obscure ; which is not 
wholly to be imputed to the abstruse subjects of which he 
commonly treated, out of the paths trod by other men, but 
to a little undervaluing the beauty of a style *, and too much 
propensity to the language of antiquity: but in his conver- 
sation he was the most clear discourser, and had the best 
faculty in making hard things easy, and present to the un- 
derstanding, of any man that hath been known.'* His 
lordship also used to say, that **he valued himself upon 
nothing more than upon having had Mr. Selden's acquaint*- 
ance, from the time he was very young ; and held it with 

» Selden*s ityle if particulf riy la- and made many alterationt and «ra' 
bour«d and uocouth, and fr*m bit sareg befora he c«uld please bimielf. 
M5S It appeara Uiat be was faitidiottt, 



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S E L D E N; 531 

great delight as long as they were suffered to r ontinue to- 
gether in London : and be was very much troubled always 
when be heard him blamed, censured, and reproached fot 
staying in London, and in the parliament, after they were 
in rebellion, and in the worst times, which his age obliged 
him to do ; and how wicked soever the actions were, which 
were every day done, he was confident he had not given his 
consent to them, but would have hindered them if he could 
with his own safety, to which he was always enough indul- 
gent. If he bad some infirmities with other men, they 
were weighed down with wonderful and prodigious abilities 
and excellences in the other scale." The political part of 
Selden's life, is that which the majority of readers will con-- 
template with least pleasure ; but on this it is unnecessary 
to dwell. The same flexibility of spirit, which made him 
crouch before the reprehension of James L disfigured the 
rest of his life, and deprived him of that dignity and im* 
portance which would have resulted from his standing erect 
in any place he might have chosen. Clarendon seems to 
have hit the true cause of all, in that anxiety for his own 
safety to which, as he says, ^^ he was always indulgent 
enough." 

Several other works of his were printed after his death^ 
or left in manuscript. I. ** God made man. A Tract prov» 
ing the nativity of our Saviour to be on the 25th of Decern* 
ber," Lond. 1661, 8vo, with\his portrait. This was an- 
swered in the first postscript to a treatise entitled ^ A 
brief (but true) account of the certain Year, Month, Day, 
and Minute of the birth of Jesus Christ," Lond. 1671, 8vo, 
by John Butler, B. D. chaplain to James duke of Ormonde, 
•and rector of Litchborow, in the diocese of Peterboroogb. 
2. " Discourse of the office of Lord Chancellor of England," 
London, 1671, in fol. printed with Dugdale's catalogue of 
lord chancellors and lord keepersof England'from the Nor- 
man conquest. 3. Several treatises, viz. ** •England's Epi- 
nomis;" already mentioned, published 1683, in fol. by 
Redman Westcot, alias Littleton, with the English transla- 
tion of Selden's " Jani Anglorum Facies altera." 4. *^ Ta- 
ble talk : being the discourses or his sense of various mat- 
ters of weight and high consequence, relating especially td 
Religion and State," London, 1689, 4to, published by 
Richard Milward, amanuensis to ourAithor. Dr.Wilkios 
observes, that there are many things in this book inconsist- 
ent with Selden's great learning, principles, aad cbaracteivi 



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IS2 S E L D E N. 

It hat, however, acquired popularity, and still continues tB 
be printed, as an amusing and edifying manual. 5. ^* Let- 
ters to learned men ;'' among which several to archbishop 
Usher are printed in the collection of letters at the end of 
Parr*8 life of that prelate; and two letters of his to Mr. 
Thomas Greaves were first published from the originals by 
Thomas Birch, M. A. and F. R. S. in the life prefixed to 
Birch's edition of the ^'Miscellaneous works of Mr. John 
Greaves,'* Lond. 1737, in two volumes, 8vo. 6. ** Speeches, 
Arguments, Debates, &c. in Parliament.'* '7. He had a 
considerable hand in, and gave directions and advice to- 
wards, the edition of " Plutarch's Lives," printed in 1657, 

. with an addition of the year of the world, and the year of 
our Lord, together with many chronological notes and ex- 
plications. His works were collected by Dr. David Wil- 
kins, and printed at Loudon in three volumes fol. 1726. 
The two 4rst volumes contain his Latin works, and the 

~ third bis English. The editor has prefixed a long life of 
the author, and added several pieces never published be- 
fore, particularly letters, poems, kc. In 1675 there was 
printed at London in 4to, *^ Joannis Seldeni Angli Liber 
de Nummis^ &c. Huic accedit Bibliotheca Kummaria.'* 
Put ibis superficial tract was not written by our author, but 
by Alexander Sardo of Ferrara, and written before Selden 
was born, being published at Mentz, 1575, in 4to. The 
M Bibliotheca Nummaria" subjoined to it was written by fa- 
ther I^bbe the Jesuit.^ 

SELKIRK {Alexander), whose adventures have given 
^ise to the popular romance of Robinson Crusoe, was born 
at Largo, in Fifeshire, in Scotland, about 1676, and was 
bred a seaman. He left England in 1703, in the capacity 
of sailing-master of a small vessel, called the Cinque-Pqrts- 
Galley, Charles Pickering captain; and in the month of 
September, the same year, he sailed from Cork, in com- 
pany with another ship of 26 guns and 130 men, called the 
St George, coo^manded by captain William Dampier, in- 
Jtended to cruise against the Spaniards in the South sea. On 
the ooast of Brasil, Pickering died, and was succeeded in 
the command by lieutenant Stradling. They proceeded 
round Cape Horn to the island of Juan Fernandez, whence 
they were driven by the appearance of two French ships of 
% 

» Biog. Brit— G^. Diet.— Ufe by Wnkiof.— Ufhcet Life and Letters.— Lct- 
tm *f emioeni PenoQt, 1813. 3 rok. 8t*.— Tvells't Life of Pocock, p. 49 end 
^.7-A*4ii'8 Livet of SeUeD ami U»her.— Jirit. Crit. vol XU. 



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SELKIRK; tSS 

-36 gilins each, and left Hve of Stradling's men bn shore, 
who were taken off by the French. Hence they sailed to 
the coast of America, where Dampier and Stvadling quar^ 
relied, and separated by agreement This was in the month 
of May 1704; and in the following September, Stradling 
came to the island of Juan Fernandez, where Selkirk and 
bis captain having a quarrel, he determined to remain there 
alone. But when the ship was ready to sail, his resolution 
was shaken, and he desired to be taken on board ; but now 
the captain refused his request, and he was left with his 
clothes, beddings a gun, land a small quantity of powder 
and ball, some trifling implements, and a few books, with 
certain mathematical and nautical instruments. Thus left 
sole monarch of the island, with plenty of the necessaries 
of life, he found himself at first in a situation scarcely sup* 
portable ; and such was his melancholy, that he frequently 
determined to put an end to his existence. It was full 
eighteen months, according to his own account, before be 
could reconcile himself to bis lot. At length his mind be- 
came calm, and fully reconciled to his situation : he grew 
happy, employed bis time in building and decorating his 
huts, chasing the goats, whom he soon equalled jn speed, 
and scarcely ever failed of catching them. He also tamed 
young kids, and other animals, to be bis companions. When 
jbis garments were worn out, he made others from the skins 
of the goats, whose flesh served him as food. His only 
liquor was water. He computed that he had caught, dur- 
ing his abode in the island, about 1000 goats, half of which 
be had suffered to go at large, having first marked them 
with a slit in the ear. Commodore Anson, who went there 
30 years after, found the first goat which they shot, had 
been thus marked ; and hence they concluded that it had 
been under the power of Selkirk. Though he constantly 
performed his devotions at stated hours, and read aloucf, 
yet when he was taken from the island, his language, from 
disuse of conversation, had become scarcely intelligible* 
In this solitude he remained four years and four months, 
during which only two incidents occurred which he thought 
worthy of record. The first was, that pursuing a goat ea-^ 
gerly, he caught at the edge of a precipice, of which he 
was not aware, and be fell over to the bottom, where he 
lay some time senseless ; but of th^ exact space of time 
in which he was bereaved of bis active powers he could not 
jforan an accurate estimate. When, bowerer, he came to 



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8S4 S E L K I R K. 

btmself, fae fbuod the goat lying under bim dead. It was 
with difficulty that be could crawl to bis habitation, and it 
was not till after a considerable time that he entirely reco* 
Tered from his bruises. The otber event was tbe arriTal 
of a ship, which he.at first supposed to'be French, but, 
tipon the crew^s landing, be found them to be Spaniards, 
of whom he bad too great a dread to trust himself in tbeit 
hands. They, however, had seen him, and he found it 
extremeljr difficult to make his escape. In this solitude 
Selkirk remained until >be 2d of February, 1709, when he 
taw two ships come to the bay, and knew them to be Eng- 
lish. He immediately lighted a fire as a signal, and be 
found, upoiT the landing of the men, that they were two 
privateerr from Bristol, commanded by captains Ro^^ers and 
Courtney. These, after a fortnight's stay at Juan Fernan* 
dez, embarked,' taking Selkirk with them, and returned by 
way of the East Indies to England, where they arrived on 
the 1st of October, 1711; Selkirk having been absent eight 
years. The public curiosity being much excited, he, after 
his return, drew up some account of what had occurred 
during bis solitary exile, which he put into the hands of 
Defoe, who made it the foundation of his well-known 
work, entitled '* Robinson Crusoe.*' The time and place 
of Selkirk's death are not on record. It is said, that so 
late as 1798, the chest and musket, which Selkirk had with 
him on the island, were in possession of a grand nephew, 
John Selkirk, a weaver in Largo, North Britain. Such are 
the particulars of this man*s history as recorded in ** Tbe 
Englishman," No. 26, and elsewhere, but what credit is 
due to it, we do not pretend to say.* 

SENAC (John), a distinguished French physician, was 
born in Gascofiy about the close of the seventeenth cen- 
tury, and is said to have been a doctor of the faculty of 
physic of Rheims, and a bachelor of that of Paris ; which 
last degree he obtained in 1724 or 1725. He was a man 
of profound erudition, united with great modesty, and be- 
came possessed, by his industry in the practice of bis pro- 
fession, of much sound mt dical knowledge. His merits 
obtained for him the favour of the court, and he was ap- 
pointed consulting physician to Louis XV. and subse- 
quently succeeded Chicoyneau in the office of first physi- 
cian to that monarch. He was also a member of the rojral 

. » Sinclair's SUtiiUctlRcpcuts of Scotland.— Chalmcri'i Lift of Defoe, Sw. . 



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S K N A C- 3SS 

academy of sciences at Paris, and of the royal society of 
Nancy. He died iti December 1770, at the age of about 
•eventy-seven years. 

This able physician left some works of great reputation, 
particularly his " Trait6 de- la Structure du Cccur, de son 
Action, etdeses Maladies,*' Paris, 1749, in two volumes^ 
4to. An essay ^^ De recondite febrium intermittentium et 
remittentium natur^," Amst. 1759, is generally ascribed to 
Senac. He also published an edition of Heister^s Anatomy, 
'Paris, 1724, and afterwards " Discours sur la M6thode de 
franco, et sur celle de M. Rau touchant TOperation de la 
Taille," 1727. ^*Trait6 des Causes, des Accidens, et de 
la Cure de la Peste," 1744. A work under the assumed 
name of Julien Morison, entitled '^ Lettres sur la Choix des 
Saign^es," 1730, was from his pen; but the " Nouveau 
Cours de Chymie suivant les Principes de Newton et de 
Stahl," Paris, 1722 and 1737, has been attributed by tnis- 
iake to Senac ; it was in fact a compilation of notes taken 
at the lectures of Geoffroy by some students, and is un- 
worthy of his pen. 

His son Gabriel Senac de Meilhan possessed political 
talents which promoted him in the reigns of Louis XV. aqd 
XVI. to the places of master of the requests, and intendant 
for several provinces. On the breaking out of the revolu- 
tion, he left France, and was received at some of the Ger- 
man courts with distinction. He afterwards went to St. 
Petersburgh, where Catherine II. gave him a pension of 
6000 roubles, and wished him to write the annals of her 
reign. On her death he removed to Vienna, where he 
died Aug. 1,6, 1S03. , He published, " Memoires d*Anne 
de Gonzague,*' " Consideration sur les Richesses et le 
Luxe;" a translation of Tacitus; and some political works 
on the revolution, with two volumes 8vo, of " Oeuvres phi- 
losophiques et litteraires." ' 

SENAULT (John Francis), an eloquent French divine, 
mzs bom in 1601, at Paris, and was the son of Peter Sen- 
ault, secretary to the council of the League. He entered 
young into the congregation of the oratory, then newly 
established hy cardinal de Berulle, and was one of the 
most celebrated preachers and best directors of his time. 
He preached with uncortimon reputation during forty years, 
•t Paris, ind in the principal cities of France, and wrote 

I Eloy, Diet. Hist. d« Medtdne.— Reet 't Cydopvduk-^Dict. Hist. 

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t$6 S E N A U L T. 

several books on pious and moral subjects, #hich werd 
much esteemed by pious catholics. He appears to bave 
been a disinterested man, for he refused some considerable 
pensions, and two bishoprics, but was elected general of 
the oratory in 1662. He died August 3, 1672, at Paris^ 
aged seventy-one. His principal works are, ^* A Para- 
phrase on the Book of Job,*' 8vo; <' L* Usage de^ Passions^'* 
12mo ; " L'Homme Chretien," 4to; « L* Homme crimineV* 
4to ; ^^ Le Monarque, ou les Devoirs du Souverain,*' 12mo; 
<^ Panegyrics on the Saints,^' 3 vols. Svo ; and the Lives, of 
several persons illustrious for their piety, &c. It was thii 
father, says L'Avocat, who banished from the pulpit that 
empty parade of profane learning, and that false taste, by 
which it was degraded, and who introduced a strong, sub* 
lime, and msyestic eloquence, suited to the solemnity of 
our mysteries, and to the truths of our holy religion.' 

SENECA (Lucius Ann^us), an eminent Stoic philoso- 
pher, was born at Corduba in Spain, the year before the 
beginning of the Christian asra, of an equestrian family, 
which had probably been transplanted thither in a colony 
from Rome. He was the second son of Marcus Annseus 
Seneca, commonly called the rhetorician, whose remains 
are printed under, the title of '< Suasorite & Controversial, 
cum Declamationum Excerptis;" and his youngest brother 
Annseus Mela (for there were three of them) was memora- 
ble for being th^ father of the poet Lucan. He was re- 
moved to Rome, while he was yet in his infancy, by his 
aunt, who accompanied him on account of the delicacy of 
his health. There he was educated in the most liberal 
manner, and under the best masters. He learned his elo- 
quence from his father ; but preferring philosophy to the 
declamations of the rhetoricians, he put himself under the 
stoics Attalus, Sotion, and Papirius Fabianus, of whom he 
has made honourable mention in bis writings. It is pro- 
bable too, that he travelled when he was young, since we 
find in several parts of his works, particularly in hu 
•* Qusestiones Naturales," some correct and curious obser- 
vations on Egypt and tlie Nile. But these pursuits did not 
at all correspond with that scheme of life which his father 
designed ; and to please him, Seneca engaged in the busi- 
ness of the courts, with considerable success, although be 
was rather an argumentative than an eloquent pleader. As 

A Diet. Hilt de L'Aroott 



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SENECA., S3* 

^Boon as he arrived at manhood, he aspired to the honours 
of the state, and became questor, praetor, atid, as Lipsius 
will have it, even consul, but the particulars of his public 
life are not preserved. 

In the first year of Claudius, when Julia, the daughter 
of Germanicus, was accused of adultery by Messalina (a 
woman very unworthy of credit), and banished, Seneca was 
involved both in the charge and the punishment, and exiled 
to Corsica, .where he lived eight years; happy, as he told 
his mother, in the midst of those things which usually make 
other people miserable. Here he wrote his books *' Of 
Consolation," addressed to his mother Helvia, and to his 

. friend Polybius. But, as Brueker remarks, it may be ques- 
tioned whether stoic ostentation had not some share in all 
this, for we find him, in another place, expressing much 
distress on account of his misfortune, and courting the em^ 
peror in a strain of servile adulation, little worthy of so 
eminent a philosopher. When Agrippina was married to 
Claudius, upon the death of Messalina, she prevailed with 
the emperor to redall Seneca from banishment ; and after- 
wards procured him to be tutor to her son Nero, and Afra- 
nius Burrhus, a prsetorian praefect, was joined with him in 
this important charge. These two preceptors executed their , 
trust with perfect harmony, and with some degree of suc« 
cess ; Burrhus instructing his pupil in the military art, and 
inuring him to wholesome discipline ; and Seneca furnish*^ 
ing him with the principles of philosophy, and the precepts 
of wisdom and eloquence ; and both endeavouring to con- 
fine their pupil within the limits of decorum and virtue. 
While these preceptors united their authority, Nero was 
restrained from indulging his natural propensities; but 
after the death of Burrhus, the influence of Seneca de- 
clined, and the young priqce began to djsclose that de- 
pravity which afterwards stained his character with eternal 
infamy. Still, however, Seneca enjoyed the favour of his 
prince, and after Nero was advanced to the empire, he 
long continued to load his preceptor with honours and 
riches. Seneca^s houses and walks were the most magni- 
ficent in Rome, and he had immense sums of money placed 
Q^t at interest in almost every part of the world. Suilius, 

» Qlieof his enemies, says, that during four years of impe- 
rial favour, be amassed the immense sum of 300,000 ses* 
tertifls, or 2,42 1 ,^7 5/. of our money. 

All this wealth, however, together with the luxury and 
VoL.XXVir. Z 



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S38 SENECA. 

effeiiMnacy of a courts are said not to have produced any 
improper effect uppn the temper and disposition of Seneca. 
He continued abstemious^ correct in bis manners^ and, 
above all, free from flattery and ambition. " I had rather,'* 
said he to Nero, ^ offend you by speaking the truth, than 
pleasie you by lying and flattery." It is certain that while 
he had any influence, that is, during the first five years of 
Nero's reign, that period had always been considered as a 
pattern of good government. But when Poppsea and Tigelli- 
nus had insinuated themselves into the confidence of the 
emperor, and hurried him into the most extravagant and 
abominable vices, he naturally grew weary of his master, 
whose life must indeed have, been a constant rebuke to 
Urn. When Seneca perceived that his favour declined at 
courts and that he had many accusers about the prince, 
who were perpetually whispering in his ears his great riches, 
Ijiis magnificent houses, his fine gardens, and his dangerous 
popularity, be oflfered to return all his opulence and favours 
to the tyrant, vrbb, however, refused to accept them,-%nd 
assured him of the continuance of his esteem ; but the phi-, 
losopber knew his disposition too well to rely oii his pro- 
mises, and as Tacitus relates, ** kept no more levees, de- 
clined the usual civilities which had been paid to him, and, 
under a pretence of indisposition or engagement, avoided 
as milch as possible to appear in public." It was not long 
before Seneca was convinced that he had made a just esti- 
mate of the sincerity of Nero, who now attempted, by 
means of Cleonicus, a freedman of Seneca, to take him off 
by poison ; but this did not succeed. In the mean time 
Antonius Natalis, who bad b«en concerned in the conspi- 
racy of Piso, upon his examination, in order to court the 
favour of Nero, or perhaps even at his instigation, men- 
tioned Seneca among the number of the conspirators, and 
to give some colour to the accusation, pretended, that be 
had been sent by Piso to visit Seneca whilst he was sick, 
and to complain of bis having refused to see Piso, who as a 
friend might have expected free access to him upon all oc- 
casions ; and that Seneca, in reply, had said, that frequent 
conversations could be of no service to either party, but 
that he considered his own safety as involved in that of 
Piso. Granius Sylvanus, tribune of the praetorian cohort, 
was sent to ask Seneca, whether he recollected what had 
passed between himself and Natalis. Seneca, whether by 
accident or design is uncertain, bad that day left Campa- 



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SENECA. 339 

hia^ and was at bis country-seat^ about four miles from tbe 
city. Iti tbe evenings while be was at supper with his wife 
PauUina and two friends, the tribune, with a military band^ 
came to tbe bouse, and delivered tbe emperor^s message. 
Seneca's answer was, that be had received no complsunt 
from Piso, of bis having refused to see him ; and that tbe 
state of his health, which required repose, had been bis 
apology. He added, that he saw no reason why be should 
prefer the safety of any other individual to bis own ; and 
that no one was better acquainted than Nero, with bis in- 
dependent spirit. 

This reply kindled tbe emperor*s indignation, and learn- 
ing from the messenger that Seneca betrayed no symptoms 
of terror or distress, sent him a peremptory command im*^ 
mediately to put himself to death. This too Seneca receiv- 
ed with perfect composure, and asked permission of the 
oflScer who brought tbe command, to alter his will ; but that 
being refused, be requested of bis friends, that since be was 
fiot allowed to leave them any other legacy, they would 
preserve tbe example of bis life, and exhorted them to ex- 
ercise that fortitude, which philosophy taught. After some 
farther conversation with these friends, he embraced his 
wife, and intreated her to console herself with the recol- 
lection of his virtues : but PauUina refused every consola- 
tion, except that of dying with her husband, and earnestly 
solicited the friendly hand of the executioner. Seneca, 
after expressing bis admiration of his wife's fortitude, pro- 
ceeded to obey the emperor's fatal mandate, by opening a 
vein in each arm : but, through his advanced ag^, tbe vital 
stream flowed so reluctantly, that it was necessary also to 
open tbe veins of bis legs. Still finding his streugtb ex- 
hausted without any prospect of a speedy release ; in order 
to alleviate, if possible, tbe anguish of bis wife, who was 
a spectator of the scene, and to save himself the torture of 
witnessing her distress, be persuaded her to withdraw to 
another chamber. In this situation, Seneca, with wonder- 
ful recollection and self-command, dictated many philoso- 
phical reflections to bis secretary. After a long interval, 
his friend Statins Anneus, to whom be complained of tbe 
tedious delay of death, gave him a strong dose of poison ; 
but even this, through the feeble state of his vital powers, 
produced little effect. At last, be ordered the attendants 
to convey him into a warm bath ; and, as be entered, he^ 
sprinkled those who stood near, saying, ^ I offer this nba-' 

Z 2 



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340 S E N E C A. 

tion to Jupiter the deliverer/' Then, plunging into the 
bath, he was soon suffocated. His body was consumed, 
according to his own express order, in a will which he had 
made in the height of his prosperity, without any funeral 
pomp. , 

The character, the system, and the writings of this phi- 
losopher have been subjects of much dispute among the 
learned. Concerning his character, a candid judge, who 
considers the virtuous sentiments with which his writings 
abound, the temperate and abstemious plan of life which, 
be pursued in the midst of a luxurious court, and the for- 
titude with which he met his fate, will not hastily pro- 
nounce* him to have been guilty of adultery, upon the evi- 
dence of the infamous Messaiina; or conclude his wealth 
to have been the reward of a servile compliance with the 
base passions of hVs prince. It has been questioned whe- 
ther Seneca ought to be ranked among the stoic or the 
eclectic philosophers ; and the freedom of judgment which 
he expressly claims, together wiih the respect which he 
pays to philosophers of different sects, clearly prove, that 
he did not implicitly addict himself to the system of Zeno; 
nor can the contrary be inferred from his speaking of our 
Chrysippus, and (mr Clean thes ; for he speaks'also of (7z<r 
Demetrius, and cur Epicurus. It is evident, however, 
from the general tenor and spirit of his writings, that he 
adhered, in the main, to the stoic system. Wiib respect to., 
his writings, he is justly censured by Quintilian, and other 
critics, as among the Romans the first corrupter of style;, 
yet his works are exceedingly valuable, on account of the 
great number of just and beautiful moral sentiments which 
they contain, the extensive erudition which they discover, 
,and the happy mixture of freedom and urbanity, with 
which they censure vice, and inculcate good morals. The . 
writings of Seneca, except his books of ** Physical Ques- 
tions," are chiefly of the moral kind : they consist of one 
hundred and twenty-four " Epistles,** and distinct treatises, 
*' On Anger ; Consolation ; Providence ; Tranquillity of 
Mind; Constancy; Clelneticy; the Shortness of Life;, 
ft Happy Life; Ketirement; Benefits." 

From the excellence of many of his precepts, some have 
imagined, that he was a Christian, and it has been reported 
that he held a correspondence with St. Paul by letters ; but . 
although he must have heard of Christ and his doctrine, 
»nd his curiosity might lead him to inftke. some inquiry 



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SENECA. 341 

aliout them^ the letters published under the names of the 
Philosopher and Apostle, have long been declared spurious 
by the critics, and perfectly unworthy of either of them. 
A number of tragedies are extant under the name of Se- 
neca, written in a bad style, but it is uncerialn whether 
the whole or any of tbem^ were by this Seneca, Of his ac- 
knowledged works Justus Lipsius published the first good 
edition, which was succeeded by the Varioilim, 1672, 3 vols. 
8vo, and others. Of the tragedies, the best are those of 
Scriverius, 1621, the Variorum, 1651, &c. and Schroeder's, 
1728, 4to.' 

SENNERTUS (Daniel), an eminent physician of Ger- 
many, was born at Breslaw, where his father was a shoe- 
maker, Nov. 25, 1572. He was sent to the university- of 
Wittemberg in 1593, and th^e made a great progress in 
philosophy and physic, after which he visited the univer- 
sities of Leipsic, Jena, and Francfort upon the Oder ; and 
went to Berlin in 1601, whence he returned to Wittem- 
berg the same year, and was promoted to the degree of 
doctor in physic, and soon after to a professorship in the 
same faculty. He was the first who introduced the study of 
chemistry into that university. He gained great reputa- 
tion by his writings and practice ; patients came to him 
from all parts, aniong whom were persons of the first 
rank ; his custom was to take what was offered him for bis 
advice, but demanded nothing, and restored to the poor 
what they gave him. The plague was about seven times 
at Wittemberg while he was professor there ; but he never 
retired, nor refused to assist the sick : and the elector of 
Saxony, whom he had cured of a dangerous illness in 1628, 
though be had appointed him one of his physicians in ordi- 
nary, yet gave him leave to continue at Wittemberg. He 
probably fell a sacrifice to bis humanity, for he died of the 
plague at Wittemberg, July 21, 1637. 

Sennertus was a voluminous writer, and has been cha- 
racterized, by some critics, as a mere compiler from the 
works of the ancients. It is true that his writings contain 
an epitome, but, it must be added, a most comprehensive, 
clear, and judicious epitome, of the learning of the Greeks 
and Arabians, which renders them, even at this day, of 
considerable value as books of reference, and is highly 
4::reditable, considering the age in which they were com- 

' Taeiius.— Ahtooio Bibl. Hisp. Vetui.— Bfuckcr.— Saitii Qaomisl. 

I 

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349 S E N N E R T U S. 

nif to bit learning and discrimination* It must not be 
^:>ttbatbe also attained some fame as a philosopher^ 
and was the first restorer of the Epicurean system among 
the moderns. In a distinct chapter of his ^* Hypomnemata 
Physical' or " Heads of Physics," treating of atoms and 
mixture, be embraces the atomic system, which he derives 
from Mocbus the Phoenician. He supposes that the pri- 
mary corpuscles not onjy unite in the formation of bodies, 
but that in their mutual action an4 passion they undergo 
such modifications, that they cease to be what they were 
before their union ; and maintains, that by their combina- 
tion ail material forms are produced. Sennertus, however, 
confounded the corpuscles of the more ancient philoso- 
phers with the atoms of Democritus and Epictetus, and 
held that each element has primary particles peculiar to 
itself* His works have often been printed in France and 
Italy. The last edition is that of Lyons, 1676, in 6 vols* 
folio, to which his life is prefixed.' 

SEPTALIUS, or SETTALA (Louis), an Italian phy- 
sician of celebrity, wasJborn at Milan, in February 1552. 
He evinced great talents from bis early childhood, and at 
the age of sixteen defended some theses on the subject of 
natural philosophy with much iacuteness. His incUnauon 
leading him to the medical profession, he repaired to Pavia, 
for the study of it, and obtained the degree of doctor in 
his twenty-first year, and was even appointed to a chair in 
tiiis celebrated university two years after. At the end of 
four more years he resigned his professorship to devote 
himself entirely to practice at Milan, and while here Phi- 
lip III. king of Spain, selected him for his historiographer; 
but neitbei' this, nor many other honours, that were offered 
to him, could induce him to quit his native city, to which 
he was ardently attached. The only honour which he ac- 
cepted was the appointment of chief physician to the state 
of Milan, which Philip IV. conferred upon him in 1627, as 
a reward for his virtues and talents. In 1628, during the 
plague at Milan, Septalius, while attending the infected, 
was himself seized with the disease, and although he re- 
covered, he had afterwards a paralytic attack, which greatly 
impaired his health. He died in September 1633, at the 
age of eighty-one. Septalius was a man of acute powers, 
and solid judgment, and was reputed extremely successful 

> Niceroo, rol. XlV.«^£Iojr.— ^Brocker. 



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S E P T A L I U S. S4S 

in bis practice. He was warioly attached to the doctrines 
of Hippocrates^ whose works he never ceased to study. 
He was auciior of various works, among which are : ** In 
Librum Hippocratis Coi» de A^ribus, Aquis, et Locis, 
Comnaentarii quinqqe,'* 1590; ^^ In Aristotelis Problemata 
Commentaria Latina," torn. L 1602, II. 1607 ; " AnimaH* 
versionum et Cautionum Medicarum Libri duo, septem alii$ 
additi/' 1629 ; the result of 40 years of practice, and equal 
to any of its contemporaries of the seventeenth century* 
«* De Margaritis Judicium,'* 1618; " De Peste et Pes- 
tiferis AfFectibus Libri V." 1622 ; ** Analyticarum et Ani* 
masticarum Dissertatiooum Libri II." 1626, &c. &c. ^ 

SEPULVEDA (John Genes de), a Spanish writer of 
no good farney was born at Cordova in 1491, and became 
historiographer to the Elmperor Charles V. He is memor- 
able for writing a ^^ Vindication of the Cruelties of the 
Spaniards against the Indians,'* in opposition to the bene- 
volent pen of Barthelemi de la Casas. Sepulveda affirmed, 
that such cruelties were justifiable both by human and di- 
vine laws, as well as by the rights^of war. It is an act of 
justice to Charles V. to mention that he suppressed the 
publication of Sepulveda^s book in bis dominions ; but it 
was published at Rome. This advocate for the greatest 
barbarities that ever disgraced httflaan nature, died at 
Salamanca in 1 572. He was author of various works be- 
sides that above mentioned ; in particular, of some Latin 
letters, a translation from Aristotle, with notes, a life of 
Charles V. &c. printed together at Madrid in 1780, 4 vols. 
4to. under the care of the royal academy of history, a 
proof that he still holds hb rank among Spanish authors. * 

SCRAPION (John), or John the son of Serapion, an 
Arabian physician, lived between the time of Mesne and 
Rhazes, and was probably the first writer ou physic in the 
Arabic language. Haly Abbas, when giving an account of 
the works of his couotryment describes the writings of Se- 
rapion, as containing only an account of the cure of dis- 
eases, without any precepts concerning the preservation of 
health, or relating to surgery; and he makes many critical 
observations, which. Dr. Freiod observes, are sufficient 
proofs of the genuine existence of the works ascribed to 
Serapion, from their truth and correctness. Rhazes also 

1 EloT, Diet. H.St, de Medecine.— Rees's Cyclopedia. 
* Niceroa, vol. XXIil.— Aotou. B bl. Ui>p. 



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^4i 8 E R*A P I O N. 

quotes them frequently in bis ^^ Continent.^* Serat)ion 
must have lived towards the middle of the ninth century, 
and not in the reign of Leo Isaurus, about the year 730, as 
some have stated. One circumstance remarkable in Sera* 
pion, Dr. Freind observes, is, that he often transcribes the 
writings of Alexander TralHan, an author with whom few of 
the other Arabians appear to be much acquainted. This 
work of Serapion has been published, in translations, by 
Gerard of €remona, tender the title of *' Practica, Dicta 
Breviarum ;" and by. Torinus, under that of " Therapeu- 
tica Methodus." There is another Serapion, whom 
Sprengel calls the younger y and places 180 years later than 
the forifier, and who was probably the author of a work on 
the materia med^a, entitled ^* De Medicamentis tarn sim- 
plicibus, quam compositis.'* This work bears intrinsic 
evidence of being produced at a much later period, since 
authors are quoted who lived much posterior to Rhazes. ' 

SERAtllUS (Nicholas), a learned Jesuit and commen- 
tator on the Scriptures, was born in 1555, at Ramberwiller 
in Lorrain. After studying the languages, he taught ethics, 
philosophy, and theology at Wurtzberg aud Mentz, in 
which last city he died. May 20, 1610, leaving many 
works, of which the following are the principal : ** Com- 
mentaries on several'Books of the Bible,*' Mogunt. 1611 ; 
" Opuscula Theologica," 3 torn. fol. ; and others which 
are collected in 16 vols. foL Dupin gives this author 
some praise, but objects to him as dealing too much in 
digression, and as frequently being a trifling ahd incon- 
clusive reasoner. • 

SERASSI (Peter Anthony), an Italian biographer, 
was born at Bergamo in 1721, and at the age of twenty had 
so distinguished himself as to be elected a member of the 
al^ademy of Transformati at Milan, and on his return to 
Bergamo, was appointed professor of the belles lettres. In 
1742, he published his ** Opinion concerning the country 
of Bernardo and of Torquato Tasso,*' a tract in which be 
▼indicated, to the district of Bergamo, the honour of being 
the native country of these poeu, which had been denied 
by Seghezzi, the author of a very elegant life of Bernardo ; 
but Seghezzi now candidly confessed that bis opponent 
was right, and that he should treat the subject diflPerently, 
were be again to write on it. In the succeeding years, 

I Freind't Hitt, of Phytic— Reet'f Cyc1op»d|«. * DuptD.--Dict. Hift, 

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8 £ R A S S I. $45 

4 

Serasii publisfaed editions of several of the btst Italian 
writers, with their lives, particularly Maffiei, Molza, Poli- 
tian, Capella, Dante, Petrarch, &c. The most distin- 
guished of his biographical productions, however, was his 
lifeofTasso, 1785, 2 vols. 4to, on which he had been 
employed during twenty years. Mr. Black, in his life of 
that eminent poet, has availed himself of Serassi*s work, 
but not without discovering its defects. Serassi also pub- 
lished a life of <* Jacopo Mazzoni, patrician of Cessena,*^ 
a personage little known, but whose history he has rendered 
interesting. Serassi was employed in some offices under 
the papal government, and in the college of Propaganda.' 
He died Feb. 19, 1791, at Rome, in the seventieth year of 
his age. A monument was erected to his memory in the 
church of St. Maria, in Via lata, where he was interred ; 
and the city of Bergamo ordered a medal to be struck to his 
honour, with the inscription ^' Propagatori patrie laudis.*' * 

SERGARDI (Louis), an eminent satirist, was born at' 
Sienna in the seventeenth century, and going to Rome, 
became so distinguished for his talents that he was made a 
bishop. His Latin ^* Satires" were published under the 
name of Quintus Sectanus, and are said td rank among the 
purest imitations of Horace^s style and manner. He 
would have deserved to have been considered as the first of 
moral satirists, had he confined himself to the vices and 
follies of his time, but much of his ridicule is bestowed on 
the celebrated Gravina, who, with all his failings, ought to 
have been exempted from an attack of this kind. Sergardi 
died in 1727. The editions of his satires are : 1. <* Sectani 
Satyrse xix. in Phylodemum, cum notis variorum.'' Colon. 
1698, 8vo. 2. ^* Satyrse numero auctse, mendis purgat^, 
&c. cum notis anonymi : concinnante P. Antoniano." Amst. 
Elzevir (Naples), 1700, 2 vols. 8vo. 3. ** Sergardii Lud. 
antehac QL Sectani, Satyrs, et alia opera." Luc. 1783, 4 
vols. 8vo.* 

SERRANUS (Joannes), or John de Serres, a learned 
Frenchman, was born in the sixteenth century, and was of 
the reformed religion. His parents sent him to Lausanne, 
where he was taught Latin and Greek, and attached him- 
self much to the philosophy of Pla^o and Aristotle ; but, 
on hi? return to France, he studied divinity, in order to' 
qualify himself for the ministry. He began to distinguish 

» Life by Damiani in Alhenaiim. vol. V.-.BIack»» Preface to Ui» Lifeof T«i«o. 
• Fabroni Vii« Italorum, vol. X.— Laodi Uisi. de Ja UUf raUre dMialie, »ul. V. 



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S4e 8 E R R A N U.S. 

himself by hU writings in 1570; aod, in 1573, was obliged 
to take refuge in Lausanne, after the dreadful massacre on 
St. Bartholomew's day. Returning soon to France, he 
published a piece in French, called ** A Remonstrance to 
the king upon some pernicious principles in Bodin's book 
de Republica :'* in which be was thought to treat Bodin so 
injuriously, that Henry III. ordered him to prison. Ob- 
taining his liberty, he became a minister of Nismes in 
I58S, but never was looked upon as a very zealous pro* 
testant ; and some have gone so far as to say, but without 
sufficient foundation, that he actually abjured it. He is, 
however, suppose^ to have been one of those four minis- 
ters, who declared to Henry IV. that a roan might be 
saved in the popish as well as the peotestant religion ; a 
concession which certainly did not please his brethren. 
He published, in 1597, with a view to reconcile the two 
religions, ** De Fide Catholica, sive de principiis religionis 
CbristiansB, communi omnium consensu semper et ubique 
ratis;" a work as little relished by the catholics, as by the 
protestants. He died suddenly in 1598, when be was not 
more than fifty, and the popish party circulated a report 
that his brethrea of Geneva had poisoned him. 

He published several works in Latin and in French, 
relating to the history of France ; among the rest, in 
French : ** M^moires de la troisieme Guerre Civile, et der- 
niers troubles de France sous Charles IX., &c. ;*' *^ Inven- 
taire g£n6ral de THistoire de France, illustre pA la con- 
ference de TEglise et de TEmpire, &c ;" << Recueil des 
choses m^montbles avenues en France sous Henri II. 
Francois IL Charles IX. et Henri III." &c. These have 
been many times reprinted, with continuations and im- 
provements ; but it is objected that Serranus is not always 
impartial. Besides his theological works, he is perhaps 
best kiV)wn for his ** Latin version of Plato," which was 
printed with Henry Stephens^s magnificent edition of that 
author's works, 1578, 3. vols, fol This translation, although 
more elegant, is not thought so faithful as that of Ficinus. 
Stephens had a very high opinion of Serranus, and printed 
in J 575, twenty-four of the Psalms, translated by Serranus 
into Greek verse, with two ** Idyllia" from Daniel and 
Isaiah. Of this very .rare volume, Francis Okely published 
anew edition at London in 1772, 12ma ' 

> Niceron, toI. IV. — Moreri. 



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8 E R V A N D O N L 3« 

Sf:RVANDONl (John Nicholas), an ingenious archi- 
tect and machinist, was bom at Florence in 1695. He 
rendered himself famous by his exquisite taste in architec- ' 
ture, and by his genius for decorations, fetes, and buiid^ 
ings. He was employed and rewarded by most of the 
princes of Europe. He was honoured in Portugal with the 
order of Christ In France he was architect and painter to 
the King, and nysmber of the different academies esta^ 
blished for the advancement of these arts. He received 
the same titles from the kings of Britain, Spain, Poland, 
and from the duke of Wirtemberg ; but notwithstanding 
these advantages, his want of economy was so great^ that 
he left nothing behind biov He died at Paris in 1766. 
Paris is indebted to him for many of its ornaments. He 
made decorations also for the theatres of London and 
Dresdeti. The French king's theatre, called la salU des 
machines^ was under his management for some time. He 
was permitted to exhibit shows consisting of single decora- 
tions, some of which are said to have been astonishingly 
sublime, as his representations of St. Peter's of Rome; 
the descent of £neas into iiell ; the enchanted forest ; 
and the triumph of conjugal love ; the travels of Ulysses ; 
Hero and Leander; and the conquest of the Mogul by 
Thamas Koulikan. He built and embellished a theatre a^ 
Chamboa for Mareschal Sax^and had the management of 
a great number of fetes in Paris, Vienna, London, and 
Lisbon. Frederick prince of Wales, too, engaged him in 
his service : but the death of his royal highness prevented 
the execution of the designs which had been projected. 
Among his most admired architectural performances, are 
the portal, and ipany of the interior decorations oi the 
church of St Sulpice, at Paris : the great parish church of 
Coulanges in Burgundy: the great altar of the metropolis 
tan church of Sens ; and of the Chartreux at Lyons, &c. 

SERVETUS (Michael), a famous Anti-trinitarian, and 
the great martyr of the Socinian sect, was born in 1509, at 
Villaneuva in Arragon, or atTudela in Navarre, in 1511. 
His father, who was a notary, sent him to the university of 
Toulouse, to study the civil law: and there, or as some 
say, when in luly, he imbibed his peculiar notions re- 

> Diet Hilt— Kocycl. Bntan.— Necrologie de« Uommcs Cetttbres, pour 
MD^ 1767. 



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«4« S E R V E T U S. 

specting the doctrine of the Trinity, After he had been 
two or three years at Toulouse he resolved to remove into 
Germany, and propagate his opinions. He went to Basil, 
byway of Lyons and Geneva; and, having had some con- 
ferences at Basil with Oecolampadius, set out for Stras- 
burg, to converse with Bucer and Capito, two celebrated re- 
formers of that city. At his departure from Basil he left a 
manuscript, entitled " D.e Trinitatis Erroribus,** in the 
hands of a bookseller, who sent it afterwards to Haguenau, 
whither Servetus went, and had it printed in 1531. The 
•next year, be printed likewise at Haguenau another book, 
with this title, " Dialogorum de Trinitate libri duo :'* in 
an advertisement to which he retracts what he had written 
in his former book against the Trinity, not as it was false, 
but because it was written imperfectly and confusedly. 
He then resolved to return to France, because he was 
poor, and did not understand the German language ; as he 
alleged upon his trial to the judges, when they asked him 
why be left Germany. He went accordingly to Basil, 
thence to Lyonsj where he lived two or three years, and 
afterwards to Paris, where, having studied physic under 
Sylvius, Fernelius, and other professors, be took his degree 
of master of arts, and was admitted doctor of physic in the 
university. He now settled as a practitioner for two or 
three years in a town near Lyons, and then at Vienne in 
Dauphiny, for the space of ten or twelve. In the mean 
time, his writings against the Trinity had excited the indig- 
nation of the German divines, and spread his name through- 
out all Europe. In 1533, before he had left Lyons, Me- 
Ifincthon wrote a letter to Camerarius, in which he allowed 
that Servetus was evidently an acute and crafty disputant, 
but confused and indigested in his thoughts, and certainly 
wanting in point of gravity.' While Servetus was at Paris, 
his books being dispersed in Italy, were very much ap- 
proved by many who had thoughts of forsaking the church 
of Rome: which, in 1539, excited Melancthon to write a 
letter to the senate of Venice, importing, that ** a book of 
Servetus, who had revived the error of Paulus Samosatenus, 
was handed about in their country, and beseeching them 
to take care, that the impious error of that man may be 
avoided, rejected, and abhorred." Servetus was at Lyons 
in 1542, before he settled in Vienne; and corrected the 
proofs of a Latin Bible that was printing there, to which 
he added a preface and some marginal notes, under 



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S E R V E T US. S4f 

the name of VillaDOvanus, from the town where be wa» 
born. 

During this time, Calvini who was the bead of the church 
at Geneva^ kept a constant correspondence with Servetus 
by letters, and as he tells us, endeavoured, for the space of 
sixteen years, to reclaim that physician frooi his errors^ 
Beza informs us, that Calvin knew Servetus at Paris, and 
opposed his doctrine ; and adds, that Servetus, having en« 
gaged to dispute with Calvin, durst uo( appear at the time 
and place appointed. Servetus wrote several letters to 
Calvin at Geneva from Lyons and Dauphin^, and consulted 
him about several points : he also sent him a manuscript 
for his opinion, which, with some of his private letters, 
Calvin is said to have produced against him at his trial. 

Servetus, however, was inflexible in his opinions, and 
determined to publish a third work in favour of them. This 
came out in 155a, at Vienne, with this title, " Christianis-^ 
mi Rffstitujtio," &c. without his name, but being discovered 
to be the author, he was imprisoned at Vienne, and would 
certainly have been burnt alive if be had not made h\» 
^ escape ; however, sentence was passed on him, and his 
efligies was carried to the place of execution, fastened to a 
gibbet, and afterwards burned, with five bales of his books. 
Servetus in the mean time was retiring to Naples, where he 
hoped to practise physic with the same high reputation as 
he had practised at Vienne ; yet was so imprudent as to 
take his way through Geneva, where he was seized and cast 
into prison; and a prosecution was presently commenced 
against him for heresy and blasphemy. The articles of his 
accusation were numerous, and extracted from his various 
writings; some of them are decidedly on the point of his 
anti-trinitarianism, others are more trivial. The magis*' 
trates, however, being sensible that the trial of Servetus 
was a thing of the highest consequence, did not think fit to 
give sentence, without consulting the magistrates of the 
Protestant cantons of Switzerland:^ to whom, therefore, 
they sent Servetus's book, printed at Vienne, and also the 
writings of Calvin, with Servetus's answers; and at the 
same time desired to have the opinion of their divines about 
that aflfair. They all gave vote against him, as Beza him- 
self relates ; in consequence of which he was condemned 
and burnt alive, Oct. 27, 1553. His death has been made 
the occasion of numerous attacks on the character and 
memory of Calvin, who, however, has a very able advocate 



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Sii) S E R V E T U a 

in the life of Sa'Vetus by Chaufepie^ translated by the ReW 
James Yair, minister of the Scots church in Campvere, 
1771, 8vo. Servetus*8 death may more properly be refer- 
red to the spirit of the times, and may justly form a reflec- 
tion on the reformers in general, who were adopting the 
intolerant practices of the church which they had left. 

Servetus was a man of great acuteness and learning. He 
wis not only deeply versed in what we usually call sacred 
and prophane literature^ but also an adept in the arts and 
sciences. He observed upon his trial, that he had professed 
mathematics at Paris; although we do not find when, nor 
under what circumstances. He was so admirably skilled in 
his own profession, that he appears to have had some know- 
ledge of the circulation of the blood ; although rery short 
of the clear and full discovery made by Harvey. Our learn- 
ed Wotton says, "The first that I could ever find, who 
had a distinct idea of this matter, was Michael Servetus, a 
Spanish physician, who was burnt for Arianism at Geneva, 
near 140 years ago. Well had it been for the church of 
Christ, if he had wholly confined himself to his own pro« 
fession ! His sagacity in this particular, before so much in 
the dark, gives us great reason to believe, that the world 
might then have just cause to have blessed his memory. In 
t book of his, entitled < Ghristianismi Restitutio,^ printed 
in 1559, he clearly asserts, that the blood passes through 
the lungs, from the left to the right ventricle of the heart, 
and not through the partition which divides the two ventri- 
cles, as was at that time commonly believed. How be in- 
troduces it, or in which of the six discourses, into which 
Servetus divides his book, it is to be found, I know not, 
having never seen the book myself. Mr. Charles Bernard^ 
a very learned and eminent surgeon of London, who did 
me the favour to communicate this passage to me, set down 
at length in the margin, which was transcribed out of Ser- 
vetus, cduld inform me no farther, only that he had it from 
a learned friend of his, who had himself copied it from 
Servetus." The original editions of Servetus^s works are 
very scarce, and they have not been often reprinted, but 
his doctrines may be traced in various Socinian systems.* 

SERVIN (L0U13), a celebrated lawyer in France, who 
flourished at the sixteenth and beginning of the seventeenth 
centuries, was descended of a good family in the Vendo- 

^ Ctuuf«pie.->Mosb«ia. 



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S E R V I I*. 851 

mois. In 1589 he was appointed adTocate-seiiefal to the 
parliament of Paris, and distinguished himself in that sta* 
tion by bis zealous support of the liberties of the Gallican 
church, and his opposition to the pretensions of the court 
of Rome. In 1590 he published a work in favour of Henry 
IV. who had succeeded to the crown, entitled ^^ Vindicisb 
secundum Libertatem Ecclesi® Gallicanee, et Defensio Re- 
gii Status Gallo-Francorutn sub Henrico IV. Rege." In 
1598, being joined in a commission for the reformation of 
the university of Paris, he delivered <* a remonstrance'* oti 
the subject, which was printed. To him also is attributed 
a work in favour of the republic of Venice in the affairs of 
the interdict. In the reign of Lewis XIII. ^at a bed of jus- 
tice holden in 1620, he made strong and animated remon- 
strances in favour of the right of parliament to register 
royal edicts. On another similar occasion, in 1626, for 
the purpose of compelling the registry of some financial 
edicts, as be was firmly but respectfully making fresh re- 
monstrances to his majesty, he suddenly fell and expired at 
the king's feet* 

SERVIUS (Maurus Hokoratus), a celebrated gram- 
marian and critic of antiquity, flourished in the fifth cen- 
tury. He is known now chiefly by his commentaries upon 
Virgil, which Barthius and others have supposed to be no- 
thing more than a collection of ancient criticisms and re- 
marks upon that poet, made by Servius. They were first 
published by Yaldaifer in 1471, and reprinted several 
times in that century, afterwards in an edition of Virgil, 
at Paris, by Robert Stephens, 1532, in folio, and by Ful- 
vins Ursinus, in 1569, 8vo. A better edition was given by 
Peter Daniel at Paris, in 1600; but the t>est is that printed 
with the edition of Virgil, by Masvicius, in 1717, 4to. 
Burman, in his edition of 1746, has so blended these notes 
with those of Heinsius, as to render it difficult to determine 
how he reconciles their opposite authorities. There is also 
extant, and printed in several editions of the ancient gram- 
marians, 8 piece of Servius upon the feet of verses and the 
quantity of syllables, called " Centimetrum.** This was 
first printed in 1476. Macrobius has spoken highly of 
Servius, and makes him one of the speakers in his ** Sa- 
turnalia.*'* 

I Moreri.— Die*. Hi$U 

• Fabric. Bibl. Lit— Baillet Jugtmeni.— Saxii Onomait. 



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S52 SETTLE. 

SETTAL. See SEPTALrUS, 
. SETTLE (Elkanah), a poetaster, much noticed in poe** 
Ileal history, and of wboQi, therefore, soipe account may 
be expected, was the son of Joseph Settle, of Dunstable^ 
in Bedfordshire, and was born in 1648. In 1666 be was 
entered a con)m<mer of Trinitj college, Oxford, but quit-^ 
ted the university and came to London probably in the 
following year, when he c6mmeuced author and politician. 
At his outset he joined the whigs, who were then, though 
the minor, yet a powerful party, and employed his talents 
in their support. Afterwards, he went over to the other 
side, and wrote for the tories with as much spirit^ and 
doubtless as much principle, as he had employed for the 
whigs. Among other effusions, he published a heroic 
poem on the coronation of James IL; and wrote paragraphs 
and essays in the newspapers in support of the administra- 
tion. In this change of party he bad woefully miscalcu-* 
lated; the revolution took place, and from that period 
having lost the little credit he had, he lived poor and de^ 
spised, subject to all the miseries of the most abject state 
of indigence, and destitute of any advantageous and repu- 
table connection. In 16^0 be was so violent a whig, that 
the famous ceremony of pope-burning on the 17th of No- 
vember was entrusted to his management, and he seems 
to have been at that time much in the confidence of those 
who opposed government. After his change he became 
equally violent against those with whom he had before 
associated, and actually entered himself a trooper in king 
James's army at Hounslow Heath. In the latter part of 
his life he was so reduced as to attend a booth in Bartholo* 
mew-fair, the keepers of which gave him a salary for writ- 
ing drolls. He also was obliged to appear in his old age 
as a performer in these wretched theatrical exhibitions, 
and, in a farce called " St. George for England," acted a 
dragon inclosed in a case of green leather of his own in- 
vention. To this circumstance, Dr. Young refers in the 
following lines of his epistle to Mr. Pope : 

'* Poor Elkanah, all other changes past. 
For bread in Smithfield dragons hiss'd at last. 
Spit streams of fire to make the butchers gape. 
And found his manners suited to his sl^pe, &c.'* 

In the end, he obtained admission into the Charter-bouse, 
and died there Feb. 12, 1723-4. The writer of a periodi- 
cal paper, called "The Briton^;* Feb. 19, 1724, speaks 



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S fe T T L t. 353 

bF him as then just dead, and adds, '^ be was a man of tall 
stature, red face, short black hair, lived in the city, and 
bad a numerous poetical issue, but shared the misK)rtune 
of several other gentlemen, to survive them all.*^' 

Settle had a pension from the city, for an annual pane* 
gyric to celebrate the festival of the lord-mayor, in conse- 
quence of which he wrote various poems, called "Tri- 
umphs for the Inauguration of the Lord-mayor/' the last 
of which was'in 1*708. His dramatic pieces, all now forgot, 
amount to nineteen. His poems it would be difficult to 
enumerate, and not worth the labour.* 

SE VERINUS (Marcus Aurelius), a distinguished phy« 
sician, was born at Tarsia, in Cahibria, in 1580, and hav* 
ing, after some intention of studying law, given the pre- 
ference to medicine, he received the degree of doctor in 
the university of Naples, where he taught anatomy and 
surgery with such reputation, as to attract a crowd of stu- 
dents to the university. As a practitioner, however, his 
method was harsh, and he carried the use of the actual 
cautery to a great extent He died at Naples, July 15, 
1656, at the age of seventy-six. He was a man of bold 
and original mind, but somewhat attached to paradox; and 
was the author of several publications, a list of which may 
be seen in our authority, and at the time of his death, was 
preparing for publication some papers, which he meant to 
illustrate by engravings; they were published t6gethef,: 
under the title of " Antiperipatias, hoc est,, adversus Aris- ' 
toteleos de respiratione piscium Diatriba." ** Commenta- 
rius in Theophrastum de piscibus in sicco viventibtii^V' 
^ Phoca anatomic^ spectatus/' 1661. A sort of extract or 
abridgment of his writings on surgery was also published 
in 1664, with the title of ^'Synopseos Chirurgicte Libri vi.** 
and so late as 1724, a new edition in 4to, of '^ De Absces- 
suum recondita natura.'" 

SEVERUS, See SULPICIUS. 

SEVERUS (PuBLius Cornelius), was an ancient Latin 
poet of the Augustan age, whose *^ JEtnz^' was published 
with notes and a prose interpretation by Le Clerc, at Am- 
sterdam, 1703, in 12mo, but some copies have the date 
17 15. It is annexed to " Petri Berobi ifltna," and is also 
in Maittaire's " Corpus Poet.'* It had been before inserted 

« BIftg. I>ram.^M clone's Dryden, rol. I. 124. 161. 174. toI. II. 115, ko.— 
Nichols's Bowyer. « filoyr Bi^U Hist. d« M«dcciiie. 

Vol. XXVII. A a 



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354 S E V E R U S. 

among the '* Catalecta Virgilii,** published by Scaliger ; 
whose notes, as well as those of Lindebrogius and Nicolas 
Heinsiusy Le Clerc has mixed with his own. QuintiliaD 
calls Scverus ** a versificator/' rather than a poet ; yet adds, 
that " if he had finished the Sicilian war," probably, be- 
tween Augustus' and Sextus Pompeius, ^^ in the manner 
be had written the 6rst book, he might have claimed a 
much higher rank. But though an immature death pre* 
vented him from doing this, yet his juvenile works shew 
the greatest genius.^' Ovid addresses him, not only as hia 
friend, but as a court favourite and a great poet ^ 

SEVIGNE' (Mary de Raboiin, lady de ChanUl and 
Bourbilly, and marchioness de) was the only daughter of 
Celse Benigne de Rabutin, baron de Chantal, &c, head 
of the elder branch of Rabutin, and Mary de Coulanges. 
She was born February 5, 1626, and lost her father the 
year following, who commanded the squadron of gentlemen 
volunteers in the isle of Rh6, when the Ejiglisb.made a 
descent there. In August 1 644, at the age of eighteen, she 
married Henry, marquis de Sevign^, descended of a very 
ancient family of Bretagne. He was a major-general and go* 
vernor of Fougeres. She bad by him a son and a daughter. 
It is skid that her husband was not so much attached to her 
as she deserved, which, however, did not prevent madam 
de Sevign6 from sincerely lamenting his death, which bap* 
pened in 1651, in a duel. 

Her tenderness for her children appeared, not only by 
the care which she took of their education, but also by her 
attention in re-establishing the afiairs of the house of Se- 
^ign^. Charles, marquis of Sevign^, her son, acquired a 
laudable reputation in the world ; and Frances Margaret, 
her daughter, appeared in it with great advantages. The 
fame of her wit, beauty, and discretion, had already been 
announced at court, when her mother brought her thither 
for the first time in 1663, and in 1669, this young lady 
was married to Francis Adhemar de Monteil, count de 
Grignan. The mother being now necessarily separated 
from her daughter, for whom she had an uncommon degree 
of affection, it is to this circumstance we owe the cele- 
l^rated ^^ Letters" so often published, and so much admired, 
particularly in France, as models of epistolary correspqnd- 
43Qce. They turn indeed very much upon trifles, the in* 

' VoMius de Pon. Ut.-<»Fsbrio. Bibl. Lat. 



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S E V 1 G N ET. 35i 

ctdents of the day, and the news of the town ; and they 
are overloaded with extravagant complimentSy and express 
sions of fondness, to her favourite daughter; but withal^ 
tbey show such perpetual sprightliness, they contain such 
easy and varied narration, and so many strokes of the most 
lively and beautiful painting, perfectly free from any affec- 
tation, that they are justly entitled to high praise. 

Madam Sevign4 often visited her daughter, and in het 
last journey to Grignan, after having gone through incre- 
dible fatigue during a long illness of this darling child, she 
was herself seized with a fever, of which she died in 1696. 
The best edition of madame de Sevign^'s " Letters,'* pub- 
lished by the chevalier Perrin, is Paris, 1775, 8 vols. 12mo* 
This contains the *• Select Letters" of her society, but not 
those from madame de Sevign6 to M. de Pompone, on M. 
Fouquet's disgrace ; nor those that afe in the ^* Collection 
of Bussy Rabutin's Letters,'* which may be met with sepa- 
rately. A collection of ** Ingenious thoughts; literary, 
historical, and moral anecdotes,** which are dispersed 
through these letters, were published, 1756, 12mo, undei^ 
the title ** Sevigniana.** Her Letters have long been 
known in this country, by a translation published about 
1758—60.* 

SEWARD (Anna), a poetess and literary lady of consi- 
derable celebrity, was the daughter of the rev. Thomas 
Seward, rector of Eyam in Derbyshire, prebendary of Sa-« 
lisbury, and canon residentiary of Lichfield. In his youth 
he had travelled as tutor with lord Charles Fitzroy, third 
son of the duke of Grafton, a hopeful young nobleman^ 
who died upon his travels in 1730. Mr. Seward returned 
to England, and soon after married Miss Elizabeth Hunter, 
daughter of Mr. Huntei*, head-master of the school at Lich- 
field, the preceptor of Johnson, and other eminent lite-* 
rary characters. Mr. Seward, upon his marriage, settled 
at his rectory of Eyam. In 1747, the second year of his 
marriage. Miss Seward was born. 

Mr. Seward was himself a poet, and a contributor to 
DodsIey*8 collection ; he was also an admirer of our ancient 
drama, and in 1 750 published an edition of Beaumont and 
Fletcber*8 plays. Thus accomplished himself, thte talents 
of his daughter did not long escape his observation, and 
under bis instructions she laid the foundation of a tane for 

> IK«t. Bidl.-^Bhrir't.Xectiires. , 
A A2 



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35^ S E W A R D. 

poetry. Tbe authors-be recommended to her were those 
of queen Anne's reign. She^ was early familiar with Pope^ 
Young, Prior, and their predecessor Dryden, and in later, 
life, used to make littler allowance for poetry of an older 
date, excepting only that of Shakspeare and Milton. The 
desire of imitating tbe compositions which gave her plea- 
sure, very early displayed itself. She attempted metrical 
versions of the Psalms, and even exercised herself in ori- 
ginal composition, before she was ten years old. An " Ad- 
dress to the -first 6ne day of a backward spring,*' which 
has been preserved, intimates considerable cpmmand of 
numbers and language, though tbe ideas cannot be called 
original. 

About 1754, Mr. Seward removed with his family to 
Lichfield, which continued ever afterwards to be his daagh* 
ter's residence, although varied, during her father's life,, 
by occasional visits to his rectory at Eyam. For the first 
ten years of Miss Seward's residence here, she was rather 
checked than encouraged in the cultivation of her poeticak 
talents. Her mother possessed no taste for her daughter's. 
favourite amusements, and even her father withdrew hia 
countenance from them, under the apprehension that bi» 
continued encouragement might produce in his daughtev 
that dreaded phenomenon, st learned lady. Poetry was 
therefore prohibited, and Miss Seward resorted to other 
amusements, and to the practice of ornamental needle- 
Work, in which she is said to have excelled. When, how^ 
ever, she arrived at an age to select her own society and 
studies, her love of literature was indulged, and the sphere- 
in which she moved was such as to increase her taste for 
its pursuits. Dr. Darwin, the enthusiast Mr. Day, Mr. 
Edgeworth, sir Brooke Bo6tbby, and other names, well 
known in the literary world, then formed part of tbe Lich- 
field society. Dn Johnson was an occasional visitor in their, 
circles, but not much of a favourite with Dr. Darwin or 
Miss Seward. He neither agreed with the one, nor flatter-, 
ed the other. 

In the meau time Miss Seward^s poetical powers appear 
to have Iain dormant, or to have been very sparingly, exer- 
cised, until her acquaintance with lady Miller, whose fan- 
ciful and romantic institution at Bath Easton, was alter** 
nately the subject of public attention and of some degree 
of ridicule. Miss Seward, however, became a contributor, 
to th« vascy and the applause ibe jreeeired encouraged her 



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S B W A R D. $5T . 

to commit some of her lessays to the press, particularly her 
poeros on, major Andr^ and captain Cook;, which were re- 
ceived by the public with great favour, and certainly were 
calculated to couvey a very high impression of the original 
powers of their author, and procured her tbe admiration and 
corresponiience of many of the most distinguished literary 
• characters of that time. 

In 1780, Mrs. Seward died, and the care of attending her 
surviving parent devolved entirely upon his daughter. This 
was soon embittered by a frequent recurrence of paralytic 
and apoplectic affections, which broke Mr. Seward's health, 
and gradually impaired the tone of his mind. His frame 
resisted these repeated assaults for ten years, during which. 
Miss Seward had the melancholy satisfaction to see, that 
even when he bad lost consciousness of every thing else, 
her father retained a sense of her consunt and tinremitting 
attentions. In 1790 this scene closed, by the death of J^r. 
Seward. His daughter remained mistress of an easy and 
independent fortune, and continued to inhabit the bishop's 
palace at Lichfield, which had been long her father's resi- 
dence, and was her*s until her death. ' 

While engaged in attendance upon her father. Miss 
Seward, besides other occasional pieces, published, in 1782, 
her poetical novel, entitled ^* Louisa,'* which rapidly passed 
through several editions. Other pieces, chiefly on occa- 
sional topics, fell from her pen ; some of which found their 
way to the public^ and others have been printed from ma- 
nuscript, in the late collection of her poems. In 1799 she 
published a collection of original *' Sonnets." They were 
intended to restore the strict rules of the legitimate sonnet, 
and contain some beautiful examples of that species of 
composition. In 1804 she published a ^^ Life of Dr. Dar- 
win," which, although a desultory performance, and written 
in that affected style which she had now adopted, and which 
prevails throughout her correspondence, is valuable as a 
collection of literary anecdote. In this publication she laid 
her claim to the first fifty verses in the '^ Botanic Garden," 
which she had written in compliment to Dr. Darwin, but 
which he bad inserted in his poem without any acknow- 
ledgment. 

After tbe publication of the " Sonnets," Miss Seward did 
not undertake any large poem, yet she continued to ponr 
forth her poeitcal effusbns upon such occasions as interest- 
ed her feelings, or excited her imagination. These efforts^ 



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S5» SEWARD. 

however, were unequal to those of ber earlier muse. Age 
was now approaching with its usual attendantSi declining 
health, and the loss of friends. Yet her interest in litera- 
ture and poetry continued unabated, and she maintained 
an unrelated, correspondence, not only with her former 
friends, but with those later candi4ates for poetical distinc-* 
fion, whose exertions she approved of. For a year or two 
preceding 1807, Miss Seward had been occasionally en- 
gaged in arranging and preparing for the press the edition 
of her poems published after her death by Mr. Scott, and 
which she would probably have published herself, but her 
constitution, infirm for years, waa now rapidly declining, 
and after nearly two years of niucb suffering from bodily 
complaints, she expired, March 25, 1809. To Walter 
Scott, esq. she bequeathed her literary performances, and> 
particularly the works she had so long intended for the press ;. 
and her *^ Letters'' to Mr, Coastable, the eminent book* 
seller of Edinburgh. In the same year, 1810, these gen- 
tlemen executed the trust reposed in them ; the latter, by 
an elegant publication of her " Letters,'' in 6 vols, and the 
former by a publication of her ^* Poems," and some literary 
correspondence, in 3 vols. 8vo, with a biographical pre- 
face, written with Mr. Scott*s usual taste and acumen. The 
^^ Poems'* will always remain a monument of Miss Seward's 
talents, and place her in an honourable rank among the 
female candidates for literary honours. Her ** Letters,"^ 
however, are, in our opinion, less calculated to leave a 
favourable impression of her character. They may be 
justly considered as the annals of vanity and Battery, and 
in point of style exhibit every defect which bad taste could 
introduce.' 

SEWARD (Wiluam), a biographical writer, was the 
son of Mr. Seward, partner in the brewbouse under the 
firm of Calvert and Seward, and was born in January 1747. 
He first went to a small seminary in the neighbourhood of 
• Cripplegate, and afterwards to the Charter-house school, 
where he acquired a competent knowledge of Greek and 
Latin, which he improved at Oxford. Having no inclina- 
tion to engage in business, he relinquished bis conoern in 
the brewbouse at his father's death ; and being possessed 
of an easy fortune, did not apply .to any proie«iion, but 
devoted bis time to learned leisure, and, among i^hos 

' Lifo by Walter Scolt, esq. 



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SEWARD. SS9 

pursuits, amused himself with CQlleciing the materiiils for 
what he called ^* Drossiana," in the European Magazine, 
which he began in October 1789, and continued without 
intermission to the end of his life. After he had published 
in this manner for some time, he was advised to make a 
selection, which, in 1794, he began with two rolumes^and 
these were followed in the three succeeding years by thre# 
more, under the title of *< Anecdotes of dome distin^ 
^uished Persons, chiefly of the present and two preceding 
Centuries ;'* a work which met with general approba« 
-tion, and has been since reprinted. In 1799 he published 
two volumes more* on the plan of the former work, which 
be entitled ^' Biographiani.*' These were finished a very 
short time before his death. 

Mr. Sewatd was in every respect a desirable acquaint- 
ance; he had travelled abroad with great improvement^ 
and was known to most of those who had distinguished them-* 
selves by genius or learning, by natural or acquired en- 
dowments, or even by eccentricity of charai^ter; and he 
had stored bis memory with anecdotes which made bis con- 
versation extremely entertaining. But though he wished 
to observe the manner of eminent or extraordinary men, he 
did not indiscriminately form friendships with them. He 
knew many, but was intimate with few. He was the frieod 
of Dr. Johnson, had conversed with Mr. HoWard, and con- 
descended to know Tom Paine. Party distinctions ap- 
peared to have but little weight with him. He visited and 
received the visits of many whose opinions were directly 
opposite to each other, and equally to his own. 

He spent his time like an English gentleman, with hos* 
pitality and without ostentation. In the wihter he resided 
in London ; and of late years, id the summer, be varied 
his place of abode. At one time'he resided at Mr. CoxeV 
house, near Salisbury ; at another, near Reading ; and the 
summer preceding his death, he made Richmond hb resU 
dence. At all these places, and, itideed, wherever he 
came, he found acquaintances who respected and valued' 
him for his amiable qualities. He bore a tedious illness' 
with fortitude and resignation. Without expressing any 
impatience, he viewed the progress of his disorder, which 
be early discovered %ras a dangerous one ; and continued 
his literary pursuits, and received his friends, until a fiew 
hours of his dissolution, which took place the 2ith April 



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960 8 E W E L L, 

1799; and^ a few days after, his remains were interred in 
the family vault at Finchley. ' 

SEWELL (George), an English poet and physician, 
was born at Windsor, where his father was treasurer and 
chapter-clerk of the college; received his education at 
Eton-school, ind Peter-house, Cambridge ; where having 
taken the degree of B. M. he went to Leyden, to study 
under Boerbaave, and on his return practised physic in 
the metropolis with reputation. In the latter paK of his 
life he retired to Hampstead, where be pursued his pro- 
fession with some degree of success, till three other phy- 
sicians capie to settle at the same place, when his practice 
so far. declined as to yield him very little advantage. He 
kept no house, but was a boarder. He was much esteemed, 
and so frequently invited to the tables of gentlemen in the 
neighbourhood, that he bad seldom occasion to dine at 
borne. He died Feb. 8, 1726; and was supposed to be 
very indigent at the time of his death, as he was interred 
on the 12th of the same month in the meanest manner, his 
coffin being little better than those allotted by the parish 
to the poor who are buried from tbe workhouse ; neither 
did a single friend or relation attend him to tbe grave. No 
.memorial was placed over bis remains ; but they lie just 
under a hollow tree which formed a part of a hedge-row 
that was once the boundary of the church-yard. He was 
greatly esteemed for his amiable disposition ; and is repre- 
sented by some writers as a Tory in bis political principles, 
but of this there is no other proof given than his writiorg 
some pamphlets against bishop' Burnet It is certain, that 
a true spirit of liberty breathes in marty of bis works ; and 
he expresses, on many -occasions, a warm attachment to 
the Hanover succession. Besides seven controversial 
pamphlets, he wrote,' I. **The Life of John Philips.'* 2, 
^< A vindication of the English Stage, exemplified in the 
Cato of Mr. Addison, 1716.'' 3. " Sir Walter Jlaleigh, a 
tragedy, acted at LincolnVinn-fields, 1719;'* and part 
of another play, intended to be called *' Richard tbe First,'* 
the fragments of which were published in 1719, with *<Twq 
moral Essays on tlie Government of the Thoughts, and on 
Death,'* and a collection of M Several poems published in 
his life -time.*' ,Dr. Sewell was. an occasional assistant 
to Harrison in the fifth volume of ** The Tatler ; was a 

1 By the Ut« Isaac Raed, io Btifopean M«fssi|ie| |799^ 



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^S E W E L L. 361 

prineipal writer in ike ninth volume of << The Spectator i 
and published a translation of ^' Oyid*s Metamorphoses, in 
opposition to the edition of Garth and an edition of Sbak- 
spe^re's Poems. Jacob and Cibber have enumerated a 
considerable number of his single poems ; and in Mr. Ni- 
chols's ^< Collection'' are «ome valuable ones^ unnoticed 
by these writers. ^ 

SEWELL (WiLLUM), the historian of the Quakers, 
was the son of Jacob Williamson Sewell, a citizen of Am- 
sterdam, and a surgeon, and appears to have been bom 
there in 1650. His grandfather, William Sewell, was an 
Englishman, and had resided at Kidderminster ; but beings ' 
one of the sect of the Brownists, left his native country for 
the more free enjoyment of his principles in Holland, 
married a Dutch woman of Utrecht, and settled there. The 
parents of the subject of this article both died when he was 
young, but had instructed him in the principles of the 
Quakers,* to which he steadily adhered during life. His 
education in other respects appears to have been the fruit 
of his own application ; and the time he could spare from 
the business to which he was apprenticed (thatqf a weaver) 
be employed with good success in attaining a knowledge of 
ihe Greek, Latin, English, French, and High Dutch, 
languages. His natural abilities being good, his applica- 
tion unwearied, and his habits strictly temperate, he soon 
became noticed by some of the most respectable book- 
sellers in Holland ; and the translation of works of credit, 
chiefly from the Latin and English tongues, into Low Dutch, 
seems to have been one of the principal sources from which 
his moderate income was derived, in addition to the part 
be took, at different times, in several approved periodi- 
cal publications. His modest, unassuming manners gained 
him the esteem of ^several literary men, whose productions, 
there is reason to believe, were not unfrequently revised 
and prepared for the press by him. His knowledge of his 
native tongue was profound : his " Dictionary," " Gram- 
mar," and other treatises on it, having left very little room 
for succeeding improvement : and he assisted materially iu 
the compilation of Halma's French and Dutch Dictionary. 
His ** History of the peqple called Quakers," written flna 
in Low Dutch, and afterwards, by himself, in English 
(dedicated to George I.) was a very laborious under-* 

*» Cibbci'» Livw.— NiofcoU'i Poenw. 



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568 S E W E L L. 

taking, as he was scrupulously nice in the selection of hi ^ 
materials, which he hmd been during many years engaged 
in collecting. Of the English edition, for it cannot pro- 
perly be called a translation, it may be truly said, that a4 
the production of a foreigner, who had spent only about 
ten months in England, and that above forty years before, 
the style is for superior to what could have been reasonably 
expected. One principal object with the author was, a 
desire to correct what he conceived to be gross misrepre-' 
ientations in Gerard Croese's ^ History of Quakerism.** 
The exact time of Sewell's death does not appear ; but in 
a note of the editor's to the third edition of his ^ Dic-^ 
tionary,*' in 1726, he is mentioned as being lately de- 
ceased. His <^ History of the Quakers'* appears to have 
been first published in 1722, folio, and reprinted in 
1725. » 

8EXTIU8 (QuiNTUs), a Pythagorean philosopher, who 
flourished in the time of Augustus, seemed formed to rise 
in the republic, but he shrunk from civil honours, and de- 
clined accepting the rank of senator when it, was offered 
him by Julius Caesar, that he might have time to apply to 
philosophy. It appears that be* wished to establish a school 
at Rome, and that bis tenets, though chiefly drawn from 
the doctrines of Pythagoras, in some particulars resembled 
those of the Stoics. He soon found himself involved ia 
many difficulties. His laws were remarkably severe, and 
in an early period of bis establishment, he found his mind 
so harassed, and the harshness of the doctrines which he 
wished to establish so repulsive to his feelings^ that he had 
nearly worked himself up to such an height of desperation 
as to resolve on putting a period to his existence. Of the 
school of Seztius were Fabianus, Sotion, Flavianns, Cras- 
sitius, and Celsus. Of his works only a few fragmenU re- 
main ; and whether any of them formed a' part of the work 
which Seneca admired so much, cannot now be deter- 
mined. Some of bis maxims are valuable. He recom- 
mended an examinatiou of the actions of the day to bis 
scholars when they retired to rest ; he taught that the road 
to heaven Cad astrsj was by frugality, tetnperance, and 
fortitude. He used to recommenii holding a looking-glass' 
before persons disordered with passion. He enjoined his 
scholars to abstain from animal fbod. Brucker seems to 

> Gent Mas. vol. LXXXIL^Preface to his History. 



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8 £ X T I U S. 3SS 

dUwbty however, whether the '< Sententiie Sexti Pjihago^ 
rei|" so often printed by Gale and others, be the gennine 
work of this moralist' 

SEXTUS EMPIRICUS, an ancient Greek author, an^ 
most acute defender of the Pyrrhonian or sceptical pb4lo*> 
sopfay, was a physician, and seems to have flourished under 
the reign of Coounodus^ or perhaps a little later. He was, 
against what has usually been imagined, a different person 
from Seztus, a Stoic philosopher of Cseronea, and nephew 
of Plutarch : but no particular circumstances of his'life are 
recorded. Of a great many, that have perished, two 
works of bis are stUl extant : three books of ** Insiitetes of 
Pyrrhonism," and ten books against the '^ Mathematict,*' 
hy whom he means all kinds of dogmatists. Hia works 
discover great erudition, and an extenaive acquaintance 
with the ancient systems of philosophy ; and, on this ac- 
count chiefly, Brucker says, merit an attentive perusaK 
Henry Stephens 6rst made, and then printed in )592, 8vo, 
a Lasin version from the Greek of the former of these 
works; and a version of the latter, by Hervetos, had been 
printed hy Plancin in 1569. fioth these versions were 
printed again with the Greek ; which first appeared at 
Geneva in 1621, folio, but the best edition of Sextus Em- 
piricus is that of John Albert Fabrictus, in Greek and 
Latin, Leipsic, 1718, folia* 

SEYMOUR (Edward), duke of Somerset, and uncle 
%o Eldward VI. was eldest son of sir John Seymour of Wolf- 
ball, in the county of Wilts, knt. by Elisabeth danghter 
^f sir Henry Wentworth, of Nettlested in Suffolk* He 
was educated at the university of Oxford, whence returns 
ing to his father at court, when martial achievements were 
encouraged by Henry VIIL he joined the army, and ac- 
companying the duke of Sufiblk in his expedition to France 
in 1 533, was knighted by him Nov. 1, of that year. Uponf 
bis sister's marriage with the king in 1336, he had the title 
of viscount Beauchamp bestowed upon him, in conse- 
quence of bis descent from an heir female of that house ; 
and in Oct. 1587 was created earl of Hertford. In 1540 
be was sent to France to dispute the limits^ of tbe English' 
borders, and on his return was elected knight of tbe garter. 
In 1543 be attended tbe dube of Norfolb in bif expedition^ 
into Scotland, and tbe same year w«s made lord great 

I ModUl RtT. ?ol. LXXVII Brucktr.— Scncc« EpiiU 

P Fabric Bibl. G ipc,^ Brucker.— ^xii Onamasticoa. 



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364 SEYMOUR. 

chamberiaiD of En^uid for life. In 154*4, being made 
lieutenant-general ^ the north, be embarked for Scotland 
with two hundred sail of ships, on account of the Scou 
refusing to marry their young queen to prince Edward ; 
and landing in^be Frith, took Leith and Edinburgh, and 
after plundering and burning them, manched by land into 
England. . In August of the same year, be went to tbe 
assistance of tbe king at the' siege of Boulogne, with seve- 
ral German and Flemish troops*; and after taking it, de- 
feated ian army of 14,000 French, who lay encamped near it4 
By tbe will of Henry VIII. he was appointed one of the 
sixteea persons, who were to be his majesty^s executors, 
and governors of his son, till be should be eighteen years of 
age. Upon Edward's accession to the crown, it was pro- 
posed in council, that one of the sixteen should be chosen, to 
whom the ambassadors should address themselves, and who 
abould have the chief direction of affairs, though restrained 
from acting without the consent of the major part of the rest. 
The lord chancellor Wriothesly, who thought tbe prece- 
dence in secular affairs belonging to him by his-office, op- 
posed this strongly, and urged, that it was changing the 
king's will, who had noade tbem equal in power and dig- 
nity ; and if any was raised above the rest in tide, it would 
be impossible to keep him within just- bounds, since greater 
titles made way for exorbitant power. But the earl of 
Hertford had so prepared his friends, that he was declared 
governor of the king's person, and protector of the king- 
dom, with this restriction, that he should not act without 
the advice and consent of the rest. In consequence of this 
measure, two distinct parties were formed ; the one headed 
by the new protector, and the other by the chancellor ; 
the favourers of the reformation declaring for the former^ 
and the enemies of it for the latter. On Feb. 10, 1547-8^ 
the protector was appointed lord treasurer, and the next 
day created duke of Somerset, and on th^ 17 th of that 
month, bad a grant of tbe office of earl marshal of England 
for life. On March 12th following, be had a patent for 
tlie office of protector and governor of the king and his 
xealms. By tiiis patoit he bad a negative in the council, 
but they had none on him ; and he could either bring his 
own adherents into it, or select a cabinet-council out of it 
at pleasure ; while the other executors, having tbus de^ 
livered up their authority to him, were only privy-coun* 
aellors like the rest, without retaining any authority pe- 



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SEYMOUR 365 

tuliar to themselves, as was particularly provided by 
Henry Vlllth^s will. In August 1548 the protector took 
a*commission to be genera^l, and to make war in Scotland^ 
add accordingly entered that kingdom, and, on Sept. 10, 
gained a complete victory at Musselburgh, and on the 29th 
returned to England triumphantly, having, with the loss 
of but sixty men in the whole expedition, taken eighty 
pieces of cannon, bridled the two chief rivers of the king* 
dom by garrisons, and gained several strong places. 

It may easily be imagined how much these successes 
raised, bis reputation in England, especially when it was 
remembered what great services he had done formerly 
against France ; so that the nation in general had vast ex* 
pectations from his government ; but the breach between 
bim and bis brother, the lord bi^h adihiral of England, lost 
him the present advantages. The death of the admiral 
also, in March 1548, drew much censure on the protector; 
though others were of opinion that it was scarce possible 
for him to do more for the gaining his brother than be had 
done. In September 1549, a strong faction appeared 
against him, under the influence and direction of Wriothesiy 
earl of Southampton, ^ who hated him on account of losing 
the o6Eice of lord chancellor, and Dudley earl of Warwick, 
who expected to have the priinripal administration of affairs 
upon his removal ; and other circumstances concurred to 
raise bim enemies. His partiality to the commons pro- 
voked the gentry ; bis consenting to the execution of his 
brother, and his palace in the Strand, erected on the ruins 
of several churches and oth^r religious buildings, in a time 
both of war and pestilence, disgusted the people, I'he 
clergy hated him, not only for promoting the changes in 
religion, but likewise for his enjoying so many of the best 
manors of the bishops ; and bis entertaining foreign troops, 
both German and Italian, though done by the consent of 
the council, gave genera! disgust The privy counsellors 
complained of bis being arbitrary in bis proceedings, and 
of many other offences, which exasperated the whole body 
of them against him, except archbishpp Cranmer, sir Wil- 
liam Paget, and sir Thomas Smith, secretary of state. 
The first discovery of their designs induced him to remove 
the king to Hampton Court, and then to Windsor; but 
finding the party against him too formidable to oppose, he 
submitted to the council, and oii the 14th of October was 
committed to the Tower, and in January following was 



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S6« SEYMOUR. 

fined in the turn of two tboHsand pounds a year, with the 
loss of alibis oiGces and goods. However, on the 16th 
of Febraary, 1 549*50, be obtained a fall pardon, and so 
managed bis interest with the king, that he was broaght 
both to tlie court and coancil in April following : and to 
eonfirm the reconciliation between him and the eari of 
Warwick, the doke*s daughter was married, on the 3d of 
June, 1550, to the lord viscoont Lisle, the earl's son. But 
this friendship did not continue long ; for in October 1551^ 
the earl, now created duke of Northumberland, caused 
the duke of Somerset to be sent to the Tower, alledgingi 
that tb^ latter had formed a design of raising the people ; 
and that when himself^ and the marquis of Northampton, 
and the earl of Pembroke, had been invited to dine at the 
lord Paget's, Somerset determined to have set upon them 
by the way, or to have killed them at dinner ; with other 
particulars of that kind, which were related to the king in 
so aggravated a manner, that he was entirely alienated from 
his uncle. On the first of December the duke was brought 
to his trial, and though acquitted of treason, was found 
guilty of felony in intending to imprison the duke of Nor- 
Siumberland. He was beheaded on Tower^ihill on the MA 
of January, 1551-2, and died with great serenity. It waa 
generally believed, that the conspiracy, for which be suf- 
fored, was a mere forgery ; and indeed the not bringing 
the witnesses into the court, but only the depositions, and 
the parties themselves sitting as judges, gave great occa«* 
sion to condemn the proceedings against him. Besides, hia 
four friends, who were executed for the same cause, ended 
their lives with the most solemn protestations of their in- 
nocence* 

He was a person of great virtues; eminent for bis piety ; 
courteous, and affable in his greatness ; sincere and candid 
in all his transactions ; a patron of the poor and oppressed ; 
but a better general than a counsellor. He had, however, 
a tincture of vanity, and a fondness for bis own notions ; 
and being a man of no extraordinary parts, was too muck 
at the disposal of those who by flattery and submission in- 
sinuated themselves into his esteem and confidencei He 
maide likewise too great haste to raise a vast estate to be 
altogether innocent. But to balance these defects, be was 
never charged with personal disorders, nor guilty of fiabe* 
hood, of perverting justice, of cruelty, or oppression. Lord 
Orford remarks that bis contributing to the ruin of the- 
Howards hurt him much in the eye$ of the nation : his 

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SEYMOUR. 867 

severity to bis own brother, though a vain and worthless 
man, was still less excusable j but having falleti by the 
. policy of a man more artful, more ambitious, and much 
less virtuous than himself, he died lamented by the people. 

He appears to have been an author. While he was lord 
protector, there went under his name, ^^ Epistola exhorta- 
toria missa ad Nobilitatem ac Plebem universumque popu- 
]um regni Scotis, Lond." 1548, 4to, which lord Orford 
thinks might possibly be. composed by some dependent. 
His ^ther works were penned during his ttoubles, when he 
does not appear to have had many flatterers. During his 
first imprisonment be caused to be printed a translation by 
Miles Coverdaie, from the German of Wormulos, of a 
treatise called/^ A spirituall and most precious pearl, teach-* 
ing all men to love and embrace the cross, as a most sweet 
and necessary thing," &c. Lond^ 1550, 16nio. To thia 
the duke wrote a recommendatory preface. About that 
time he had great respect paid to him by the celebrated 
reformers, Calvin, and Peter Martyr. The former wrote 
to him an epistle of *^ godly consolation,'' composed before 
the time and knowledge of his disgrace ; but being deli- 
vered to him in the Tower, his grace* translated it from 
French into English, and it was printed in 1550, .under the 
tide of <* An Epistle of Godly Consolacion,'! &c. Peter 
Martyr also wrote an epistle to him in Latin, about the 
same time, which pleased the duke sp much, that at his 
desire it was translated into English by Thomas Norton, . 
and printed in 1550, 8vo. In Strype is a prayer of th^ 
duke *^For God's assistance in the high oflice of protector 
and governor, now committed to him ;'' and some of his 
letters are preserved in the library of Jesus college, Cam- 
bridge, and among the Harleian MSS. 

Somerset left three daughters, Anne, Margaret, and Jane, 
who were distinguished for their poetical talents. They 
composed a century of Latin disticbs on the death of Mar- 
garet de Valois, queen of France, which were translated 
into the French, Greek, and Italian languages, and printed 
in Paris in 1551. Anne, the eldest of these ladies, married 
first the earl of Warwick, the son of the duke of Northum- 
berland, already mentioned, and afterwards sir Edward 
Hunton. The other two died single. Jane was n^aid of 
honour to queen Elizabeth.^ 

• Birch»f Lives,— Collioi's Peerage, by lir E. Brydge* --ParVt edition of 
the Royal and NobU Aathort.— Strype»f Annalt.— Buroel s Hiji. of Uie Befor- 

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388 S H A D W E L L. 

SHADWELL (Thomas), an English dramatic poet, w« 
descended of a good family in the connty of Stafford, boC 
born at Stanion-ball, in Norfolk, a seat of bis father's, about 
1640. He was educated at Cains college in Cambridge^ 
and afterwards placed in the Middle Temple; where- 
be studied tlie law some time, and then went abroad^ 
Upon his return from hisaravels be applied himself to the 
drama, and wrote seventeen plays, with a success which 
introduced him to the notice of several persons of wit and 
rank, by whom he was highly esteemed. At the Revolu- 
tion be was, by bis interest with the earl of Dorset, made 
historiographer and poet-laureat ; and when some persons 
urged that there were authors who had better pretensions 
to the laurel, his lordship is said to have replied, ** that he 
did not pretend to determine bow great a poet Shadweil 
might be, but was sure that he was an honest man." He 
succeeded Dryden as poet-laureat; for Dryden had so 
warmly espoused the opposite interest, that at the Revolu- 
tion he was dispossessed of his place. This, however, 
Dryden considered as an indignity, and resented it veiy 
warmly. He had once been on friendly terms with Shad- 
well, but some critical differences appear to have first se- 
parated them, and now Dryden introduced Shadweil in bis 
Mac-Fleckno, in these lines : 

" Others to some fednt meaning make pretence. 
But Shadweil never deviates into sense i** 

which cerUinly was unjust, for though as a poet Shadweil 
is not to be mentioned with Dryden, as a writer of eomedy 
he had no superior in that age. His comedies abound in 
original characters, strongly marked and well sustained, and 
the manners of the time are more faithfully and minutely 
delineated than in any author we are acquainted with. 
Shadweil is said to have written rapidly, and in the preface 
to his *^ Psyche" he tells us that that tragedy, by no means, 
however, bis best performance, was written by him in five 
weeks. 

Lord Rochester had such an opinion of bis conversation 
that be said *^ if Shadweil had burnt all he wrote, and 
printed all he spoke, be would have had more wit and hu- , 
mour than any other poet." Considering Rochester's cha- 
racter, this, we are afraid, confirms the account of some 
contemporary writers, that Shadweil, in conversation, was 
often grossly indecent and profane. Shadweil was a great 



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8HADWELL. $€d 

brouthe wftliOtway, and Uved in rottmacy with himi 
which might, perhaps^ be the occasion of Dryden's ex- 
pressing so much contampt for Otway^ which was surely 
less excusable than his hostility towards our author. Shad<« 
well died Dec. 6, I,6d2; and his death was occasioned, as. 
some say, by a too large dose of opium^ given him by mis* 
take. A white marble monumeqt with his bust is erected 
in Westminster abbey by his son sir John Shadwell, and 
his funeral, sermon was preached by Dr. Nicolas Brady, the 
translator of the Psalms, who tells us that <^ he was a man 
of great honesty and integrity, and had a real love of truth 
and sincerity, an inviolable fidelity and strictness to his 
word, an unalterable friendship wheresoever he professed 
it, and (however the world may be deceived in him) a 
much deeper sense of religion than many others have, who 
pretend to it more openly." 

Besides his dramatic writings,' he was the author of se* 
veral pieces of poetry, but none of any great merit : the 
chief are bis congratulatory poem on the prince of Orange's 
coming to England ; another on queen Mary ; a translation 
of the tenth satire of Juvenal, &c. The best edition of his 
works was printed in 1720, 4 vols. 12mo. 

Our author's son. Dr. John Shad well, was physician to 
queen Anne, George I. and George II. by the former of 
whom he was knighted. In August 1699, he aUeuded the 
earl of Manchester, who then went to Paris as ambassador 
extraordinary to Louis XIV. and continued there with that 
nobleiran till his return to f^ngland in Sept. 1701. He 
died Dec. 4, 1747. 

There was a Charles Shadwell, a dramatic writer, who^ 
Jacob tells us, was nephew to the poet-laureat, but Cbet- 
' wood, in his ** British Theatre,^' says he was his younger 
son. He had served in Portugal, and enjoyed a post in 
the revenue in Dublin, in which city he died August 12, 
1726. He wrote seven dramatic pieces, all which, ez* 
cepting the " Fair Quaker of DeaV and the "Humours 
of the Army^'* made their appearance on the Irish stage 
only, and are pointed together in one volume, 1720, l2mo.* 

SHAFTESBURY. See COOPER. 

SUAK8PEARE (WilUam), the most illustrious name 
in the histoiy of English dramatic poetry, was born at Strat- 

i Biog. Brit— Bior. Drtm^Maloae's Dryden, w\. I. P; ^^llf^^''*' ** 
*-t07. rol IIU p. *n. 106, lU.->Cibber>t Lirefc— Nichato • rommu 

Vol. XXVII. B i 



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370 SHAKSPEABE. 

fdrd-upon-Avon, in Warwickshire, on the 2Sd day of April, 
1564. Of the rank of bis family it is not easy to form an 
opinion. Mr. Rowe says, that by the register and certain 
public writings relating to Stratford, it appears that his an* 
cestors were ^*of good figure and fashion'' in that town, and 
are mentioned as '^ gentlemen," an epithet which was cer- 
tainly more determinate then than at present, when it has be- 
come an unlimited phrase of courtesy. His father, John 
Shakspeare, was a considerable dealer in wool, and had 
been an officer and bailiff (probably high-baili(f or mayor) 
of the body corporate of Stratford. He held also the office 
of justice of the peace, and at one time, it is said, possessed 
lands and tenements to the amount of 500/. the reward of 
his grandfather's faithful and approved services to king 
Henry VII. This, however, has been asserted upon very 
doubtful authority. Mr. Malone thinks ** it is highly pro- 
bable that he di^stinguished himself in Bosworth field on the 
side of king Henry, and that be was rewarded for his m'li- 
tary services by the bounty of that parsimonious prince, 
though not with a grant of lands. No such gprant appears 
in the chapel of the Rolls, from the beginning to the end 
of Henry's reign."— But whatever may have been his for- 
mer wealth, it appears to have been greatly reduced in the 
latter part of his life, as we find, from the books of the 
corporation, that in 1579 he was excused the trifling week- 
ly tax of four-pence levied on all the aldermen ; and that 
in 1586 another alderman was appointed in his room, in 
consequence of his declining to attend on the business of 
that office. It is even said by Aubrey, a man sufficiently 
accurate in facts, although credulous in superstitious narra- 
tives and traditions, that he followed for some time the oc- 
cupation of a butcher, which Mr. Malone thinks not in- 
consistent with probability. It must have been, however^ 
at this time, no inconsiderable addition to his difficulties 
that he had a family of ten children. His wife was the 
daughter and heiress of Robert Arden, of Wellingcote, in 
the county of Warwick, who is styled " a gentleman of 
worship." Tbe family of Arden is very ancient, Robert 
Arden of Bromich, esq. being in the list of the gentry of 
this county returned by the commissioners in the twelfth 
year of king Henry VI. A. D. 1433. Edward Arden was 
sheriff uf the county in 1568. The woodland part of this 
county was anciently called Ardcrn^ afterwards softened to 
^rden ; and hence the uanae. 



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S H A K S P E A R E. 371 

Oar illaetrioQS poet was the eldest son, and received his 
early education, whether narrow or liberal, at a free school, 
probably that founded at Stratford ; but from this he appears 
to have been soon remoyed, and placed, according to Mn 
Malone*s opinion, in the oflice of some country attorney, 
or the seneschal of some mandr court, where it is highly 
probable he picked up those technical law phrases that so 
frequently occur in his plays, and could not have been in 
common use unless among professional men. Mr. Capell 
conjectures that his early marriage prevented his being sent ' 
to some university. It appears, however, as Dr. Farmer 
Dbserves, that his early life was incompatible with a course 
of education, and it is certain that *^ his contemporaries, 
friends and foes, nay, and himself likewise, agree in his 
want of what is usually termed literature.'* It is^ indeed, 
a strong argument in favour of Shakspeare's illiterature> 
that it was mainjtained by all his contemporaries, many of 
whom have left upon record every merit they could bestow 
on him ; and by his successors, who lived nearest to his 
time, when ^< his memory was green ;'' and that it has been 
denied only by Gildon, Sewell, and others down to Upton, 
who could have no means of ascertaining the truth. 

In his eighteenth year, or perhaps a little sooner, he 
married Anne Hathaway, who was eight years older than 
himself, the daughter of one Hathaway, who is said to 
have been a substantial yeoman in the neighbourhood of 
Stratford. Of his domestic oeconomy, or professional occu- 
pation at this time, we have no information ; but it would 
appear that both were in a considerabre degree neglected 
by his associating with a gang of deer-stealers. Being 
detected with them in robbing^ the park of sir Thomas Lucy 
of Charlecote, near Stratford, he was so rigorously prose- 
cuted by that gentleman as to b^ obliged to leave his faorily 
and business, and take shelter in London. Sir Thomas, on 
this occasion, is said to have been exasperated by a ballad 
Shakspeare wrote, probably his first essay in poetiy, of 
which the following stanza was communicated to Mr. Oldys. 

'^ A parliemente member, a justice *of peace, 
' At home a poor scare-crowe, at Loiukm an asse. 
If k)W8ie is Lucy, as some volkc mis^e it. 
Then Lucy is k>wsie whatever befall it: 
He thinks himself greale. 
Yet an asse in his state 
We allowe by his ears but with asset t9 mate. 

B B 2 

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372 S H A K S P E A R E. « 

H Lucy is lowsie, as some volke miscalie k^ 
Sing lowsie Luqr> whatever be&ll it" 

These lines, it must be couCessed, do no great honour to 
our poet, and probably were unjust, for although sosi^of 
bis admirers have recorded sir Thomas as a ^^ vain, weak, 
and vindictiire magistrate," be was certainly exerting no 
▼ery violent act of oppression, in protecting his property 
against a man who was degrading the commonest rank of 
life, and had at this time bespoke no indulgence by superior 
talents. The ballad, however, roust have made some noise 
at sir Thomas's expence^ as the author took care it should 
be affixed to his park-gates, and liberally circulated among 
his neighbours. 

On his arrival in London, which was probably in 1 589, 
when he was twenty «two years old, he is said to have made 
bis first acquaintance in the play-house, to which idleness 
or taste may have directed him, and where his necessities, 
if tradition may be credited, obliged him to accept thcf 
office of call-boy, or prompter's attendant. This is a me* 
nial, whose employment it is to give the performers notice 
to be ready to enter, as often as the business of the play 
requires their appearance on the stage. Pope, however^ 
felates a story, communicated to him by Rowe, but which 
Rowe did not think deserving of a place in the life he wrote, 
that must a little retard the advancement of our poet to the 
office just mentioned. According to this story, Shakspeare'i 
first employment was to wait at the door of the play-house, 
and hold the horses of those who had no servants, that they 
might be ready after the performance. But *' I cannot,'* 
says his acute commentator, Mr. Steevens, ** dismiss this 
anecdote without observing, that it seems to want every 
mark of probability. Though Shakspeare quitted Stratford 
On account of a juvenile irregularity, we have no reason to 
suppose that he had forfeited the protection of his father, 
who was engaged in a lucrative business, or the love of hta 
wife, who had already brought him two children, and was ' 
herself the daughter of a substantial yeoman. It is unlike-^ 
ly, therefore, when he was beyond the reach of his prose«^ 
cutor, that he should conceal his plan of life, or place of 
residence, from those who, if he found himself distressed, 
could not fail to afford him such supplies as would have set 
him above the necessity of holding horses for subsistence. 
Mr. Malone has remarked in his * Attempt to ascertain the 
order in which the plays of Shakspeare were written,' that 



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S H A K S P E A R E. S78 

he might have found an easy introduction to the stage ; for 
Thomas Green, a celebrated comedian of that period, was 
bin townsman, and perhaps bis relation. The genius of our 
«uthor prompted him to, write poetry; his connexion with 
a player might have given his productions a dramatic turn ; 
or his own sagacity might have taught him that fame was 
not incompatible with profit, and that the theatre was an 
Bv^ue to both. That it was once the general custom to 
ride on horse-back to the play, I am likewise yet to learn. 
The most popular of the theatres were on the Bank-side ; 
«nd we are told by the satirical pamphleteers of that time, 
that the usual mode of Conveyance to these places of amuse- 
ment was by water, but not a single writer so much as hints 
at the custom of riding to them, or at the practice of hav- 
ing horses held during the hours of exhibition. Some al- 
lusion to this usage (if it bad existed) uiust, I think, have 
been discovered in the course of our researches after con- 
temporary fashions. Let it be remembered too, that we 
receive this tale on no higher authority than that of Cibber*a 
Lives of the Poets, vol. I. p. 130. Sir Wm. Davenant told 
it to Mr. Betterton, who communicated it to Mr. Rowe, 
who, according to Dr. Johnson, related it to Mr. Pope.'* 
Mr. Malone concurs in opinion that this story stands on a 
very slender foundation, while he differs from Mr. Steevans 
as to the fact of gentlemen going to the theatre on horse- 
back. With respect likewise to Shakspeare's father being 
'< engaged in a lucrative business,** we may remark, that 
this could not have been the case at the time our author 
came to London, if the preceding dates be correct He is 
said to have arrived in London in 1586, the year in which, 
his' father resigned the office of alderman, unless, indeed, 
we are permitted to conjecture that his resignation was not 
the consequence of his necessities. 

But in whatever situation be was first employed at the, 
theatre,' he appears to bave soon discovered those talents 
which afterwards made him 

" Th* applause ! delight ! the wonder of our stage !" 

Some distinction he probably first acquired as an actor, 
^though Mr. Rowe has not been able to discover any 
character in wbich he appeared to more advantage than 
that of the ghost in Hamlet. The instructions given to 
Ae player in ihat tragedy, and other passages of his works, 
show an intimate acquamtance with the skill of acting, and 
such as is scarcely surpassed in our own days. He appears 



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S7i S H A K S P E A R £. 

to have studied nature in acting as n^uch as in writing* 
But all this might have been mere theory. Mr. Malone is 
of opinion he was no great actor. The distinction, bow« 
ever, which he obtained as an actor, could only be in hit 
own plays, in which he would be assisted by the novel 
appearance of author and actor combined Before his 
time, it does not appear that any actor of genius could 
appear to advantage in the wretched pieces represented 
on the stage. 

Mr. Rowe regrets that he cannot inform us which was 
the first play he wrote. More skilful research has sinca 
found that Romeo and Juliet, and Richard II. And III. 
were printed in 1597, when he was thirty-4hree years old ; 
there is also some reason to think that he commenced a 
dramatic writer in f 592, and Mr, Malone even places his 
first play, " First part of Henry VI.'* in 1589. His plays, 
however, must have been not only popular, but approved 
by persons of the higher order, as we are certain that be 
enjoyed the gracious favour of Queen Elizabeth, who was 
very fond of the stage, afad the particular and affectionate 
patronage of the earl of Southampton, to whom he dedi« 
cated his poems of ^^ Venus and Adonis,"* and his ** Rape of 
Lucrece.** On sir William Davenan(*s authority, it has 
been asserted that this nobleman at one timb gave him a 
thousand pounds to enable him to complete a purchase* 
At the conclusion of the advertisement prefixed to Lintot's 
edition of Shakspeare^s Poems, it is said, <^ That most 
learned prince and great patron of learning, king James the 
first, was pleased with his own hand to write an amicable 
letter to Mr. Shakspeare : which letter^ though now lost, 
remained long in the hands of sir William D*Avenant, as a 
credible person now living can testify.*' Dr. Farmer with 
great probability supposes, that this letter was written by 
king James, in return for the compliment paid to him in 
Macbeth. The relator of the anecdote was Sheffield^ 
duke of Buckingham.. These brief notices, meagre as 
they are, may show that our author enjoyed high favour in 
his day. Whatever we may think of king James as a ^' learneU 
prince,** his patronage, as well as that of his predecessor, 
^as sufficient to give celebrity to the founder of a new 
stage. It may be added, that Shakspeare*s uncommon 
merit, his candour, and good-nature, are supposed to have 
procured him the admiration and acquaintance of every 
person distinguished for such qualities. It is not difficult. 



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S H A K S P E A R E. 375 

iodeed, to suppose that Sbakspeare was a man of humour, 
and a social compaDion, and probably excelled in that 
species of minor wit, not ill adapted to conversation, of 
which it could have been wished be had been more sparing 
in his writings. 

How long he acted has not been discovered, but he con- 
tinued to write till the year 1614. During his dramatic 
- career he acquired a property iu the theatre *, which he 
must have disposed of when be retired, as no mention of 
it occurs in his will. His connexion with Ben Jonson has 
been variously related. It is said, that when Jonson was 
unknown to the world, he offered a play to the theatre, 
which was rejected after a very careless perusal ; but that 
Shakspeare having accidentally cast bis eye on it, conceived 
a favourable opinion of it, and afterwards recommended 
Jonson and his writings to the public. For this candour he 
was repaid by Jonson, when the latter became a poet of 
pote, with an envious disrespect. Jonsqn acquired reputa- 
tion by the variety of his pieces, and endeavoured to arro- 
gate the supremacy in dramatic genius. Like a French 
critic, he insinuated Shakspeare's incorrectness, his careless 
manner of writing, and his want of judgment; and as he 
was a remarkably slow writer himself, he could not endure 
the praise frequently bestowed on Sh&kspeare, of seldom 
altering or blotting out what he had written. Mr. Malone 
says, that << not long after the year 1600, a coolness arose 
between Shakspeare and him, which, however he may talk 
of his almost idolatrous affection, produced on his part, 
from tha'r time to the death of our author, and for many 
years afterwards, much clumsy sarcasm, and many gialevo- 
lent reflections.'* But from these, which are the commonly 
received opinions on this subject, Dr. Farmer is inclined 
to depart, and to think Jonson*s hostility to Shakspeare 
absolutely groundless; so uncertain is every circumstance 
we attempt to recover of our great poet^s life f. Jonson 
had only one advantage over Shakspeare, that of superior 
learning, which might in certain situations be of some im- 
portance, but could never promote his rivalship with a maa 
who attained the highest excellence, without it. Nor will 

♦ lo 1603. Shftkspetre and several f But since writing the above, Mr. 

ol^hert obtained a licfinie from king O. Gilchritt has pobWshed the vindi- 

Jafoes to exhibit comediet, tragedies, caiion of Jonson »« •J^^.'^e pampb- 

histories, &c. at^the Globe Thtatrc, let. See onr accoont of Jon8oii,.TQ|. 

and eliewber«« * XIX. p% 14*« 



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976 8 H A K S P E A R E. 

Sbaktpeare sufler by its being known that mil 4li6 dravuitie 
poets before be appeared were scholars. Greene, LodgCt 
Peete, Marlowe, Naihe, Lily, and Kyd, had all, says Mr^ 
Malone, a regular university edncalion, and, as scholars in 
our universities, frequently composed and acted plays on 
faistorical subjects *. 

The latter part of Sbakspeare's life was spent in ease, 
tetirement, and the conversation of his friends. He 
bad accumulated considerable property, which Gildpn (in 
his << Letters and Essays,** 1694,) stated to amount to 
tool, per' annum, a sum at least equal to lOOOZ. in our 
days; but Mr. Malone doubts whether all his property 
amounted to much more than 200/. per annum, which yet 
was a considerable fortune in those times ; and it is sup- 
posed that be might have derived 200/, per annum from the 
theatre vi bile he continued to act. 

He retired, some years before his death, to a bouse in 
Stratford, of which it has been thought important to give 
the history. It was built by sir Hugh Clopton, a younger 
brother of an ancient family in that neighbourhood. Sir 
Hugh was sheriff of London in the reign of Richard HL and 
lord mayor in the reign of Henry VIL By his will he 
bequeathed to his elder brother's son his manor of Clop« 
ton, &c. and his house, by the name of the Chreat House, in 
Stratford. A good part of the estate wa» in possession of 
Edward Clopton, esq. and sir Hugh Clopton, knight, in 
1 733. The principal estate had been sold out of the cipp^ 
ten family for above a century, at the time when Shak^ 
speare became the purchaser, who having repaired and mo- 
delled it to his own mind, changed the name to New FUiu, 
which the mansion-house afterwards erected, in the room 
of the poet*s house, retained for many years. The house 
and lands belonging to it continued in the possession of 
Shakspcare's descendants to the time of the Restoration, 
when they were re-purchased by the Clopton family. Here, 
in May 1742, when Mr. Garrick, Mr. Macklin, and Mr. 
Delane, visited Stratford, they were hospitably entertained 
under Shakspeare's mulberry-tree, by sir Hugh Clopton. 
He was a barrister at law, was knighted by king George I. 
Wd died in the eightieth year of his age, in December 

♦ Thif was tbe practice ip Milton's ders in the church were permitted tp 

dayg. *' One of hi« objections to aca- act plays, &c<» Johnson's Life of 

demical education, as it was then con- Milton, 
incttfd, IS, Uiat man designed for or- 



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SHAKSPEARE. S7T 

1751. ijis executor, about 1752, sold N&a> Place to the 
itev. Mr, Gastrell, a man of large fortune, who resided ia 
it but a few years, in consequence of a disagreement 
with the inhabitants of Stratford. As be resided part of 
the year ^t Lichfield, be thought be was assessed too bigblj 
in the monthly rate towards the maintenance of the poor; 
but, being very pro{)erly compelled by %hh magistrates of 
Stratford to pay the whole of what was levied on him, oa 
the principle that his house was occupied by bis servants iu 
)iis absence, he peevisnly declared, that that bouse should 
never be assessed again : and soon afterwards pulled it 
down, sold the materials, and left the town. He bad som^ 
time before cut down Sbakspeare's mulberry-tree *, to save 
himselt the trouble of showing it to those whose admira- 
tion of our threat poet led them to visit the classic ground 
on A'bicb it stood. That Sbakspeare planted this tree ap- 
pears to be sufficiently authenticated. Where New Place 
atood is now a gacden.^fiefore concluding this history, it 
may be necessary to mention, that the poet's bouse was 
onc-e tionoured by the temporary residence of Henrietta 
Maria, queen to Charles I. Theobald has given an inac- 
curate account of this, as if she bad been obliged to take 
refuge in Stratford from the rebels, which was not the case. 
She marched from Newark, June 16, 1643, and entered 
Siratkord tfiumptiantly, about the 22nd of the same months 
at the bead of 3000 foot and 1500 horse, with 150 wag- 
gons, and a train of artillery. Here she Was met by prince 
Rupert, accompanied by a large body of troops. She 
rested about three weeks at our poet^s bouse, which was 
then possessed by bis grand-daughter Mrs. Nasb> and her 
husband. 

During Shakspeare^s abode in this house, his pleasure-p 
able wit and good-nature, says Mr. Rowe, engaged bim tbe 
acqnaititance, and ^entitled him to the friendship of the 
gentlemen of tbe neighbourhood. Ao^ong these Mr. Rowe 
tells a traditional story of a miser, or usurer, named Combe, 
who, in conversation with Sbakspeare, said he fancied the 

♦ «• At the cariosity of this bouse disappoiniment of the iobabiteDts ; 

moA tree broofcbt rooch fame, and more however, an honest si Wer-smith bouf hi 

company aod profi' to ihe town, a cer- the whole tuck of wood, and maket 

Uin man, .m some di^gu^i, hasj>uned many odd thing* of this wood for the 

Uie bouse down, so as m^t to leave one curious." Letter m Annual Itegister* 

Stone upon another, and cut down the 1160. Of Mr. Gastrell and hit ladj» 

tvet, sod piled It as a stack of fire, see Boswell's Ltfe of Dr. JokiiMii, fpL 

W9f4, !• the great vexatioi, tea, and IL 490. 111. 443, 



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«7i 8 H A K 8 P E A R £. 

poet ifiteinled to write bb epitaph if lie •faoold suirive hin^ 
aod desired to know what be meant to say. On this Sbaks- 
peare gave bim the following, probably extepipore : . 
^' Ten in the hundred lies here iograT'd, 

Tb a hundred to ten his soul is not 8av*d. 

If any man ask, who lies in this tombe ? 

* Oh ! ho !' quoth the devil, ' 'tis my John-a-Combe*.** 
The sharpness of the satire is said to have stung the man 
so severely that be never forgave it. These lines, bow** 
ever, or some which nearly resemble them, appeared in va-^ 
rious collections both before and after the time they were 
said to have been composed; and the inquiries of Mr. Stee- 
rens and Mr. Malone satisfactorily prove that the whole 
story is a fabrication. Betterton is said to hare heard it 
when he visited Warwickshire, on purpose to collect anec- 
dotes of our poet, and probably thought it of too much 
importance to be nicely examined. We know not whether 
it be worth adding of a story which we have rejected, that 
a usurer in Sbakspeare^s time did not m^an one who took 
exorbitant, but an}f interest or usance for money, and that 
ten in the hundred, or ten per cent, was then the ordinary 
interest of money. It is of more consequence, however, to 
record the opinion of Mr. Malone, that ^hakspeare, during 
bis retirement, wrote the play of ** Twelfth Night." 

He died on his birth-day, Tuesday April 23, 1616, when 
be bad exactly completed his fifty-second year*, and was 
buried on the north side of the cha.ncel, in the great church 
at Stratford, where a monument is placed in the wall, on 
'^ which he is represented under an arch, in a sitting posture, 
a cushion spread before him, with a pen in his right hand, 
and his left rested on a scroll of paper. The following 
Latin distich is engraved under the cushion : 

^' Judido I^lhim, genio Socratem, arte Maronem^ 
Terra tegit, populus mceret, Olympus habet." 

'* The first syllable in Socratem," sajs Mr. Steevens, ** is 
here made short, which cannot be allowed. Perhaps we 
should read Sophoclem. Shakspeare is then appositely 
compared with a dramatick author among the ancients; 
but still it should be remembered* that the elogium is les- 
sened while the metre is reformed ; and it is well known^ 
that some of our early writers of Latin poetry were uncom- 
monly negligent in their prosody, especially in proper 

^Th« only notice we have of hit and adds «* Tertegood company, and 
pcrfloo if from Aubrey, who says, "he of a very ready, and p|easant| wid 
fras a handsome wellLshaped man,*' tmoothwiU," 



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g H A K S P E A R E. STf 

. wunes^ The thought of this distich, as Mr. ToHet 6haerte% 
might have been taken from ^ The Fa^ry Queene' of Spei^ 
ser, B. II. c. ix. st. 48, and c. x. st. 3. 

** To this Latin inscription on Shakspeare may be added 
the lines which are found underneath it on his monument: 

' Stay, passenger, why dost thou go so fest ? 
Bead, if thou canst, whom envious death hath plac*d 
Within this monument ; Shakspeare, with whom 
Quick nature dy*d -, whose name doth deck the tomb 
Far more than cost ; since all that he hath writ 
]L.eaves living art but page to serve his wit. 
Obiit Ano. Dni. 1616. 
set. 53, die 23 Apri.* * 
'^ It appears from, the verses of Leonard Digges, that our 
author's monument was erected before the year 162S. It 
has been engraved by Vertue^ and done in mezzotinto by 
Miller." 

We have no account of the malady which» at no very ad- 
vanced age, closed the life and labours of this unrivalled 
and incomparable genius. 

His family consisted of two daughters, and a son named 
Hamnet,whodiedinl596, inthe 12th year of his age. Sosail- 
nabyche eldest daughter,and her fatber's favourite, was mar* 
ried to Dr. John Hall, a physician, who died Nov. 1635, 
ag^d 60 Mrs. Hall died July 11, 1649, aged 66. They left 
only one child, Elizabeth, born 1607-8, and marri^ April 
22, 1626, to Thomas Nashe, esq. who died in 1647, and af« 
terwards to sir John Barnard of Abington, in Northampton* 
thire, but died without issue by either husband. Judith, 
Shakspeare's youngest daughter, was married to a Mr. Tho- 
mas Quiney, and died Feb. 1661-62, in her 77th yekr. By 
Mr. Quiney she had three sons, Shakspeare, Richard, and 
Thomas, who all died unmarried. Sir Hugh CJopton, who 
was born two years after the death of lady Barnard, which 
happened in 1669-70, related to Mr. Macklin, in 1742, an 
old tradition, that she had carried away with her from 
Stratford many of her graodfather^s papers. On the death • 
' of sir John Barnard, Mr. Malone thinks these must have 
fallen into the hands of Mr. Edward Bagley,lady Bamard'i 

* On bis graTe-stone underneath, Tt ia ancertain whether this reqoMl 

are these line^ , io an uocoath mixture and imprecation were written by Sbaka. 

of small and capital letters : peare, or by one Of his friends. They 

'* Good Frend ^r lesus SAKE for- probably allude to the custom of re. 

beare rooring skeletons alter a certain lime. 

To dwG T.RDust EocloAsed HERe and depositing them m charMl-booftf ; 

Blese be T-E Man J spares T-Es and similar execrations are fonad m 

Stones many ancieat Lal« epiuphf. 



4>Ml cuni bs Hs 7 moTSf my Boaei.'* 



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1IS9 SHAKSPEARE. 

nce«t6r, and if tny descendant of that gentleman be now 
living, in bis custody they probably remain. To this accomit 
of Sbakspeare's family , we have now to add that among 
Oldys^s papdrs^ is another traditional story of his having 
been the father of sir Wilham Davenant. OldysU relation 
is thus given : 

<< If tradition may be trusted, Shakspeare often baited at 
the Crown inn or tavern in Oxford, in his journey to and 
from London. The landlady was a woman of great beauty 
and sprightly wit, and her husband, Mr. John Davenant^ 
(afterwards mayor of that city) a grave melancholy man ; 
who, as well as his wife, 'used much to delight in Shaks- 
peare^s pleasant company. Their son, young Will. JOavenant, 
(afterwards sir William) was then a little schooUboy in the 
town, of about seven or eight years old, and so fond ako of 
Shakspeare, that whenever he beard of his arrival, he would 
% from school to see him. One day an old townsman, ob- 
serving the boy running homeward almost out of breatb, 
asked him whither he was posting in that heat and hurry. 
He answered to see his ^ocf-father Shakspeare. * There^s a 
good boy/ said the other, < but have a care that you don't 
take God's name in vain.' This story Mr.Pope told me at the 
' earl of Oxford's table, upon occasion of some disco«irse 
which arose about Sbakspeare's monument then newly 
erected in Westminster abbey." 

This story appears to ha^e originated with Anthony 
Wood, and it has been thought a presumption of its being 
true that, after careful examination, Mr. Thomas Wartoa 
was inclined to believe it. Mr. Steevens, however, treats it 
with the utmost contempt, but does not perhaps argue with 
bis usual attention to experience when he brings sir Wil* 
liam Davenant's ** heavy, vulgar, unmeaning face," as a 
proof that he could not be Shakspeare's son. 

In the year 1741, a monument was erected to our poet 
in Westminster Abbey, by the direction of the earl of Bur* 
lington. Dr. Mead, Mr. Pope, and Mr. Martyn. It was the 
work of Scfaeemaiker (who received 300/. for it), after a 
design of Kent, and was opened in January of that year* 
The performers of each of the London theatres gave a be- 
nefit to defray the expences, and the Dean and Chapter of 
Westminster took nothing for the ground. The money re- 
ceived by the performers at Drury-lane theatre amounted 
lo above 200/. but t|ie receipu at Coveut-garden did not 
exceed lOO/. 



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JB H A K S IP £ A R E. 381 

From these imperfect notices, which are all we have been 
able to collect from the labours of his biographer^ and 
cotmneDtators, our readers will perceive that less is known 
of Sbakspeare than of almost any writer who has been con- 
sidered as an object of laudable curiosity. Nothing could 
be more highly gratifying than an account of the early 
studies of this wonderful man, the progress of his pen, his 
moral and social qualities, his friendships, his failings, and 
whatever else constitutes personal history. But on all these 
topics his contemporaries and his immediate successors 
have been equally silent, and if aught can hereafter be dis- 
covered, it must be by exploring sources which have hi# 
therto escaped the ankioustesearches of those who havede* 
voted their whole lives, and their most vigorous talents, to 
revive his memory and illustrate his writings.' In the sketch 
we have given, if the dates of his birth and death be ex* 
cepted, what is there on which the reader can depend, or 
for which, if he contend eagerly, he may not be involved ia 
controversy, and perplexed with contradictory opinioas and 
authorities ? 

It is usually said that the life of an author can be little 
else than a history of his works ; but this opinion is liable 
to many exceptions. If an author, indeed, h,as passed his 
days in retirement, his life can aSord little more variety 
than that of any other man who has lived in retirement j 
but if, as is generally the case with writers of great cele-f 
brity, he has acquired a pre-eminence over his contempo^ 
raries, if he, has excited rival contentions, and defeated tho 
attacks of criticism or of malignity, or if he has plungedi 
into the controversies of his age, and performed the part 
mther of a tyrant or a hero in literature, hb history may ba 
rendered as interesting as that of any other public charac-* 
ter^ But whatever weight may be allowed to this remack^ 
the decision will not be of much consequence in the case 
of Sbakspeare. Unfortunately we know as little of the 
progress of his writings, as of his personal history. TImi 
industry of his illustrators for the last thirty years has beea 
such as probably never was surpassed in the annals of lite* 
tary investigation, yet so far are we from information of the 
Conclusive or satisfactory kind, that even the order in which 
his plays were written, rests principally on conjecture, an<t 
of some plays usually printed among his works, it is not yet 
determined whether he wrote the whole^ or any part. 



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•S« S tt A K S P E A R E. 

Mach of our ignorance of every thing which it would be 
desirable to know respecting Shakspeare's works, ihost ht 
imputed to the author himself. If we look merely at the 
state in which he left his productions, we f^hould be apt to 
conclude, either that he was insensible of their value, or 
that while he was the gteatest, he was at the same time the! 
iiatoblest writer th6 world ever produced ; ^ that he thought 
Iris works unworthy of posterity, that he levied no ideal 
tribute upon future times, nor had any further prospect, 
than that of present popularity and present profit.*' And 
Buch an opinion, although it apparently partakes of the 
ease and looseness of conjecture, may not be far from pro* 
bability. But before we allow it any higher merit, or at<- 
tempt to decide upon the affection or neglect with which 
be reviewed his labours, it may be necessary to consider 
their precise nature, and certain circumstances in his situa<» 
tion which affected them ; and, above all, we must take 
into our account the character and predominant occupation^ 
of the times in which he lived, and of those which followed 
his decease. 

Witb respect to himself, it does not appear that he printed 
any one of his plays, and only eleven of them were printed 
ia his life-time. The reason -assigned for this is, that he 
wrote them for a particular theatre, sold them to the ma^ 
liagers when only an actor, reserved them in manuscript 
when himself a manager, and when he disposed of his pro* 
perty in the theatre, they were still preserved in manuscript 
to prevent their being acted by the rival houses. Copies of 
•ome of them appear to have been surreptitiously obtained) 
and published in a very incorrect state, but we may sup- 
pose that it was wiser in the author or managers to overlook 
this fraud, than to publish a correct edition, and so destroy 
the exclusive property they enjoyed. It is clear, there- 
fore, that any publication of his plays by himself would 
fcave interfered, at first with his own interest, and after'* 
wards with the interest of those to whom he had made over 
his share in them. But even had this obstacle been removed^ 
we are not sure that he would have gained -much by publi** 
cation. If he had no other copies but those belongring to 
the theatre, the business of correction for the ^ press must 
bave been a toil which we are afraid the taste of the public 
at that time would have poorly rewarded. We know not 
the exact portion of fame he enjoyed ; it was probably the 
highest which dramatic genius could confer, but dramatic 



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SHAKSPEAR& S8l 

genius was a new excellence^ and not well nndefttood* Its 
claims were probably not heard out of .the jurisdiction of 
the Blaster of the revels, certainly not beyond the metro- 
polis. Yet such was Shakspeare*s reputation, that we are 
told bis name was put to pieces which he never wrote^ and 
that he felt himself too confident in popular favour to un- 
deceive the public. This<vas singular .resolution in a man 
who wrote so unequally, that at this day the test of inters 
nal evidence must be applied to bis doubtful productions 
with the greatest caution. But still, how far his character 
would have been elevated by an examination of his plays in 
the closet, in an age when the refinements of criticisqn were 
not understood, and the sympathies of taste were seldoHi 
felt, may admit of a question. ^^ His language," says Dr. 
Johnson, " not being designed for the readefs desk, was aM 
that he desired it to be, if it convey ed his meaning to the 
audience.^' 

Shakspeare died in 1616, and seven years afterwards ap^ 
peared the first edition of his plays, published at the charges 
of four booksellers, a circumstance rrom which Mr. Matone 
infers, ^\ that no single publisher was at that time willing to 
risk his money on a complete collection' of our aottor's 
plays." This edition was printed from the copies in the 
hands of his fellow-managers, Heminge and Condell, wbioii 
bad been in a series of years frequently altered trough 
convenience, caprice, or ignorance. Heminge and Con« 
dell had now retired frogn the stage, and, we may suppose^ 
were guilty of no injury to their successors, in printing 
what their own interest only had formerly withheld. CN^ 
this, although we have no documents amounting to demon-- 
atration, we may be convinced, by adverting to a circum* 
aUnce which will^ in our days, appear very eztraorSinMry^ 
namely, the declension of Sbakspeare's popularity. We 
have seen that the publication of bis works was accountedm 
doubtful speculation, and it is yet more certain that so muoh 
bad the public taste turned from him in qivest of variety^ 
that for several years after his death the plays of Fletcher 
were more frequently acted than his, and during the whole 
of the seventeenth century,' they were made to give place 
to performances, the greater part of which cannot now b# 
endured. During the same period only four editions of 
\m works were published, all in folio; and perhaps this 
Unwieldy size of volume may be an additional proof tbaK 
they were not popular ; nor is it thought that the impM»^ 
Aipns were numerous. 

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fft4 SHAtCSPEARS. 

These ckcmnstances which attach to our author and to 
Ims works, must be allowed a plausible weight in accounting 
for our deficiencies in his biography and literary career^ 
but there were circumstances enough in the history of the 
times to suspend the progress of that more regular drama^ 
of which he haa set the example, and may be considered 
as ilie founder. If we wonder why we know so much less 
of Sbakspeare than of his contemporaries, let us recollect 
that bis genius, however highly and justly we now rate it^ 
took a direction which was not calculated for permanent 
admiration, either in the age hi which he lived, or in that 
which followed Sbakspeare was a writer of plays, ^ pro- 
■wter of an amusement just emerging from barbarism ; and 
an amiuiemejit wbich^ although it has been classed among 
the schools of morality, has ever bad such a strong ten- 
dency to deviate from moral purposes, that the force of law 
has in all ages been called in to preserve it within the 
bounds of common decency. The church has ever been 
unfriendly to the stage. A part of the injunctiortsof queen 
Elizabeth is particularly directed against the printing of 
piays ; and, according to an entry in the books of the Sta<- 
tioners* Compauy, in the 41st year of her reign, it is ordered 
that no plays be printed, except allowed by persons in au- 
thority* Dr* Farmer also remarks, that in that age, poetry 
and novels were destroyed publicly by the bishops, and 
privately by the puritans. The main transactions, indeed, 
of that period could not admit of much attention to matters 
of amusement. The reformation required all the circum* 
qpection and policy of a long reign to render it so (irmly 
established in popular favour as to brave the caprice of any 
succeeding sovereign. This was effected in a great mea«> 
•ure by the diffusion of religious controversy, which wa§ 
encouraged by the church, and especially by the puritans, 
who were the immediate teachers of the lower classes, were 
listened to with veneration, and usually inveighed against 
all public amusements, as inconsistent with the Christian 
profession.' These controversies continued during the reign 
of Janres I. and were in a considerable degree promoted by 
him, although he, tike Elizabeth, was a favourer of the 
•tage as an appendage to the grandeur and pleasures of the 
Court. But the commotions which followed in the unhappy 
reign of Charles 1 when the stage was totally abolished, are 
sufficient to account for the oblivion thrown On the history 
and works of o»r great bardw From this time no inquii^ 



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S H A K S P E A R E. 395 

was made, until it ^as too late, to obtain any information 
more satisfactory than the few hearsay scraps and contested 
traditions above detailed. " How little," says Mr. Steevens, 
** Shakspeare was once read^ may be understood from Tate» 
who, in bis dedication to the altered play of king Lear, 
speaks of the original as an obscure piece, recommended 
to his notice by a friend ; and the author of the Tatler hav«- 
ing occasion to quote a few lines out of Macbeth, was con* 
tent to receive them from D'Aveuaot's alteration of that 
celebrated dran^a, in which almost every original beauty is 
either aukwardly disguised, or arbitrarily omitted." 

In fifty years after his death, Dryden mentions that be 
was then become *^ a little ob$olete." In the beginning of 
the last century. Lord Shaftesbury complains of his ** rude 
unpolished style, and his antiquated phrase and wit" It is 
certain that for nearly an hundred years after his death, 
partly owing to the immediate revolution and rebellion, and 
partly to the licentious taste encouraged in Charles II.'s time^ 
and perhaps partly to the incorrect state of his works, he 
was almost entirely neglected. Mr. Malone has justly re* 
marked, that ^^ if he had been read, admired, studied, and 
imitated, in the same degree as he is now, the enthusiasm 
of some one or other of his admirers in the last age would 
have induced him to make some inquiries concerning the 
history of his theatrical career, and the anecdotes of hia 
private life." 

His admirers, however, if he bad admirers in that i^, 
possessed no portion of such enthusiasm. That curiosity 
which in our days has raised biography to the rank of aa 
independent study, was scarcely kn^wn, and where knowo^ ^ 
confined principsdiy to the public transactions of eminent 
characters. And iff in addition to th^ circumstances al- 
ready stated, we consider how little is known of the perso- 
nal history of Shakspeare's contemporaries, we may easily 
resolve the question why, of all men who have ever claimed 
admiration by genius, wisdom, or valour, who have emi- 
nently contributed to enlarge the taste, or increase the re- 
putation of their country, we know the least of Shakspeare; 
and why, of the few particulars which seem entitled to ere* 
dit, when simply related, and in which there is no manifest 
violation of probability, or promise of importance, there is 
scarcely one which has not swelled into a controversy. After 
a careful examination of all that modern research has dis* 
covered, we know not how to trust our curiosity beyond 

Vol. XXVIL C c 

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SU S H A K S P £ A R C 

the Koiu of t)K>ie barren dates ivbiefa afford iw> p^rsenal 
liMlofy, Tbe nacurt of Shaksfeara^s writiags prerenu that 
appeal to iiKernal evidence whtch m other cases has been 
Amid te throw light an character. Tbe pttrhy of bis mo- 
nAwf for arxaanple, if sought in his piays^ mast be measured 
against tbe liceotkmsnass of bis iangiiage, and the qaescion 
n^l tbe» be^ bow miicb did be write from eonTtctton, and 
fapcar asucb to gratify the taste of bis bearers ? Hovr mock 
did he add oa tbe agev and bow much did be borrow ft*oM 
it ^ Pa^ says» ^ be was obliged to please the lowest of the 
people, and to keep ibe worst of company ;" and Pope 
m^ bwife mii mofe^ for although we hope it was not 
tme, we han^e no means of proving that it was Mse. 

Tb« oidy life which has been prefixed to all tbe editions 
e<: ShaBspeaie! of tbe ^igbieentb censory is that drawn up 
by Mr. Rowe^ aad whkb be modeady ealla << Some Ac* 
oeant) 3to/* In ibis* we ha^ whet Rowe could collect 
labea eueiy legitimate aoavce of informa^ton was closed, a 
law tfOMKsiens ibat were floating aeaity a century after the 
aaalknr*s deavihv Some inaccuracies in bis account have 
been deteeied in the rahiabte notes of Mr. 8ieevens and 
Vk^ Maibnev ^fasi^- in oibev parts af their i«espeetive editions, 
btfre soaittfrad a few bvief neticas whieh are ineorpovatad 
ki> tbe present sbeteb. Tbe whole, however, is ansaria^ 
iieto^. 8babspeaiie in- his private cbaraete^, in bis friendw 
ships, in his amusements, in his closet, in his family, is 
no wbiare before ub ; aind such was the nature of tbe writ- 
ici{gaowwbieb*bis-ii««e depends^ and> of tbafi eeopleyiaena. 
in wbicib be was enrgaged^ that beitig in no* important re* 
specs aoifinected! with tbe history of bis age, it is, in* t^ain to 
look i«co fbe lataar for any informiition cotYcereing him. 

Mr. Gapell iaof opima» that be wrote some pro^s wovlcs, 
beeouse <* it can baldly be supposed- (bat be, who had so 
eanstderable a share in tbe oonfidenee of the earla of Essex 
and Seatbawipconv could be ^ mete spectator only of con« 
tf over6ie» in> wbiciv they were se laucb interested.*' Thia 
editor, however, appear^ to bare taken far granted a de- 
gree of oonAdence with theae twe^ statesmen, which* he 
ought first fo bate preved. Shakspeare might have en« 
jeyed due* confidence of sheir social hours, but it is mere 
epnjeeture that they admitted him into the confidence of 
tA>efr state affairs. Mr. Malone, whose opinions ,are en«- 
titled to a higher degree of credit, thinks that liis prose 
compositioiHs ii tbey should be disoovered, woaldexbibtt 



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« H A K » P E A R B. iH 

ihk sMi^ persprictiity, the same cadence, the same ele^ 
ganee and rtgotir, which we find in his phys. It is unfor' 
toiritte, however, for all wishes and all conjectures, thai 
not a litie 6f Shakspeare*s maDnscript is known to e^ist, 
and bit proie Writings are Nowhere hinted at Vfe h^v^ 
6nly printed copies of his plays and poisnas, and those so 
deprat^ by carelessness or ignorance, that aH the laboiiif 
of all bia eommentatots h>tt not yet been able to testbre 
thenh to a ptobable purity. Matiy of the gi'eat^t difficul- 
ties attending the perusal of theni yet remain, a Ad* will 
require, wimt it is seafeely possible to ei^pect, greater sa- 
gacity and more happy c6nje6ture than* have hitherto been 
^ployed. 

Of his poeths, it is pei'haps necessary that some noticd 
shonld be taken, ahbonghr tb^y faaVe n^Vei' been favourites 
wdth the public, and have ^eldoit) been reprinted v^itb his 
plays. Shortly after bis death, Mr. M^lone informs lis, a 
Tery incorrect impression of them Was issued out, which in 
every subsequent edition Wa^ implicitly followed; imtil Bii 
iRrbKshed a correct ^dltioU in 1780, With illi^strations, £0. 
Bat the peremptory decision 6f Mt. Steevenis 6t\ the m^rifis 
of these poems must n6t be omitted. •* We have not re- 
printed the Sonnets, &c. of Shakspeare, because ^^ 
itrongest act of pariiament thkt could be framed would foil 
to compel readers into their service. Mad Shakspearii 
produced no^ otb^r woffa tbait these, his nabe would hav^ 
readved u^ with as liiltle celebrity as time has conferi'ed on 
ditft of Thomas' Watsoti, a^ oldei* and lUUch vAoire elegant 
tonneteer.*' Seyere as thid may appi^ar, it only am6uhts to 
the general cbnclusibu which modern critits have formed. 
ScBl- it cannot be denied timt therd are many scattered 
besoties amoiig hi^ Sontt<§ts, $rtd although' they are noW 
lost in the btee of his dtamatic gebiiis, Mi*. Malone re- 
Aiarka that riiey s€^j& to have ^iiled him moi*^ reputatiohi 
Amu his play#f at teast, tbey ai'e ofteii^i' ibi^htiohed of 
alhided to. 

The elegaiit preface; of Dr. Jobnsdti gives m accouut of 
the attempts madia in the eariy part of the laist c^ntun^, tor ' 
r^ve the memory ahd reputatibU of our poi^t, by KoWe^ 
Pope,. Theobald) HattWi*r, and WaAurton, whose respecs 
tive merits he has characterized with candour, and with 
aingular felicUy of expression. Sbakspeare's works may 
be overloaded with criticism, for what writer has excited^ 
so much cjuriosityi amd so many opinioniT?' bin Jobnion's" 



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$8S S HA K S P E A R E- 

preface is an accompaniment worthy of the genius iteele* 
brates. His own edition followed in 1765, and a second, 
in cor\JQnction with Mr. Steepens, in. 1773. The third 
edition of the joint editors appeared in 1785, the fourth in . 
1793, the fifth in 1803, in 21 volumes octavo, which has 
since been reprinted. Mr. Malone's edition wa» published 
in 1790 in 10 volumes, crown octavo, and is now become 
exceedingly scarce. His original notes and improvements, 
however, are incorporated in the editions of 1793 and 1803 
by^ Mr. Steevens. Mn Malone says, that from^l716 to 
the date of his edition in 1790, that is, in seventy-four 
years, ^< above 30,000 copies of Shakspeare have been 
dispersed through England.'* To this we may add with 
confidence, that since 1790 that number has been more than 
doubled. During 1803 no fewer than nine editions were 
in the press,* belonging to the booksellers of London ; and 
if we add the editions printed by others, and those pub- 
lished in Scotland, Ireland, and America, we may surely 
fix the present as the highest «era of Sfaakspeare's popu- 
larity. ~ Nor among the honours paid to his genius, ought 
we to forget the very magnificent edition underuiken by 
Messrs. Boydell. Still less ought it to be forgotten bow 
much the reputation of Shakspeare was revived by the* 
unrivalled excellence of Garrick*s performance. His share 
in directing the public taste towards the study of Shak- 
speare was perhaps greater than that of any individual in 
bis time ; and such was his zeal, and such his success in 
this laudable attempt, that he may readily be forgiven the 
foolish mummery of the Stratford Jubilee. 

When public opinion had begun to assign to Shakspeare 
the very high rank he was destined to hold, he became the 
promising object of fraud and imposture. This, we have 
already observed, he did not wholly escape in his own 
time, and he had the spirit or policy to despise it K It 
was reserved for modern impostor^ however, to avail 
themselves of the obscurity in which his hisiory is involved. 
In 1751 a book was published, entitled ^^ A Compendious 
or briefe examination of certayne ordinary Complaints of 
diners of our Countrymen in those our days ; which, aU 
though they are in some parte unjust and frivolous, yet 

* Mr. Malone has given a list of 14 logaes. Of tbe^e « Pericles" has found 

.plays ascribed to Shakspeare, either advocates for its tdmissioB into his 

by the editors of the two later folios, works, 
•r by tha aompilars of ancieat cata- 



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SHAKSPEARE. SM 

are they all by way of dialogue, throughly debated and 
discussed by William Shakspeare, gentleman.'' This bad 
been originally published in 1581, but Dr. Farmer has 
clearly proved that JV. S. gent, tlie only authority for at- 
tributing it to Sbakspeare in the reprinted edition, meant 
William Stafford^ gent. Theobald, the same accurate cri- 
tic informs us, was desirous of palming upoa the world a 
play called ^^ Double Falsehood,'* for a posthumous one of 
Sbakspeare. In 1770 was reprinted at Feversham, an old 
play, called ^^ The Tragedy of Arden of Feversham and 
Black Will,'* with a preface attributing it to Sbakspeare, 
. without the smallest foundation. But these were trifles 
compared to the atrocious attempt made in 1795-6, when, 
besides a vast mass of prose and verse, letters, &c. pre- 
tended ly in the hand- writing of Sbakspeare and his cor- 
respondents, an entire play, entitled ^^ Vortigern," was 
not only brought forward for the astonishment of the ad- 
mirers of Sbakspeare, but actually performed on Drury- 
lane stage. It would be unnecessary to expatiate on the 
merits of this play, which Mr. Steevens has very happily 
characterized as '^ the performance of a madman without a 
lucid interval,'* or to enter more at large into the nature of 
a fraud so recent, and so soon acknowledged by the au- 
thors of it. It produced, however, an interesting contro- 
rersy between Mr. Malone and Mr. George Chalmers, 
which, although mixed with some unpleasant a9perities, 
was extended to inquiries into the history and antiquities 
of the stage, from which future critics and historians may 
derive considerable information *. 

SHARP (Abilaham)) an eminent mathematician, me- 
chanist, artd astronomer, was descended from an ancient 
family at Little- Horton, n^ear Bradford, in the West Riding 
of Yorkshire, where he was born about 16^1. He was at 
first apprenticed to a merchant at Manchester, but his in- 
cfination and genius being decidedly for mathematics, he 
obtained a release from his master, and removed to Liver- 
pool, where he gave^ himself up wholly to the study of ma- 
thematics, astronomy, &c. ; and for a subsistence, opened 
a school, and taught writing and accounts, &c. Before 
he had bce» long at Liverpool, he accidentally met with a 

♦ Tbif tketdi of 8baktpeare*t life haTing since been thrown oa Shale* 

was drawn up by the present writer for speare's history, it is here reprinted 

a variorum edition of his works, pob* with very ''"W alterationi. 
Uihed in 1^04, and ^p additional light 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



m « H All p. 

^rcbajit or .tn^esman visiting tbat jtovvn fro^ Lopdoo, ia 
^bose bouse tbe astronomer Mr. Flamgteed then lodged ; 
^nd such was Sharp's enthusiasm for bis favourite studie$| 
that with the view of becoming acquainted with this emi- 
ment man, he engaged himseijr to tbe 9iercfaant as a book- 
JLeeper. Havipg been thus introduced, he acquired th^ 
firiendsbip of Mr. Flamsteed^ who obtained for him a pro* 
Btablje employaient in tbe dock-y^rd at Chatham. In tbia 
he continued till bis friend and patron, knowing bis grcAt 
if>fifit in astronomy and me,ch^nics, called him to his as-* 
sis^nce, in completing the astronomical apparatus in the 
royal observatory at Greenwich, which had been built about 
tbfeyear 1676. 

In this situation h^ continue^ tf> a^islt Mr. Fl^msteed in 
making observations (with tbe mural ^ch, of 80 inches ra-* 
dius, and 140 degrees on the limb, ppmrived and gradu-* 
^ted by ifls. Sharp) on Uie meridional zenith distances of 
the fixed stafs, sun, mopn, ^nd planets, with the times of 
their transits over the meridian ; also tt^ diameters of the 
sun and pioon, and tbieir eclipse^, with those of Jupiter's 
satellites, the variation of tbe compa^^, &c. He j^ssisted 
l^im a)$o in making a catalogue of near IQOO fixed star^, as 
tq their longitudes and magnitudes, tb^ir right ^isc^niuopf 
and polar distances, with th^ variation^ of the s^txa^ ^bile 
they change their longitude by'oc^ degr^f^. But from th^ 
fatigue of continually observing tbe ftars ^t nighty in a cold 
thin air, joiped to a weakly cons^tution^ he was redi^ice^ 
to ^ l^ad stat^ of h^^ltb ; fo^ the rpcoy^ty pf which be dor 
sired leave to retire to his house at ]EIor^on ; where, ^ sooi^ 
as kjd began to reppver, be fitte,d up an observatory of his 
own ; having first m^^de an elegant and jcurioi^s engipe for 
turnipg all kind^ of work in woqd or bfass, wi^b a mftundril 
for turning irregular figures, as ovals, roses^ wrtsath^ pil- 
lars, &c. Beside these, h^ made himselif mos^ f^f the top(f 
used by joiners